The Kingdom of Sweden is a parliamentary monarchy
in Northern Europe. The national territory covers the eastern part
of the Scandinavian peninsula and the islands Gotland and Öland .
Sweden is a member of the Nordic Council and since 1995 the European
Union , but not a member of NATO and militarily non- aligned.
Sweden borders the Kattegat , the states of Norway and Finland,
as well as the Baltic Sea . Since the opening of the Öresund Bridge
in 2000, there is also a direct land connection to Denmark . Sweden
has about 221,800 islands, Gotland (2994 km²) and Öland (1347 km²,
both in the Baltic Sea) and Orust (346 km², north of Gothenburg )
are the three largest. The longest extension from north to south is
1572 km, from east to west 499 km. The land border with Norway is
1619 km long, that of Finland 586 km.
While large parts of
the country are flat to hilly, along the Norwegian border, the
massifs of the Skanden rise to over 2000 m altitude. The highest
peak is the Kebnekaise with about 2,100 m. There are 30 national
parks spread over the country . The largest in terms of area are in
the northwest of the country.
Travel Destinations in Sweden
Drottnigholm Palace is a royal residence constructed on the
island Lovön in Drottnigholm. Its construction started in
the late 16th century.
Stockholm Archipelago is a cluster
of 24,000 islands situated East of Stockholm, capital of
Sweden, in the Baltic Sea.
Stockholm is the largest city in Sweden and
also its capital. The city was found in the 13th century on
a small island in Strommel channel between Baltic Sea and
Bohus Fortress is a historic
medieval stronghold situated in Kungälv, Bohuslän of Sweden.
It was constructed in 1308.
Carlsten Castle is a citadel in
Marstrand. It was constructed following the Treaty of
Roskilde when Swedish Empire acquired large territories.
Gothenburg is second largest city in Sweden and also its
largest port. It is spread over two provinces Bohuslän and
Fulufjället National Park
Fulufjället National Park is a nature reserve
within Älvdalen Municipality in
Dalarma County of Sweden.
Great Copper Mountain in Falun region of Sweden is a
historic abandoned complex that was used for extraction of
Lake Siljan is a beautiful pristine lake situated in Dalarna
Province of Sweden. It covers a total area of 354 km² with a
total depth of 120 meters.
Njupeskar Waterfall is a picturesque waterfall along a flow
of Njupån river. It is situated in Fulufjället National Park
in Dalarma County of Sweden.
Muddus National Park is a nature reserved in Norrbotten
County of Sweden. It covers a total area of 493 sq km (191
Norrbotten County (Sweden)
Padjelanta National Park
Padjelanta National Park is a
pristine nature reserve situated in Norrbotten County.
Padjelanta National Park covers a total area of 1,984 sq km.
Sarek National Park is a nature
preserve in the Norbotten County of Sweden. It covers a
total area of 1,970 km2 (760 sq mi).
Borgholm Castle is historic
medieval citadel situated in Borgholm of Sweden. Borgholm
Castle was originally constructed in the 12th century.
Eketorp Castle is a unique
circular medieval citadel situated in Oland region of
Bjärka-Säby Castle is a beautiful
baroque residence situated near Linkoping. Despite its
military name it is not actually a castle.
Bäckaskog Castle is a medieval
castle situated in the Kiaby parish. It was constructed in
the 13th century as a Roman Catholic monastery.
Bosjökloster or Bosjo Abbey is a
actually a former monastery that stands on the shores of
Lake Ringsjön in the Höör Municipality of Sweden.
Brahehus is a historic structure
situated in Gränna, Småland of Sweden. Brahehus was erected
in 1640s by Count Per Brahe.
Construction of Kalmar Castle was
started here on the orders of Magnus III of Sweden Ladulås
Karlsborg Fortress is an old
citadel in Karlsborg, Västergötland of Sweden. It was
constructed in 1819.
The Scandinavian peninsula is mentioned for the first time in the
Naturalis historia Pliny the Elder from the year 79. He writes about
Scatinavia , a large island where the Hillevionen people live. Some
see it as the first mention of the Swedes. In 98, Tacitus ' Germania
mentions a mention of the suiones (paragraph 44), who allegedly live
"in the ocean itself" and have a mighty fleet. On the world map of
Ptolemy in 120 s Scandinavia is first mapped cartographically . In
the fifth century Prokop described the island of Thulein the north,
which is ten times larger than Britain and on which no sun shines in
winter for 40 days.
