Language: Spanish, Miskito
Currency: Córdoba (NIO)
Calling Code: 505
Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua,
is an American country located in the Central American isthmus. Its
capital is Managua. Nicaragua is composed of 15 departments and 2
autonomous regions. The governing bodies are: the Legislative Power,
the Executive Power, the Judicial Power and the Electoral Power. In
separation of powers there is autonomy in each of these. The
Republic of Nicaragua is located in the northern hemisphere, between
the equatorial line and the Tropic of Cancer approximately between
11 ° and 15 ° north latitude and with respect to the Greenwich
meridian, between 83 ° and 88 ° west longitude. The territory of
Nicaragua has an approximate area of 129,494 km², 1 is bordered on
the north by Honduras, on the south by Costa Rica, on the west by
the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Caribbean Sea. As for
maritime limits, in the Pacific Ocean it borders El Salvador,
Honduras and Costa Rica; while in the Caribbean Sea it borders
Honduras, Colombia and Costa Rica.
Nicaragua is a volcanic and tropical country, inside it also houses
two large lakes: Lake Xolotlan and Lake Cocibolca or "Great Lake of
The Nicaraguan people are multi-ethnic in nature and Spanish is the official language, although the languages of indigenous indigenous peoples such as Creole Nicaraguan English, Miskito, Sumu or Sumo, Garífuna and Rama are also recognized. Inhabited by pre-Columbian peoples, the coast of the Pacific Ocean and part of the central region of the current territory of Nicaragua was conquered by Spain in the sixteenth century, where the Province of Nicaragua, which belonged to the Spanish Empire (1502-1821), was established. the First Mexican Empire (1821-1823), the United Provinces of Central America (1823-1824), and the Federal Republic of Central America (1824-1838). Nicaragua emerged as an independent country in 1838, under the name "State of Nicaragua "and began to be called the Republic of Nicaragua, since 1854.8
Regarding the integration of the so-called Costa de Mosquitos (the former Province of Taguzgalpa) in the Republic of Nicaragua, in 1860 the Managua Treaty was signed between Nicaragua and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, for which reason it renounced its Misquito protectorate and recognized the sovereignty of Nicaragua; while Nicaragua recognized the autonomy rights of the Miskitos. This is how the "Reserva Mosquitia" was born. One year after the Treaty of Managua was signed, 51 Witas (mayors) met in Bluefields and approved the Constitution of the Reserve, inspired by the British consul and which established, in general, English laws. The sovereignty of Nicaragua was in fact a formality, until in 1894 the Mosquitia was reincorporated officially and specifically to Nicaragua during the government of José Santos Zelaya, through the so-called Reincorporación de la Mosquitia carried out by Rigoberto Cabezas, who had to face an attempt of restoring its domination by the British, between July and August of that same year. Through the treaty Altamirano-Harrison of April 19, 1905, Great Britain recognized the absolute sovereignty of Nicaragua over the coast of Mosquitos, which meant abolishing the "Reserva Mosquitia", in exchange for guaranteeing the natives exemption from taxes and service military and guarantee them to live in their villages and ancestral territories according to their own customs.
After decades of intervention and strong foreign influence, through the Nicaraguan Revolution, a Junta de Gobierno de Reconstrucción Nacional (1979-1985) was established, constituted as a transitory government board in charge of the executive power and a Council of State in charge of the legislative power with the participation of representatives of the political, social, communal and religious spheres. In 1984, the first popular elections were held in accordance with the new Electoral Law. The Government Junta of National Reconstruction hands over power to the new elected President: Daniel Ortega Saavedra. Thus The transitory Board is dissolved.
Bosawas Biosphere Reserve is located in Jinotega Department of Nicaragua. Bosawas Biosphere reserve covers an area of 20,000 km² of tropical rain forest.
Juan Venado Island Natural Reserve protects wetlands of Juan Venado Island near city of Leon in Nicaragua.
Masaya Volcano National Park is named after Masaya Volcano that lies within its boundaries.
Miraflor Natural Reserve is located 30 km from Estelí from Nicaragua. Miraflor Natural Park covers an area of 206 km².
