Maryland is a state on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America and is also known by the nicknames "Old Line State" and "Free State". In terms of land area, Maryland is the eighth smallest state. To drive through it completely, for example from Ocean City to Oakland, you need 5½ hours by car.

Maryland borders Pennsylvania to the north and Delaware to the east. It is bordered by Virginia and Washington, D.C. to the southwest and West Virginia to the west. To the east, Maryland is framed by the deep-leaking Chesapeake Bay, which opens south to the Atlantic.


It is in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. It borders Pennsylvania to the north, Delaware to the east, and the Potomac River to the south, which separates it from Virginia, Washington D.C., and West Virginia. At 32,133 km², it is the ninth smallest state — ahead of Hawaii, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island, the smallest. With 180 inhabitants/km² it is the fifth most densely populated—behind New Jersey, Rhode Island, Connecticut and Massachusetts. It was admitted to the Union on April 28, 1788, as the seventh state.

It was named in honor of Queen Henrietta Maria of France, wife of King Charles I of England (Maryland in English means "Land of Mary"). It was one of the Thirteen Colonies that rebelled against British rule in the region.

The state's nickname is the Old Line State, in homage to its "troops of the line", who were praised several times by George Washington for their excellent performance in the American Revolutionary War. USA.

The current American anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner, was written by Francis Scott Key, a lawyer and amateur poet who was inspired by seeing American troops successfully defending an attack by United Kingdom naval troops (at the time, the greatest military power in the world) against Baltimore, in the Anglo-American War of 1812.


Regions and places

The quiet interior of Maryland, bordering Pennsylvania.
Hagerstown · Cumberland

Capital Region
The densely populated area around Washington, D.C. Maryland's four largest cities, after Baltimore, are located here.
Frederick Rockville Gaithersburg Bowie

The waterfront and rural realm between the Potomac River and Chesapeake Bay.
Saint Mary's City

Around the metropolis of Baltimore and the (relatively small) capital of the state: Annapolis.
Westminster Aberdeen Havre de Grace Brunswick

East coast
The sparsely populated Delmarva Peninsula to the east of the Chesapeake Bay. On the east side of the peninsula, Maryland has 50 km of Atlantic coast with lots of beach life.
Salisbury · Cambridge



Annapolis is the state capital.
Baltimore is the state's largest city.
Bethesda is a hot spot in the suburbs of the District of Columbia with two hundred restaurants.
Frederick is a bustling historic town near Harpers Ferry.
Hagerstown is a historic town near the site of the Battle of Antietam at the foot of the Appalachians.
St. Michaels - urban development consists exclusively of historical buildings of the XVIII-XIX centuries.


Other destinations

Antietam National Battlefield is known as a single worst loss of life in a single day in a battle between the Union forces and Confederates.

Fort McHenry heroic stance against the British inspired the poem that became later the American national anthem.

Glenn Dale Hospital located outside of American capital is famous for its haunting and paranormal activity.

Located in the Chesapeake Bay, Kent Island is the largest island in the state. The British established Kent Fort here in 1631, their first base in what is now Maryland. Nothing remains of the fort, but the main towns of Stevensville and Chester attract some visitors in the summer. Bridges connect the island to both sides of the bay.



Originally populated by the Algonquin and the Iroquois to the north, the country was one of the 13 colonies established by the British Crown in North America from 1632 to 1776. The province, named after the French wife of the British King Charles I, was administered for the first 43 years by Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, who primarily wanted to settle Catholics here. Catholics were little suffered in Britain and the rest of the colonies, and Baltimore wanted to offer them a safe haven, but ultimately failed.

The first permanent British settlement was established in 1642 in southern Maryland at St. Mary's City. The tobacco industry gave the colony a rapid economic boom. Even before the end of the colonial period, however, tobacco production declined and gave way to a mixed economy; While slavery existed in Maryland, it was never as prevalent here as it was in its southern neighbors. Land disputes with Pennsylvania were settled in 1763-1767 by drawing the Mason-Dixon Line, which since then has also separated the northern from the southern states and has given Maryland the nickname "Old Line State". In 1776 Maryland seceded from Great Britain and joined the United States. Today's District of Columbia, with the capital Washington, owes its existence half to a land donation from the young state of Maryland.

In the American Civil War (1861–1865), the majority of soldiers recruited in Maryland fought on the Union side; just under a quarter, however, were part of the Confederate army. The historically important Battle of the Antietam (near Sharpsburg, 1862) ended in a draw and brought heavy casualties to both sides. Harriett Tubman (ca. 1820–1913), a former slave, made significant contributions during this period to the establishment of the Underground Railroad, a widespread network that assisted slaves from the South to flee to the North.