During the early Middle Ages (around 800
to 1000) Vikings ruled the European seas and coastal areas. Swedish
Vikings, also called Varangians , oriented mainly to the east, to
Russia . From the ninth century onwards, the Swedes, also called Rus
, participated in the construction of Kievan Rus . The first contact
with Christianity came from the missionary activities of St. Ansgar
, Archbishop of Hamburg and Bremen. He made two missionary trips to
Birka , the most important trading place of the Vikings in Mälaren ,
around 830 and 853which, however, did not succeed. In 1008, however,
Olof Skötkonung , King of Sweden, was baptized. But until the 12th
century, large parts of the population were pagan. So in 1160 King
Erik IX was murdered by anti-Christian nobles after visiting the
In the year 1397, the Danish Queen Margaret I formed
the Kalmar Union . By inheritance and marriage she had previously
gained the Norwegian and Swedish crown. This union of three kingdoms
under Danish Union kings remained until 1523, even if the
enforcement of the central power ultimately failed. The Kalmar Union
was increasingly marked by internal struggles, especially between
royal central power and aristocracy. At certain times, the Union
kings were also recognized in Sweden, but in between ruled the
Swedish king Karl Knutsson (1448-57, 1464-65 and 1467-70) and
Swedish imperial administrators . The conflict culminated under the
ReichsverweserSten Sture the Younger . The Danish Union King
Christian II defeated his Swedish opponents in 1520 and executed
about a hundred oppositionists in the so-called Stockholm massacre
in November of the same year . This led to the rebellion of Gustav
Wasa , who was appointed in 1521 as Reichsverweser, and the final
collapse of the Kalmar Union. In 1523, Gustav I Wasa was elected
king. After the popular uprising, the Swedish Empire suffered from
high debts and Gustav I looked for ways to improve the financial
situation. For this he gave, among other things, a fishing monopoly
to the Gävlefischer . The brothers Olavus andLaurentius Petri had
made acquaintance with Martin Luther in Germany . The opposition of
Lutheranism to monasteries created an opportunity to refresh the
financial situation. For this reason, the king supported the
brothers Petri. As the population initially did not come into
contact with Protestant ideas, the Reformation was gradually
introduced. Many traditions that were to be repealed in German
Protestantism were retained. In 1544, Sweden was declared a
Especially the 17th century of Swedish
history is marked by attempts by the royal family to gain a
hegemonic position in Europe. The civil war in Russia enabled Sweden
to gain control of Estonia . From 1611 to 1613, Denmark and Sweden
fought the calamity war , leading to a victory for the Danes and the
transfer of Finnmark to Norway under Danish rule . Later, Gustav II
Adolf actively engaged in the Thirty Years' War and conquered large
parts of northern Germany , including Western Pomerania , the
Archdiocese of Bremenand the diocese of Verden . In 1632, however,
he fell in the battle of Lützen . In 1648, Sweden achieved great
coastal areas on the soil of the Holy Roman Empire in the Peace of
Westphalia . After a war against Denmark in 1658 in the peace of
Roskilde today's southern Sweden including the important Schonen
added. The great power dreams came under a sudden end under Karl
XII. who was struck by the Russians and the Danes in the Great
Northern War . Sweden then had to surrender his possessions in the
Baltic States. In this time also fall various colonization
effortsoutside of Europe. These included the establishment of
Swedish branches and colonies in North America (1638-1655) and West
Africa (1650-1659), but ultimately failed.