The Atlantic coast of Nicaragua was discovered by Europeans in 1502 (the 4th voyage of H. Columbus). The conquest of the country by the Spaniards began in 1522 (Gil Gonzalez Davila).
With the Indians, one of the Aztec tribes, who inhabited the southwestern territories (the isthmus between Lake Nicaragua and the Pacific coast), the owner concluded an agreement, and the whole country was named after the leader (caciq) of that tribe - Nicarao. However, in the northern territories, the Spaniards had to fight for several years with other Indian tribes.
In the 16th century, Spanish conquistadors founded two cities: Granada, on the northwestern shore of Lake Nicaragua, and Leon, near the Pacific coast. A significant part of the Indian population was destroyed or died out from diseases introduced by the Spaniards. The rest began to mix with the Spanish settlers.
In Nicaragua, the conquistadors did not find large deposits of gold and silver, so Granada and Leon became agricultural colonies of Spain. From the end of the 16th century, black slaves from Africa began to be imported to work on plantations (indigo, sugarcane and cocoa), but this labor force was used in Nicaragua on a relatively small scale.
From 1570 to 1821, Nicaragua was part of the Spanish captaincy general of Guatemala. The territory of Nicaragua was divided among landowners-latifundists who practiced encomienda and peonage.
The eastern part of the country - the Mosquito Coast, with an unhealthy climate and dense forests, was not colonized by the Spaniards. English pirates settled there, preying on Spanish ships. Having gained a foothold on the east coast, the British from the 17th century made raids to the west of Nicaragua, along the San Juan River, and attacked the Spanish colonies. During this period, the population of Mosquito Coast grew mainly due to blacks who fled from the English colonies. In an effort to strengthen their position in Mosquitia, the British organized the election of a black king. The British retained control over the Mosquito Coast until the middle of the 19th century, when they were forced to withdraw from there under pressure from the United States, who then planned to draw a canal through the territory of Nicaragua connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans.
First decades of independence
In 1821, during the war for the independence of the Spanish colonies in America, the territory of Nicaragua became part of the Mexican Empire.
1823-1838 - Nicaragua as part of the United Provinces of Central America.
1838 - Independence of Nicaragua. From the middle of the 19th century, a struggle began between the United States and Great Britain for the predominant influence in Nicaragua (mainly with the aim of building an inter-oceanic canal on its territory).
1856 - June, President William Walker, September 1856 - repeal of the decree abolishing slavery
1858 - the capital of Nicaragua - Managua.
Military rule, American occupation, Somoza dictatorship
1910 - beginning of the military junta
1912-1933 - US occupation.
1927 - the beginning of the national liberation struggle under the leadership of Augusto Cesar Sandino (1927-1934).
1934-1979 - the reign of the Somoza clan, a right-wing authoritarian oligarchic dictatorship supported by the United States. The founder of the ruling dynasty, Anastasio Somoza Garcia, was assassinated in 1956 by the revolutionary Rigoberto López Pérez. From 1957 to 1967, the president of Nicaragua was his eldest son Luis Somoza Debayle, in 1967-1979 (with a short break) - the youngest son Anastasio Somoza Debayle. Since 1961, the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) has been waging a struggle against the dictatorship. In 1978, after the assassination of conservative politician and journalist Pedro Joaquin Chamorro, mass protests escalate into an armed uprising, suppressed by the National Guard. The FSLN continues its guerrilla war against the regime.
Sandinista Revolution and Civil War
1979 - victory of the Sandinista revolution. On the night of July 17, the Somoza family flees the country; on July 18, Somoza's successor, Francisco Urcuyo, resigns. On July 19, the FSLN rebel army enters Managua. (Anastasio Somoza Debayle was killed in Paraguay in September 1980). Power passes to the Government Junta of National Revival, representing the FSLN and other democratic opposition forces.
1980-1981 - Liberal Conservatives (Violetta Barrios de Chamorro), Social Democrats (Alfonso Robelo) and Demo-Socialists (Eden Pastora) are forced out of government. The leader of the entrepreneurial opposition movement, Jorge Salazar, was assassinated. A one-party government of the FSLN is established, which has declared itself a Marxist organization. Power is concentrated in the hands of the leadership of the FSLN, headed by Daniel Ortega. The FSLN begins the restructuring of the political regime on the model of Cuba and the USSR, the DGSE intelligence service unfolds political repressions, nationalization of industry and agrarian collectivization are carried out in the economy. However, unarmed political opposition and private enterprise are not completely destroyed, both are allowed to a limited extent.