Baltimore became one of the most important industrial and port cities in the USA in the 19th century, but experienced an economic and social collapse in the 1960s from which it has not recovered to this day. Every fifth inhabitant of the city lives below the poverty line. Some large companies still have their headquarters in Maryland, including the defense and technology companies Northrop Grumman and Lockheed Martin and the hotel chain Marriott International. However, the overwhelming majority of jobs in Maryland today are in the service sector, followed by those in the military. Many places in Montgomery County and Prince George's County are actually suburbs of Washington, D.C. become. Politically, Maryland is a "blue" state; H. residents are more likely to vote Democratic than Republican.

Famous people who were born or lived in Maryland include writers Edgar Allen Poe, Dashiell Hammett, Upton Sinclair and John Barth, singers Billie Holiday and Frank Zappa, actors Goldie Hawn and David Hasselhoff, and athletes Babe Ruth and Michael Phelps. Must-reads for bookworms visiting Maryland include The Silence of the Lambs (Thomas Harris) and Mason & Dixon (Thomas Pynchon), as well as the works of John Barth and Ronald Malfi. Movie fans might want to watch Maryland (1940), The Mating Game (1959), Patriot Games (1992), True Lies (1994), Eraser (1996), Shadow Conspiracy (1997), Enemy of the State (1998), The Blair to set the mood Witch Project, Runaway Bride (both 1999), Traffic (2000), Swimmers (2005), Live Free or Die Hard (2007), Red (2010) or The Bourne Legacy (2012).



In Ballmer, Baltimore and Nap Lis, Annapolis, from Warshin, Washington to Chest Peak, Chesapeake Bay - in fact, all over Merlin, Maryland - a vernacular of English is spoken that newcomers need to listen to carefully, especially those new to it coming from Yerp (Europe) via the Allanic (Atlantic). Locals greet each other with hi hon and say goodbye with slong. There are weird foods in Maryland like bulled eggs (boiled eggs) and colleyflare (cauliflower); arnjuice (orange juice), warter (water) and Natty Boh (National Bohemian, the local beer) are drunk. Houses are equipped with winders (windows), meers (mirrors), a far place (fireplace) and a zink (sink) in the kitchen, and on the street there are payment (pavement), pohleese cars (police cars), and faren gins (fire engines). The fodlaw (that's the man of the mudnlaw, mother-in-law) hopefully doesn't mow the flares (flowers) in the garden, but the lawn with a paramore (power mower), and anyone who gets a headache from the noise takes care of themselves Sem Elem (Seven Eleven) aspern.


Getting here

By plane
In addition to a few smaller regional airports, which are also served by scheduled aircraft, Maryland has three noteworthy airports:

Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. BWI, 20 minutes southeast of Downtown Baltimore; is served by British Airways from London and WOWAir from Reykjavik, among others.
Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Regional Airport. SBY, Salisbury, domestic only.
Hagerstown Regional Airport. HGR, Hagerstown, domestic services only.
Dulles International Airport (IAD, near Washington, D.C.) and Philadelphia International Airport (PHL, near Philadelphia), which receive significantly more direct flights from Europe, are a good 1 hour and 1½ hours from Baltimore, respectively.

By train
Maryland has a small number of Amtrak train stations:
The Acela Express bullet train (Boston-New York City-Washington, D.C.) makes stops in Baltimore and BWI Marshall Airport. The slightly slower Northeast Regional runs the same route and also stops in Aberdeen and New Carrollton; as are the other lines running from New York City along the Northeast Corridor toward D.C. and drive southern states.
The Capitol Limited line (Washington, D.C.-Pittsburgh-Chicago) stops in Rockville and Cumberland. Frederick can be reached by stopping at nearby Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.



The MARC is a regional train system with three lines, 42 stations and a 300 km route network (network overview). It connects numerous locations in Maryland with the federal capital Washington, where all three lines end.

Brunswick Line: Washington–Martinsburg or Frederick (via Rockville and Gaithersburg)
Camden Line: Washington–Camden Yards (via College Park, Greenbelt and Laurel)
Penn Line: Washington–Perryville (via New Carrollton, Baltimore and Aberdeen) – The Penn Line reaches speeds of up to 200 km/h, making it the fastest commuter rail service in North America.



The sales tax, which is the "value added tax" that is still added to the purchase price, is slightly higher in Maryland than in neighboring Virginia at an average of 6.25%, but slightly lower than in West Virginia and Pennsylvania. If you really want to save on sales tax, shop in Delaware, which doesn't collect sales tax at all.

The largest shopping mall in Maryland is the Annapolis Mall (officially "Westfield Annapolis") near Annapolis. 203 retailers, restaurants and service providers (mainly the usual chains).