Only after the loss of Finland to the Russian Tsarist Empire in
1809 and the Napoleonic Wars , as a result of which Sweden was
transferred from Denmark to the Kingdom of Norway, did the Swedish
involvement end in wars and major hostilities. The so often sworn
Swedish neutrality policy began. However, until the 20th century it
was never an official political doctrine , but more an expression of
pragmatic politics. So one was quite tempted (and had already
mobilized in each case), in the Schleswig-Holstein survey
(1848-1851) and in the German-Danish War (1864) to the Duchy of
Schleswig and South Jutlandto intervene on Denmark's side as well as
to militarily prevent Norway's proclamation of independence from
Sweden in 1905. Other crisis situations arose for Sweden, especially
in the Second World War , when they supported Finland in the
so-called winter war between Finland and the Soviet Union in 1939/40
with volunteers and relief supplies, and after the company
In July 1945, a Social Democratic ally
government abrogated the coalition government, initially under Per
Albin Hansson , after his death in October 1946 under Erlander . In
the next few years, the social reform work interrupted by the war
was resumed and a modern welfare state was created according to the
principles of the aforementioned Swedish model. In parallel with the
development of the social system, work was also underway on
constitutional reform, which was gradually implemented in the 1970s
by several basic laws (see the Constitution of Sweden ).
Following the recommendation that the country be admitted to the
United Nations by UNSC Resolution 8 , it joined the International
Community on 19 November 1946.
On September 3, 1967, the
Dagen H , traffic was switched from left-hand traffic to legal
traffic. Minister of Transport was at the time Olof Palme , who
replaced in 1969 Prime Minister Erlander in office. In the coming
years, Palme shaped Sweden's image abroad through his committed
foreign policy: through his harsh criticism of the Vietnam War , as
a UN mediator in the Iran-Iraq war and through his international
disarmament initiatives, Domestically, he encountered several
difficulties. On the one hand, the constitutional reform and the new
parliamentary situation after the 1970 election made stable
cooperation across the block boundaries difficult, while on the
other, economic problems, especially after the 1973 oil crisis ,
overshadowed social reform work. In addition, the election of 1973
led to a stalemate in parliament: Government and opposition each
received 175 seats. Often, votes in the Reichstag were therefore
decided by lottery. The nuclear dispute divided the Social Democrats
and brought in a new political factor, environmental policy and the
green movement, and the trade union demand for labor fund
introduction exacerbated the opposition to the bourgeois parties.
AfterElection defeat of the Social Democrats on September 19, 1976 ,
Sweden was ruled by various bourgeois coalitions until Palm returned
to power in 1982 as Prime Minister of a Social Democratic
With the submarine crisis the emergence of
so-called "unknown diving objects" is called off the coast since
1980th Finally, on October 27, 1981, the Soviet submarine U-137 was
stranded in front of the Karlskrona naval base - in the middle of
the military ban zone. The accident caused a veritable submarine
panic. The Soviet captain Guschtschin claimed that all navigation
instruments had failed. The closer backgrounds remained unclear.
The Social Democrats were heavily influenced by the neo-liberal
ideas of the United States and Britain. Under the new Finance
Minister Kjell-Olof Feldt fierce debates broke out over neo-liberal
reforms of the welfare state. The conflict was particularly heated
between Feldt and the leader of the trade union confederation ( LO
), Stig Malm. This "war of roses" ultimately led to the departure of
Feldt in 1990.
After Palmes murder 1986 took over Ingvar Carlsson the government
and led its policy in all important points further. At the same
time, the assassination of Palmes caused such a shock that led to a
great silence in the political struggle. A political change of power
took place in 1991 with the electoral loss of the Social Democrats.
Carl Bildt , who had called for a change of system in the sense of
neoliberal ideas, formed a coalition government of bourgeois parties
and began to realize these ideas. The period is characterized by
continued economic crisis (begun in 1990) and at that time
considered necessary economic transformations. In the Reichstag
election in 1994, the Social Democrats won again and Ingvar Carlsson
formed a minority government. In 1996 Ingvar Carlsson transferred
his duties to Göran Persson . The policy of the following years
focused on a stabilization of public finances , which had deep
interventions in the social system. Despite the discontent caused by
these interventions, Social Democracy in the 1998 and 2002 elections
was able to maintain its governmental position due to the support of
the Left Party and the Greens .
In 1995, following a
referendum in which 52.3% voted in favor of accession on 13 November
1994, Sweden acceded to the European Union (see enlargement of the
European Union ). Already the referendum of 1994, but also the
following elections and opinion polls showed that there is a
widespread skepticism towards the EU. Therefore, Sweden decided in
1997 not to participate in monetary union . Finally, in autumn 2003,
this question was put to the vote of the people. A majority of the
population voted against the introduction of the euro . The
referendum was based on the assassination of Foreign Minister Anna
Lindh overshadowed a few days before, which was seen by many as