1981-1988 - the active phase of the civil war between the ruling FSLN
and the Contra movement. The Ortega government is increasingly
pro-Soviet, and the Contras enjoy the active support of the American
administration of Ronald Reagan. The Nicaraguan conflict is turning into
an important element of the global Cold War.
1984 - In elections organized by the FSLN, Daniel Ortega is elected president of Nicaragua. The armed opposition does not recognize the legitimacy of the vote.
1987 - Contra organizations - FDN, MDN, the Social Christian Party, the Miskito YATAMA movement - unite in the Nicaraguan Resistance (RN) coalition. The FDN and ARDE formations launch a coordinated massive offensive from the north (from Honduras) and from the south (from Costa Rica). The contras' military results are limited, but the government agrees to political dialogue.
1988 - The Sandinista government, after making peace with YATAMA, concludes the Sapoa Agreement with RN. The civil war stops, the opposition is legalized, free presidential and parliamentary elections are called.
1990 - as a result of democratic elections, the FSLN, despite all the forecasts of sociologists, unexpectedly suffers a defeat. The National Union of the Opposition comes to power, led by center-right President Violetta Barrios de Chamorro. The FSLN goes into opposition, but retains its cadre positions in law enforcement agencies. The new government is implementing a set of liberal reforms in the political and economic system.
1991 - Enrique Bermudez, military leader of the Contras, is killed under unclear circumstances.
1992 - RN chief of staff Israel Galeano dies in a car accident.
1993 - FDN co-founder Aristides Sanchez dies of illness.
1996 - the leader of the right-wing Liberal Constitutional Party (LCP) historically associated with the former Somoza regime, Arnoldo Aleman, is elected as the new president. The LCP concludes informal agreements with the FSLN, and a regime of "two-party dictatorship" is established.
2001 - LCP representative Enrique Bolaños is elected president. (At the same time, the son of the dictator Anastasio Somoza, who was overthrown in 1979, Portocarrero did not support Bolaños, but the candidacy of the leader of the FSLN, Daniel Ortega, since he introduced the values and orders of the Somoz regime more.)
2002 - Arnoldo Alemán arrested on corruption charges, subsequently sentenced to 20 years in prison. The corruption scandal dramatically undermines the prestige of the liberal government.
Second board of the FSLN
2006 - Daniel Ortega is re-elected president in the next election. The FSLN returns to power under the slogans of protecting traditional values. On this basis, the Ortega government is supported by the Nicaraguan Resistance Party, which unites most of the former contras.
2008 - FSLN wins municipal elections. In particular, the well-known boxer Alexis Arguello is elected mayor of Managua (he died the following year under unclear circumstances). The opposition accuses the government of falsifying the voting results.
2009 - The Supreme Court abolishes presidential term limits. This decision does not pass approval in parliament, which causes protests from the opposition Independent Liberal Party. Activists opposed to the Somoists and Ortega accuse President Ortega of intending to remain in power for life. But the Liberal Constitutional Party raises no objections. Arnoldo Alemán is released from house arrest.
2010 - organizations of the armed underground begin guerrilla and terrorist actions against the government of the FSLN.
2011 - presidential and parliamentary elections. Daniel Ortega is re-elected by a landslide, and the FSLN wins a large majority in the National Assembly.
In November 2012, the consideration of the case on the maritime border between Nicaragua and Colombia was completed - the International Court of Justice ruled that all seven disputed islands in the Caribbean belong to Colombia.
2013 - former head of the Sandinista intelligence agency DGSE, Lenin Serna, is appointed political coordinator of the judiciary. The leadership of the FSLN continues to consolidate control over the political system and economic assets.
2014 - On July 19, the 35th anniversary of the victory of the Sandinista Revolution is widely celebrated. On July 20, a resonant terrorist attack is committed: the underground organization FASN-EP fires at buses with participants in the celebrations, 5 people were killed, 19 were injured.