The regional quality supermarket chains are called Giant Food, Food King, Food Lion, Shop 'n Save and Weis Markets.

Lovers of South and East Asian cuisines will love strolling through one of the 6 Maryland locations of Lotte Plaza, a regional supermarket chain specializing in imported Asian groceries.



Because of its coastal location, Maryland is naturally a paradise for seafood lovers. Don't be surprised if even the Bloody Mary cocktail is served up with a shrimp or crab claw. The culinary specialties of the state include blue crab from the Chesapeake Bay in all imaginable variations:
Steamed Crabs (steamed, with butter sauce)
Soft Shell Crab (freshly skinned blue crabs, edible in their shells, that are dipped in batter and then fried, served with tartar sauce, a mayonnaise concoction)
Clam cakes (also known as clam fritters) are deep-fried mixtures of chopped clams (usually quahog) with various other ingredients that are fried into balls. The dough consists of flour, milk, clam juice, eggs and baking powder. They are especially popular during clamming season (September 15th to May 15th) when mussels are in abundance. In season, private individuals are allowed to dig for mussels and oysters on the beach. Clam cakes are often sold as finger food in take-out shops. A meal usually consists of several cakes, french fries and cole slaw (coleslaw). consists. Often there is also clam chowder (mussel soup).
Crab Imperial (a richly flavored crabmeat gratin with a creamy interior and crispy exterior)
Cream of Crab Soup (a wickedly good soup made with crab meat, butter and cream)
Maryland Crab Soup (a crab soup made with tomato base, lima beans, corn, carrots and onions)
Crab dip (a dip made from crab meat, cheese, cream, and spices, served with crackers, tortilla chips, bread, or something similar).

In Maryland, crab meat is very often seasoned with Old Bay Seasoning, a seasoning whose exact recipe the manufacturer McCormick does not reveal, of course.

The Maryland Crab & Oyster Trail is the perfect way to discover and enjoy the delights of the coast.
Locally harvested oysters are also staples in Maryland, and "coddies" (fried cod dumplings). Crab chips (from UTZ) are also suitable for vegetarians, as apart from potatoes they only contain vegetable oil and seasonings such as Old Bay Seasoning. Another alternative to all that seafood is stuffed ham: marinated ham, then cooked in one piece, stuffed with kale, cabbage, onions and spices. One of the strangest things to eat in the region is scrapple, a type of brawn made from pork offal thought to have been introduced by the Pennsylvania Dutch, which is served sliced and fried.

A must-eat in the fun-oriented coastal towns - especially Ocean City - is Thrasher's French Fries, fried in peanut oil and drizzled with vinegar. While you're there, it's also worth trying Fisher's Popcorn; While popcorn in the USA is almost always eaten salted, Fishers add caramel.

Here are two desserts that are unique to Maryland:

Smith Island Cake (a photogenic multi-layer cake whose layers are buttery yellow batter and chocolate cream)
Berger Cookies (shortcrust cookies baked to a German recipe buried under a thick layer of chocolate fudge; DeBaufre Bakeries specialty)

The local beer, a Pilsener, is called National Bohemian and has been brewed in Baltimore since 1885. However, the brewery is now owned by the Los Angeles-based Pabst group. A popular regional cocktail is the Orange Crush, blended with orange juice, orange vodka, orange liqueur and Sierra Mist and poured into a glass filled with ice cubes.


Night life

If you're looking to dance, have a beer, or listen to live music, you'll find great opportunities in all parts of Maryland. Here is a selection of the most popular nightlife hot spots:

Hagerstown: Cancun Cantina West and Breakaway II Sports Lounge
McHenry: Moon Shadow Cafe
Cumberland: New Embassy Theatre
Oakland: Honi-Honi Bar

Capital Region
Frederick: Cafe Nola
Bethesda: Bethesda Blues & Jazz Supper Club and Bowlmor Lanes
Rockville: FM Karaoke
Fort Washington: Martini's Restaurant and Lounge

Solomons: The CD Cafe and Next Door Lounge
Leonardtown: The Rex
Lysby: Vera's White Sands Beach Club
North Beach: The Westlawn Inn
California: Bollywood Masala

Baltimore: Power Plant Live (Inner Harbor; Clubs, Bars, Live Music & Restaurants)
in suburbs of Baltimore: Maryland Live! Casino (Arundel Mills Mall), Magooby's Joke House (in the Lutherville-Timonium suburb) and Bengie's Drive-In Theater (Middle River)
Annapolis: Metropolitan Kitchen & Lounge

East coast
Ocean City: Ocean City Brewing Company
Berlin: Burley Oak Brewing Company
Kent Narrows: Red Eye's Dock Bar
Salisbury: Evolution Craft Brewing Company & Public House

Maryland has particularly strict alcohol laws. Persons under the age of 21 may not drink or possess alcohol without exception. Liquor—including beer—is sold only in liquor stores in most counties. Only in far south Maryland is it possible to buy alcohol in the supermarket.



After 1st Detroit, 2nd St. Louis and 3rd Memphis, Baltimore is one of the American cities with the highest rates of violent crime. Avoid walking around in neighborhoods that don't feel good (if there's no one on the street, it's probably for a good reason) - especially after dusk. Ocean City (!), Elkton, Cambridge, Cumberland, Salisbury, Hyattsville, Bladensburg, Fruitland and Hagerstown also have unsatisfactorily high crime statistics. Inner cities are not automatically safer than suburbs in the USA. Crossing a major street is often enough to get you from a busy, touristy neighborhood to a ghetto with used syringes lying around in the gutter. Some of the suburbs of Washington, D.C. are currently considered the cosiest cities in Maryland with the highest quality of life. (North Potomac, Potomac, North Bethesda, Bethesda, Darnestown) and from Baltimore (Columbia, Ellicott City). Incidentally, the city with the lowest crime rate is remote Hampstead.



Until 1775

Algonquin Native Americans lived in the region for about ten thousand years before the arrival of the first Europeans. The first of them was the Spaniard Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, then the governor of the Spanish colony of Florida. He had explored the Chesapeake Bay, now part of Maryland, in 1572. The British merchant William Claiborne, from Virginia, founded the first trading post in 1631.

That same year, George Calvert, a British nobleman, petitioned the British Crown for the right to own and govern the Chesapeake Bay region. Calvert was Catholic and wanted a colony in America where the British of that religion, discriminated against in their country (with a Protestant majority), could practice their worship. His request was accepted by King Charles I of England in 1632. However, Calvert would die in April of the same year. Charles I then gave Calvert's son, Cæcilius, Maryland ("Mary's Lands"), in homage to Queen Henrietta Marie of France, wife of Charles I. Cæcilius was also Catholic, and sent the first settlers, who landed in 1634 on the promontory directly north of the Potomac River.

Cæcilius was obliged to obey the customs of the Anglican Church. He appointed his brother Leonard governor of the colony, and at the same time encouraged the colonists to petition for laws and to assist him in administration. In 1649, the Colonial Assembly approved a law guaranteeing the free exercise of cults that accepted the dogma of the Trinity. This attracted numerous Catholics from other North American colonies, especially Virginia, but constituted a barrier for members of other religions. , like the Jews.

William Claiborne was a Protestant with a trading settlement who refused to recognize the authority of the Calverts. In 1654, he led a group of Protestants who forced them out of the government. He controlled the state until 1658, when the British crown forced him to return government to the Calverts. Cæcilius pressured the Colonial Assembly to maintain the law allowing religious freedom, and it granted his request. However, Protestant groups did not accept a Catholic leader. In 1689, the Calverts again lost possession of the region, this time, to a Protestant group called The Protestant Association, which demanded from the British government a new Protestant governor, who was sent in 1691. Since the first revolution led by Claiborne, Virtually all the Catholic churches in the province were burned by the Protestants.

The Calverts regained possession of the region in 1715. The region became governed by Benedict Leonard Calvert, a Protestant. The Catholics of the province would lose the right to vote in 1718. The Calverts would continue to govern until the start of the War of Independence. The population of the English colony began to grow dramatically after the 1750s, with the prosperity of the tobacco industry.


1775 - 1900

Maryland actively participated in the Revolutionary War. Its representatives participated in all Continental Congresses. In the first of them, held in Philadelphia, they actively defended an end to any commercial relationship with the British. Its troops fought actively during the Revolutionary War, especially Baltimore, as an industrial center and manufacturer of weapons and supplies. Although few battles took place in the state, the bravery of his troops caused George Washington to constantly praise them.

He ratified the U.S. Constitution on April 28, 1788, becoming the eighth state to join the Union.

In 1789 the Maryland-born Jesuit missionary Bishop John Carroll was named the first bishop of the Catholic Church in the United States.

In 1791, a rectangular piece of land in the southeast of the state was ceded to the government for the construction of the new and current capital of the United States, Washington, D.C.

It was attacked twice by British troops during the War of 1812. In the first, the British, in 1813, defeated an American force in the north of the state, and later continued towards Washington, D.C., where British troops burned various government structures. Americans. These same British troops would continue in the direction of Baltimore. This was surrounded by land and sea by British land and naval forces. But the Americans successfully defended the city. Francis Scott Key, a lawyer and amateur poet who witnessed the city's defense, was inspired by images of the battle to write the current United States anthem, The Star-Spangled Banner.