2015 - The opposition bloc of the National Coalition for Democracy consolidates - a group of former contra commanders adjoins the Independent Liberal Party of Eduardo Montealegre. An intention was announced to remove the FSLN and Daniel Ortega from power in the next elections.
2016 - supporters of the FSLN and LKP carried out a raider takeover of the Independent Liberal Party. Ortega wins the presidential election again. His wife becomes vice-president, which was not even under the Somozas.
2021 - Incumbent President of Nicaragua Daniel Ortega won the next presidential election with almost 75% of the vote.
Physical and geographical characteristics
Nicaragua is the largest in territory among the countries of Central America (129,494 km²), reaches 540 km in width, and has access to both the Pacific Ocean, where its coastline is about 320 km long, and the Caribbean Sea (480 km of coastline). lines); the total length of the sea border reaches 800 km (the coastline is 910 km). On land, Nicaragua is bordered by Honduras (922 km) to the north and Costa Rica (309 km) to the south (a total of 1,231 km of land borders). The capital and main city of the country is Managua. Nicaragua is one of the most sparsely populated countries in Central America, second only to Belize in this respect.
Within the territory of Nicaragua, which is characterized by a wide variety of landscapes, four large natural areas can be distinguished. Most of the country is occupied by a mountainous region narrowing to the south, which has the shape of a triangle of brown tones on the map - the Nicaraguan Highlands.
It is adjoined to the east by a second region, framing the Caribbean coast, a wide strip of lowlands known as the Mosquito Coast. The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua is low-lying, mostly swampy and abundantly overgrown with mangrove forests and almost impenetrable jungle. This area has never attracted the attention of the Spanish conquistadors for its fertile farmland or gold deposits, therefore, areas of flora and fauna characteristic of pre-Columbian America have been preserved here.
The third region is formed by the lowlands stretching along the southern land border of the country across the isthmus from the Gulf of Fonseca southeast to the Caribbean coast, and the fourth is the volcanic zone of western Nicaragua, with numerous active volcanoes. The latter is the most populated, both because of the fertile volcanic soils, and because of the more favorable - dry and not as hot as on the east coast - climate.
The temperature of the coldest month - January - at an altitude of 1500 m on the west coast is 16 ° C. In the windward, open trade winds of the eastern parts of the territory - up to 5000 mm of precipitation per year. Further west, precipitation decreases. Two seasons are quite clearly traced here - dry (November - April) and wet (May - October).
Nicaragua has a fairly diverse flora and fauna. Among the trees, oak, pine (western and central (mountainous) parts of the country), mahogany, and rubber plants are especially common. Among the animals: puma, ocelot, deer, several species of monkeys, alligator, a large number of hummingbirds and parrots. In Lake Nicaragua, the largest lake in the country and throughout Central America, there are freshwater sharks (2-3 m long) and swordfish. This is a consequence of the fact that this lake, like all large lakes in Nicaragua, was previously a sea bay until tectonic activity formed the Pacific Plain, which now separates the lake from the ocean. Also, the Nicaragua waterfall (74 meters) flows into this lake, which carries the waters of two rivers (Moreira and Indelta).
The national bird of Nicaragua is the Guardabarranco or Eumomota superciliosa of the Momot family.
Tropical, trade wind. The average daily temperature of the dry period (from March to May) is 24-32°C. Rains are possible from June to October, the average daily temperature is 26-28°C. The best time to travel to the Pacific coast and the central regions of the country is a dry and cool beginning of winter. You can go to the Atlantic coast at any time of the year, except for very dusty April and May.
Population dynamics: 1.6 million (1962); 3.4 million (1988); 4.91
million (2000); 6.1 million (July 2015).
Annual increase - 1.3% (fertility - 2.5 births per woman).
The average life expectancy is 69.6 years for men, 74 years for women.
Infection with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - 0.2% (2007 estimate).
blacks, mulattos and sambo 14%
The official language is Spanish, Indian languages are also used (1.7%), among Afro-Nicaraguans and Indians of the east coast, a local dialect of the West Indian version of English is common (0.8%).