Baltimore became one of the country's largest industrial centers during the first decades of the 19th century. The city became the largest ship manufacturer in the United States during the 1840s, and also a major manufacturer of steam trains. It was here that the first American steam locomotive was built. However, the state's economy still depended in part on agriculture. Maryland allowed the practice of slavery. In 1861 the American Civil War began. The state's population was divided. Many wanted the state to secede from the Union and join the newly formed Confederate States of America—slave-based. Others, for their part, wanted the state to remain in the Union — the states of the industrialized North of the United States, or the United States proper — which were against slavery.

The Union did not wait for Maryland to decide whether to join the Confederacy. This, because Virginia was one of those who did. If Maryland had done the same, the capital, Washington D.C., located between the two states, would have been completely surrounded by the Confederacy. For this reason, the Union invaded it immediately after the start of the war, and for this reason it participated in the war as a Northern state. However, many of his men fled and joined Confederate troops. It was also the scene of numerous battles, of which Antietam stands out, where more than 22,000 soldiers died in one day (12,000 northerners and the rest southerners). In 1864 he approved a new Constitution that abolished slavery and imposed severe penalties for those who supported the Confederacy.


From 1900 to the present

Maryland prospered economically during the early decades of the 20th century, especially the years of World War I. Baltimore, then the largest manufacturer of military ships in the United States, became a major port center with the construction of several factories in the city, as well as a military base.

In 1919, the US Congress passed a law prohibiting the production, sale, purchase and transportation of alcoholic beverages, popularly known as "Prohibition." The majority of the state's population was against this measure, and several political leaders stood out as critics and opponents of this law, considering it a violation of their state rights. As a result, the state became known as The Free State, a nickname still used today, as a tribute to the state's traditions of political and religious freedom.

The Great Depression seriously affected its economy. Many businesses and factories went bankrupt or closed, and unemployment increased. Baltimore, a primarily industrial city, was hit hard by the Depression. In 1933, more than 40% of the city's population was unemployed. To minimize the effects of the Depression, the state created social assistance programs and built numerous shelters to shelter the state's "homeless", homeless because they could not afford the costs of rent.

The state's economy recovered with the start of World War II. The years of the Second World War were years of great industrial development in the state, and the rural exodus, that is, the migration of the rural population to the cities, increased drastically. At the end of the war, it became a fundamentally urban and industrial state. Industrialization and urbanization of the state continued in the decades after the end of the war. The state also began to receive a large number of African Americans from the states of the Southern Region, who settled mainly in Baltimore. As a result, many white families moved from Baltimore to nearby suburbs.

Until 1954, its schools were segregated, with schools for whites and others, generally of lower quality, for African Americans. However, this year, the United States Supreme Court ruled that such segregation was unconstitutional. Baltimore united its school system immediately, but in other, less populated and mostly white cities, desegregation took much longer, up to three decades in some small inland cities.

Beginning in the 1960s, many manufacturing industries moved to other states that had cheaper labor available. The state's shipbuilding and railroad industry, previously Maryland's largest source of income, virtually disappeared, after the closure of numerous factories and the transfer of several others to Southern states. Currently, the manufacturing industry contributes little to the state's economy, currently dominated by commerce and services.

In 1985, the local government began a program to clean up the then highly polluted waters of the Chesapeake Bay. This program is supported by the states of Virginia, Pennsylvania and Delaware, as well as the District of Columbia. This program is expected to be completed around 2010.


Physical geography

It borders Pennsylvania to the north, West Virginia to the west, Delaware and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and Virginia to the south, separated by the Potomac River. Near the center of the state, on the banks of the Potomac River, is the capital of the United States, Washington D.C.. The Chesapeake Bay almost divides the state in two. If you count the Susquehanna River, which flows into the bay, the state is effectively divided in two.

The length of its coastline with the Atlantic Ocean is 50 kilometers. Counting all the regions bathed by the sea - bays, estuaries and oceanic islands - this extension rises to 5,134 kilometers, thanks to the Chesapeake Bay. Most of the state's rivers flow into that bay. There are no natural lakes, although there are artificial lakes, created by dams in order to generate electricity. The largest of these artificial lakes has 1600 hectares. About 40% of the state is covered by forests.

It is divided into five different geographical regions:
The Appalachian Highlands, stretching from Georgia to New York, occupy the western edge of the state. It is characterized by its rugged and mountainous terrain. The highest point, Hoye Crest (on Backbone Mountain), with its 1,024 meters of altitude, is located in this region.
The Appalachian Valley, which extends from Alabama to New Jersey, passes through Maryland, and is located immediately east of the Appalachian Highlands. The Appalachian Valley section of Maryland is characterized by its length. This section separates Pennsylvania from West Virginia, and is only a few miles wide—only 2.9 at the narrowest part. Characterized by its mountainous, rugged terrain, and by its forests, which occupy more than 70% of the region.
The Blue Ridge, which extends from Georgia to Pennsylvania and passes through the state, is located immediately east of the Appalachian Valley. The Blue Ridge is only a few kilometers long as it passes through Maryland. Characterized by its high mountains (the region has an average altitude of 600 meters) and by the blue fog that sometimes covers the region.
The Piemonte, which extends from Alabama to New Jersey, forms a strip 80 kilometers long, which extends to the vicinity of the Chesapeake Bay. It is characterized by its extremely fertile soil, and is where most of the state's agriculture takes place.
The Atlantic Plains, which occupy approximately 45% of the state, are located in the east and in the extreme south, characterized by their low altitude and their swamps, located mainly to the east of the bay.

Most of its population lives in the central region of the state, in the cities and residential neighborhoods surrounding Washington D.C. and the most populous city, Baltimore. Both are often considered part of a single metropolis. Other major demographic centers include the suburban cores of Columbia in Howard County, Silver Spring, Rockville, and Gaithersburg in Montgomery County, Frederick in Frederick County, and Hagerstown in Washington County. The eastern, southern, and western parts of the state tend to be more rural, though with pockets of regionally important cities such as Salisbury and Ocean City on the Eastern Shore, Lexington Park in the south, and Cumberland in the west.



It has a temperate climate. For a relatively small state like this, average annual temperature and precipitation vary greatly from region to region. Thanks to its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, it has relatively pleasant winters and warm summers. The average winter temperature is 1°C in Baltimore and -3°C in the extreme northwest of the state, with lows between -16°C and 10°C, and highs between -12°C and 17°C. In summer, the average temperature is 27 °C in Baltimore and 22 °C in the far northwest, with minimums of up to 13 °C, and maximums of up to 38 °C.

The lowest temperature recorded was in Oakland, where a low of -40°C was recorded on January 13, 1912. The highest temperature recorded in the state was in Allegany County on July 3, 1898, and in Cumberland on July 10, 1936, where maximums of 43 °C were recorded.

It receives about 109 centimeters of average annual precipitation of rain, and about 198 centimeters of average annual precipitation of snow.


Administration and politics

The current Constitution was adopted in 1867. Other older Constitutions were adopted in 1776, 1856 and 1864. Amendments to the Constitution can be proposed by the Legislative Branch, and to be approved they require at least 60% of the votes of both chambers. of the Legislature and that are subsequently approved in a vote by at least 51% of the electoral population of the state, in a referendum.

The main official of the Executive Branch is the governor. He is elected by the state's population for terms of up to four years in length, and there is no limit on the number of re-elections. Three other officers are also elected by the population for four-year terms. The governor chooses a Secretary of State and the majority of the officers of the different councils of the state. The chambers of the Legislative Branch elect a Treasurer for a four-year term.

The Legislative Branch, officially called the General Assembly, is made up of the Senate and the House of Delegates. The Senate has a total of 47 members, while the House of Delegates has a total of 141 members. Maryland is divided into 47 congressional districts. Electors in each district elect one senator and three delegates, who represent each district in the Senate or the House of Delegates. Both senators and delegates serve terms of up to four years in length.

The highest Court of the Judiciary is the Court of Appeal of Maryland, followed by the Court of Special Appeals of Maryland and 24 other lower, regional courts. All judges are chosen by the governor, for terms of up to one year in duration, when they are definitively approved by the Legislature after a vote, for terms of up to ten years in duration (15 years, in the case of the 24 minor courts). .

More than half of the local government budget is generated by state taxes. The rest comes from budgets received from the federal government and from loans. In 2002, the state government spent 23,317 million dollars, having generated 20,788 million dollars. The public debt is 12,309 million dollars. The debt per capita is $2,258, the value of state taxes per capita is $1,985, and the value of government expenditures per capita is $4,278.

It is a state dominated politically by the Democratic Party, with the Republicans possessing greater political strength in only some rural counties. The core of the Democratic electorate is in Baltimore. In all history, only five Republicans were appointed as governors of the state. Currently, the state's two senators in the United States Senate and six of its eight representatives in the House of Representatives are Democrats, with both chambers of the State Legislature dominated by Democrats. In American presidential elections, since the 1920s, however, the electorate has supported a similar number of Republican and Democratic candidates, with the latter dominating the last four presidential elections (with Democrat John Kerry winning 55.9% of the vote). the votes).