Literacy of the population - 78.0% (estimated in 2010, the proportion of illiterates over 15 years old).
According to the Pew Research Center, in 2010, 4.97 million Christians lived in Nicaragua, who accounted for 85.9% of the population of this country. J.G. Melton's Encyclopedia of the Religions of the World estimates the share of Christians in 2010 at 96% (5.597 million).
The largest branch of Christianity in the country is Catholicism 58.5%. This is followed by evangelicals 21.6% (Assemblies of God, Church of God and Baptists), Moravian Brethren 1.6% (among Indians and Sambo Autonomous Regions of the Atlantic Coast), Jehovah's Witnesses 0.9%, others 1.7%, atheists 15, 7% (according to the 2005 census). In the capital of Managua, the first mosque in Nicaragua was built in 2009, the Islamic Cultural Association in Managua is regularly visited by about 320 men.
The state system is a presidential republic. The head of state and government is the President of Nicaragua, who is elected for a term of 5 years.
In October 2009, the Supreme Court of Nicaragua overturned an article of the Constitution that limited the presidency to a single 5-year term. This allowed FSLN leader Daniel Ortega to run again and win the 2011 elections. The decision of the Supreme Court and the re-election of Ortega provoked sharp criticism of the legal opposition and the emergence of an armed underground similar to the contras of the 1980s.
The legislature is the unicameral National Assembly of 92 deputies. 90 deputies are elected by direct universal suffrage for a 5-year term; 20 of them are on the national list, 70 are from districts and autonomous regions. The deputies are also the president who ruled the previous five years, and the presidential candidate who received the largest number of votes after the winner in the last election.
Political parties represented in the National Assembly following the November 6, 2011 elections:
Sandinista National Liberation Front (adheres to a specific ideology of the left variant of right-wing traditionalism, leader Daniel Ortega) - 63 mandates;
Independent Liberal Party (center-right opposition, leader Eduardo Montealegre) - 27 seats;
Liberal Constitutional Party (center-right, collaborating with the government, leader Arnoldo Aleman) - 2 mandates.
(According to the results of the vote, the Sandinistas received 62 mandates, the independent liberals - 26, but their presidential candidates also became deputies.)
About 20 legal parties are not represented in the National Assembly.
The armed forces of Nicaragua include the Air Force, Navy and Ground Forces. The total number of troops is estimated at about 14,000. The military budget is $85 million, or about 0.7% of the country's spending. The armament is mainly Soviet and Russian weapons, there are also British, French, Turkish types of military equipment.
Nicaragua is a country with a predominantly agrarian economy, one of
the poorest in the Western Hemisphere (only Honduras and Haiti are
poorer than it in Central America). GDP per capita at PPP in 2009 was
$4,800 (168th in the world). The proportion of the population below the
official poverty level is 48% (in 2005). Unemployment - 8.2% (in 2009).
Public debt - 17% of GDP. According to the UN, 79% of the Nicaraguan
population lives on less than $2 a day.
Agriculture (17.5% of GDP, 29% of employees) produces coffee, bananas, cane sugar, cotton, rice, corn, tobacco, and soybeans.
Industry (26.5% of GDP, 19% of employees) - processing of agricultural products, beverage production, textile and footwear production, oil processing, sawmills.
Service sector - 56% of GDP, 52% of employees.
The problem is the state of energy. 84% of electricity is produced at thermal power plants, although back in 1990 half of the electricity was produced at GeoPPs and hydroelectric power plants. Due to high oil prices, this structure of energy production leads to inflation and a slowdown in economic growth (in 2007, inflation was 16.88%, while GDP growth was only 3.7%). The sectors of the economy leading in terms of growth rates are banking, construction, food industry, tourism, and textile production.
Most of the vehicles and means of communication are concentrated in the western part of the country. Intensive construction of highways began in the 1940s, now their total length in the country is about 30 thousand km, mostly without a hard surface; since on the east coast the rainy season lasts nine months out of twelve, and there are practically no paved roads, most of the year the east coast is cut off in transport terms from the western part of the country; the local population uses local rivers for movement, which abound in the east of the country. The national airline "La Costegna" operates flights on domestic flights from the capital's airport "Augusto Cesar Sandino"; from the same airport, international flights are carried out by foreign air carriers. The main seaport of Corinto is located on the Pacific coast. Since most of the country's trade turnover is trade with the Atlantic countries, the ports of its neighbors on the Atlantic coast are forced to use the ports of its neighbors on the Atlantic coast - Limon in Costa Rica and Puerto Lempir in Honduras. The state of internal land communications and insufficient depths do not allow the use of existing ports on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua, such as Bluefields, etc. The deep-water port at Monkey Point is currently only a project.
Exports in 2017 - $5.34 billion Imports in 2017 - $7.86 billion
The main export commodities (2017) are textiles (28%), insulated wires (12%), coffee (9.7%), gold (8%) and frozen beef (5.7%), fruits are also exported , nuts, sugar, tobacco and shellfish
The main buyers (in 2017) are the United States ($3.09 billion), Mexico ($340 million), El Salvador ($275 million), Costa Rica ($154 million) and Honduras ($154 million) .
The main import goods (2017) are machinery, equipment and electronics (16.9%), textile raw materials, fabrics and semi-finished products (16.2%), chemical products, including medicines (13%), as well as petroleum products, metals and prepared food products.
The main suppliers (in 2017) are the USA ($1.75 billion), China ($1.16 billion), Mexico ($1.01 billion), Honduras ($0.5 billion) and Costa Rica (0.478 billion dollars).
External debt of Nicaragua - 4.7 billion dollars (at the end of 2009).
The national currency is the golden cordoba. The official exchange rate is 20.8 gold cordobas per 1 US dollar.
Nicaragua has a negative trade balance (imports exceed exports by more than 1 billion dollars), the main reason for this is, on the one hand, the policy of combating inflation that has been going on since the mid-90s with the help of a high exchange rate of the national currency, on the other hand, foreign currency loans from the IMF, which are the material basis of such a policy (in 2006, Nicaragua's foreign exchange reserves reached $869 million).
As a result, in 1994-2004. the effective exchange rate of cordoba rose 2.5 times, which caused the prices of export goods to rise sharply, while those of imports fell significantly. Many traditional industries, such as coffee production, have been undergoing a downward trend in recent years due to the inadequate exchange rate of the national currency, even despite the increase in coffee prices on the world market.
The monetary unit of Nicaragua is the cordoba. 1 cordoba = 100 centavos. 1 US dollar is approximately equivalent to 35 cordobas (February 2021).
Currency can be exchanged at one of the banks or exchange offices. You can also pay anywhere in dollars. Euro in the country is accepted only in banks. Credit cards are accepted everywhere.
In 1980-1990, in Nicaragua, there was essentially an "undeclared war" between the left-wing "Sandinistas" who came to power at the end of 1979 and the "Contras" movement, which was openly supported by the United States.
Rising military spending, losses and destruction during the fighting and sabotage of the Contras caused rapid hyperinflation, which in 1988 reached thirty thousand percent.
As a result, over the course of several years, overprints were made on banknotes of old years of issue, which increased the denomination of these banknotes by thousands and tens of thousands of times.
Overprints were made in 1987-1991 with plain black printing ink (in one color) on banknotes of the Nicaraguan cordoba currency of the 1979 and 1985 sample.
These overprints were often of very poor quality: either on one side of the bill, or crooked, or inverted overprints (upside down), or a poorly printed print.
Due to the ease of counterfeiting, counterfeit money with these overprints was widely distributed.
Gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, nickel, mercury in small quantities, oil and gas have been discovered on the shelf, at the moment Western companies are trying to get the rights to their development, which, however, is hampered by environmental concerns of neighboring countries (in features of Costa Rica, with its developed resort and tourism industry), as well as border disputes that directly affect some oil fields.
In the second half of the 20th century, due to the increased
influence of the USSR, leftist ideas began to gain strength in
Nicaragua. This, in turn, led to a conflict with the United States,
which supported the dictator Somoza.