The 2000 census of the United States Census Bureau established the population at 5,296,486 inhabitants, a growth of 11% in relation to the state's population in 1990, of 4,781,468 inhabitants. In the 2010 census, a population of 5,773,552 inhabitants was established for the state,3​ 9% more than that corresponding to the 2000 census and 20.75% more than in 1990.

The natural population growth between 2000 and 2005 was 165,707 inhabitants (395,775 births minus 230,068 deaths) the population growth caused by immigration was 108,972 inhabitants, while interstate migration increased by 9,752 inhabitants. Between 2000 and 2005, the population grew by 303,882 inhabitants, and between 2005 and 2006, by 15,339 inhabitants. In 2005, about 583,900 inhabitants were born outside the country (10.6% of the state's population), of which it is estimated that 56,000 (1% of the population) are illegal aliens.

About 93% of the state's population lives in one of the five metropolitan regions: Baltimore, Cumberland and Hagerstown, located in the state, and in urban areas belonging to the metropolitan regions of Washington D. C. (District of Columbia) and Wilmington ( Delaware). Historically, these cities and many others developed along the fall line, the point at which rivers are no longer navigable from sea level due to the presence of rapids or waterfalls. The capital, Annapolis, is an exception to this rule, as it is located along the Severn River near its mouth into the Chesapeake Bay. In total, more than 95% of the state's population lives in cities.



Racial composition of the population:
58.3% are white (European or of European descent).
28.9% are African American.
6.0% are Latino or Hispanic.
4.9% are Asian.
The rest are made up of people of other races.

The six largest groups by ancestry are: African Americans, Germans (15.7%), Irish (11.7%), English (9%), Italians (6.8%), and Poles (6.2%). African Americans are concentrated primarily in Baltimore and the Washington suburbs. Most of the eastern and southern seaboards are populated by Americans of English descent. The state's western and northern population are primarily of German descent and the state's northern population is predominantly Italian. Although the current proportion of African Americans is not as high as it was during the 19th century, it still has the largest African American population outside the southern tip of the United States.

The population of Latino/Hispanic origin is the fastest growing, due to the high fertility rate of Latina women residing in the United States, and also due to legal and illegal immigration from Latin America and the Caribbean.



Population by religious affiliation 2019:
Catholic Church – 15% - 936,004
Protestantism – 53% - 3,307,214
Orthodox Christians – 1%-62,400
Other religions – 8% - 499,202
No religion – 23% - 1,435,206

It was founded with the purpose of offering religious tolerance to the British Catholic population. Even so, the British crown would later decide to reverse this policy. Despite being the main reason for the founding of the state, the Catholic population never made up the majority of the population since it began to be explored and colonized by Europeans.

In the urban area of Silver Spring is the world headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, a Christian denomination that has a membership of 0.3% of the population in the United States.



During the years when it was a colony of the United Kingdom, only the children of wealthy families received education from the then colonial province of Maryland, from the Catholic Church or from private teachers, since both options were available only to those with conditions. to bear the costs of the salaries of these religious tutors or private teachers.

It was in 1694 when the first public school was founded in the state. This school became a college in 1784. In 1824, the local government passed a law requiring any urban area with more than 250 inhabitants to have at least one school. The state began providing funds to cities so that they could support the costs of creating and maintaining public school systems. In 1870, the state established the State Board of Education, which dictates rules and instructions that public education systems need to follow.

Currently, all educational institutions need to follow the regulations issued by the State Council of Education. This board directly controls the state's public school system, which is divided into different school districts. All school districts are administered directly by the counties or cities where they operate. The responsibility for providing education in less densely populated regions lies with the counties. It allows the operation of so-called "charter schools"—independent public schools, which are not managed by school districts, but which depend on public budgets for their operation. School attendance is mandatory for all children and adolescents over six years of age, until the completion of secondary education or up to sixteen years of age.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics of the United States Department of Education, in 2005-2006 the state's elementary and secondary schools served 860,020 students, employing 56,685 teachers (a ratio of 15.2 students per teacher), in a total of 1,430 schools. The state's public school system spent $9.886 million in 2004-2005, resulting in public school spending of approximately $11,500 per student. In 2000, 83.8% of the state's inhabitants over 25 years of age had a high school diploma or higher.

The first institution of higher education, Washington College, was founded in 1782. It currently has 59 institutions of higher education, of which 30 are public and 29 are private. The state's public university system is the University System of Maryland , which manages a total of 14 campuses, located in different cities. The campus of this system in College Park is considered the largest institution of higher education in the state. In Annapolis is the United States Naval Academy, which does not belong to the University System.

The first libraries were built in 1699, when a Catholic bishop ordered the construction of 30 religious libraries in the colonial province, and a central library in Annapolis. In 1885, Enoch Pratt began construction of a library system in Baltimore. He donated these libraries to the city, with the condition that they be open to the general public. This system was inaugurated the following year, being one of the first public municipal library systems in the country. It currently has 16 main and 162 secondary public library systems.