At present, the anti-American movement is gaining momentum in Nicaragua, which has led the country to rapprochement with Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia and other countries. Recently, due to the actions of the American military (Iraq, Afghanistan, etc.), pro-Russian sentiments began to intensify in the leadership of Nicaragua, reinforced by the memory of the generous support of the pro-Soviet regime by the government of the USSR. The debt of Nicaragua to the USSR at the time of the collapse of the latter amounted to about 3.5 billion US dollars (slightly less than 1,000 per Nicaraguan). Russia gradually wrote off the entire debt.
The foreign policy of Nicaragua is directly related to the activities of Daniel Ortega, the president of the country, head of the Sandinista National Liberation Front party, who won the presidential election in 2006. Since coming to power, Ortega has made a number of changes in the foreign policy, but some directions have remained unchanged under him in comparison with the previous liberal government. Like the previous administration, the Sandinista leadership sees large-scale foreign aid as a necessary condition for the country's economic survival. D. Ortega accepted all the conditions of the United States and other major international donors, guaranteeing the allocation of new portions of financial support. The main donors for Nicaragua are the US, the EU, Japan and Taiwan.
Since the United States remains the main competitor in the domestic market of Nicaragua, accounting for about 24% of the country's trade turnover, relations with this state remain cool. The main political partners are the countries of Latin American socialism, Venezuela-Cuba-Bolivia, and also Ecuador.
The International Court of Justice - the highest court of the UN - in November 2012 decided on more than 10 years of litigation between Colombia and Nicaragua over a group of disputed islands in the Caribbean, ruling that they belong to Colombia, but also changing the maritime border and thereby expanding the territorial waters Nicaragua. This was reported by the BBC. The archipelago in dispute is located about 775 km from the coast of Colombia and 230 km from Nicaragua. The court decision states that the islands of Roncador, Kitazueño, Serrana, Serranilla, Bajo Nuevo, Cayo Bolívar and Albuquerque, as well as the waters and the seabed around them, belong to Colombia. At the same time, the court ruling, according to which the territorial waters of Nicaragua have been increased, potentially provides the country with the opportunity to expand the fishing industry, and also gives it access to oil and gas fields. The decision also emphasizes that it does not affect the boundaries of the territorial waters of Costa Rica and Honduras.
January 1 - New Year
January 6 - Epiphany (the arrival of the Magi) (Epifanía)
March 8 - International Women's Day
Movable date in March-April - Holy Week (Semana Santa), including Palm Sunday (Domingo de Ramos), Good Thursday, Friday and Saturday, Resurrection of Christ (Easter, Pascua Florida)
May 1 - Labor Day
May 3 - Day of the Cross
May 30 - Mother's Day
June 1 - Children's Day
June 27 - Day of Nicaraguan resistance, peace, freedom, unity and national reconciliation
July 19 - Sandinista Revolution Day (1979)
August 1 - Feast of Santo Domingo
September 14 - Anniversary of the Battle of San Jacinto
September 15 - Independence Day
September 29 - Bible Day
November 2 - Day of the Dead
December 8 - Immaculate Conception
December 12 - Friendship Day between Russia and Nicaragua
December 25 - Christmas
Each locality in Nicaragua once a year celebrates the day of its guardian angel - "fiesta patronal".
Since 2009, Nicaragua has abolished visas for citizens of Russia, Ukraine and 70 other countries. When entering the country, you must pay 10 dollars, and when departing, an airport tax in the amount of 35 dollars, if it was not included in the cost of air tickets. A vaccination certificate is not required. When importing and exporting pets, you must present the relevant documents and pay an import / export permit in the amount of $ 20. Allowed to import: 200 cigarettes, or 50 cigars, or 500 g of tobacco, 3 liters of spirits, 2 kg of sweets or chocolate. You can also bring in a mini-computer, binoculars, photo, audio and video equipment - one item of each item.
Locals eat dishes made from rice and local vegetables; iguanas are
eaten from meat dishes. In hotels and restaurants, tourists will be
offered dishes prepared mainly from seafood. The most famous alcoholic
drink in Nicaragua is Flor de Caña rum, which is exported all over the
Each locality in Nicaragua once a year celebrates the day of its guardian angel - "fiesta patronal". During one of these holidays, for example, January in San Sebastian and July in Santiago, you can see a lot of colorful folklore performances and masquerade processions.