The economy is mainly and largely concentrated in the tertiary sector. The state's gross domestic product (GDP) was $212 billion in 2003. The state's per capita income was $39,447, the fourth highest in the country. The unemployment rate is 2.9%, making it the third lowest in the country. The economic, financial and industrial center of the state is Baltimore.

The primary sector accounts for 1% of GDP. Agriculture and livestock together contribute about 0.9% of the state's GDP, and employ about 53,600 people. It has about twelve thousand farms, which cover about 30% of the state. The main products grown or raised in the state are corn, soybeans, chickens, eggs and milk. Forestry only accounts for 0.10% of the state's GDP and employs approximately a thousand people. Fishing barely accounts for 0.04% of the state's GDP and employs approximately twelve hundred people. The total value of the fish caught is 56 million dollars.

The secondary sector corresponds to 14% of the GDP. The manufacturing industry accounts for 8% of the state's GDP and employs approximately 188,000 people. The total value of products manufactured in the state per year is $20 billion. The construction industry accounts for 6% of the state's GDP and employs about 204,000 people. Mining accounts for 1% of the state's GDP and employs approximately 1,200 people.

The tertiary sector accounts for 85% of GDP. Services contribute 25% of the state's GDP, and employ more than 1.2 million people. It is a great financial center. Financial and real estate services account for 21% of the state's GDP and employ nearly 250,000 people. Public services account for 17% of the state's GDP and employ more than 516,000 people. Wholesale and retail trade contribute 15% of the state's GDP and employ more than 636,000 people. Transportation, telecommunications and public utilities account for 7% of the state's GDP and employ nearly 136,000 people.

About 60% of the electricity generated in the state is produced in coal-fired thermoelectric plants, 25% in nuclear plants, and most of the rest is generated in hydroelectric plants or thermoelectric plants fired by oil or natural gas.



From the beginning of European colonization of the region, the Chesapeake Bay was a natural obstacle to transportation in the colonial province of Maryland. At the beginning of the 19th century, the first ferry services began, steamboats that traveled from one side of the bay to the other, transporting cargo and passengers. In 1829, the Chesapeake-Delaware Canal was opened, connecting the Delaware River to the Chesapeake Bay.

The main airport is Baltimore. In 1828, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was inaugurated, the first railway system in the world to transport freight and passengers in a single train. In 2002, it owned 1,223 kilometers of railway tracks. In 2003, the state owned 49,388 kilometers of public roads, of which 774 kilometers were interstate highways, considered part of the United States federal highway system.



The first newspaper was The Maryland Gazette, first published in Annapolis in 1727, running until 1734. It was one of the first newspapers published in the Thirteen Colonies. Currently, about 125 newspapers are published in the state, of which 15 are daily newspapers. More than 450 newspapers are printed in the state.

The world's first telegraph line was opened in the state in 1844, between Baltimore and Washington, D.C. The first radio station was founded in 1922, and the first television station was founded in 1947, both in Baltimore. Currently the state has 15 television channels and nearly 100 radio stations.



Previously, the Baltimore Colts played in the National Football League from 1953 to 1983. The Baltimore Ravens have competed in the competition since 1996. Likewise, the Washington Redskins play in Maryland, near the border with Washington.

Other professional sports teams include the Baltimore Orioles of Major League Baseball and the Washington Capitals of the National Hockey League. Additionally, the Washington Wizards also previously played in Maryland.

In terms of university sports, it has two outstanding programs. The Maryland Terrapins have won 11 conference titles and 11 bowl titles in football, including one Sugar Bowl and one Peach Bowl, as well as four conference championships and one national championship in men's basketball. For their part, the Navy Midshipmen have won a Sugar Bowl and a Cotton Bowl in American football.

The Preakness Stakes, one of the three Triple Crown horse races, has been held at Pimlico Race Course since 1873.

The United States Open, PGA Championship, United States Veterans Open, Veterans PGA Championship, Kemper Open and currently the Quicken Loans National have been played on the Congressional and Aronimink golf courses.



Elly Kedward (1729-February 1785) was an Irish immigrant who was banished from the town of Blair after several local children accused her, after having invited them to her home, of taking their blood. The parents of her children expelled her from the village for practicing witchcraft. The villagers tied her to a cart and pushed her into the woods in the dead of winter. The people of Blair thought she had died of cold and came back to her life. In November 1786, half of the town's children, including those who betrayed Elly, disappeared without a trace. Fearing a curse, the inhabitants of Blair left the place and swore never to speak the name of Elly Kedwards again.