New Jersey

New Jersey is a state on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. It is bordered by Delaware to the south, Pennsylvania to the east, New York State to the northeast, and the rest of the Atlantic Ocean. New Jersey is one of the fifty states that, together with Washington, D.C., make up the United States. Its capital is Trenton and its most populated city, Newark. It is located in the east-northeast of the country, in the Mid-Atlantic region. It is bordered to the north by the state of New York, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the southwest by the Delaware Bay that separates it from Delaware, and to the west by the Delaware River that separates it from Pennsylvania. With 22,588 km² it is the fourth smallest state - ahead of Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island - and with 389 inhabitants/km², the most densely populated. He was the third admitted to the Union on December 18, 1787.

It is primarily located within the extensive metropolitan areas of New York and Philadelphia. New Jersey's economy depends primarily on its manufacturing and pharmaceutical industries and the provision of transportation services. It is one of the most industrialized states in the country. Products manufactured in the state, as well as other products produced in neighboring states, are exported through ports located along the Hudson and Delaware rivers. New Jersey is also one of the national leaders in the production of chemical agents. By 2017, it was the second richest state in the country in average household income.

Tourism is also one of the main sources of income in the state. The main tourist attractions are its numerous beaches located in relatively sparsely populated regions. In addition to this, for its numerous gardens and parks, the state is nicknamed The Garden State.

More than one hundred battles and confrontations between American militias and British troops were carried out in New Jersey. The most famous of these occurred on December 26, 1776, when George Washington made his famous crossing of the Delaware River during the Battle of Trenton. After the independence of the United States, New Jersey was the third state to ratify the Constitution, on December 18, 1787.



North West Skyland Region (Counties: Sussex, Warren, Morris, Hunderdon, Somerset)
North East Gateway Region (counties: Bergen, Essex, Hudson, Passaic, Union, Middlesex)
Western Delaware River Region (Mercer, Burlington, Camden, Gloucester, Salem counties)
Eastern Shore Region (Monmouth, Ocean counties)
Greater Atlantic City (Atlantic County)
Southern Shore region in the far south (Counties: Cumberland, Cape Mahy)



1 Newark - the largest city in New Jersey, home of Newark Liberty International Airport
2 Jersey City – the second largest city in New Jersey
3 Hoboken
4 Elizabeth
5 Trenton - capital of the state of New Jersey
6 Princeton - college town
7 Atlantic City - seaside resort and gambler's paradise



With more than 9 million inhabitants on about 22,500 km² (about the size of Hesse), New Jersey is the most densely populated state in the USA. And that, although there is no really big metropolis here. Rather, much of the state is made up of a dense network of medium-sized cities, towns and suburbs that are part of the metropolitan areas of New York City to the north and Philadelphia to the south. On a larger scale, New Jersey is part of BosWash, the densely populated chain of cities that stretches from Boston to Washington.

New Jersey has a very multicultural population that has immigrated from different parts of the world over time. The largest group is that of Italian-Americans, which includes about 18% of New Jerseyans. Many Americans associate New Jersey primarily with this demographic. The stereotype of an uneducated Italian-American with a gold chain and gelled hair is called Guido, and its female counterpart is Guidette - a stereotype particularly propagated by the MTV series Jersey Shore. Of course, most real-life New Jerseyans don't like being associated with this cliché, and Guido/Guidette are considered racist swear words to be avoided. Another successful series associated with New Jersey is The Sopranos, which is about an Italian-born mafia family.


Getting here

By far the largest airport in New Jersey is Newark Liberty International Airport (IATA: EWR), which can also be reached by direct flights from Central Europe. Much smaller is Atlantic City Airport (ACY), which is only of regional importance. You can also use the nearby New York airports (John F. Kennedy International (IATA: JFK), LaGuardia internet (IATA: LGA)) or Philadelphia International Airport (IATA: PHL) to get to New Jersey.

The Northeastern Corridor of Amtrak, the busiest long-distance rail route in the United States, runs through New Jersey. The high-speed Acela Express (Boston-New York-Washington) and the slightly slower Northeast Regional run almost every hour on this. Serviced only once or a few times per day, Einzu has connections to Pittsburgh, Vermont, Chicago, the Southern States and Florida. The main train stations in New Jersey are Newark (Penn Station), Metropark Station in Iselin and Trenton.



NJ Transit operates an 11-line regional rail network covering more than 1500 km of rail network in northern and central New Jersey - the most extensive regional rail network in the United States. Central transfer points are Newark Penn Station and Secaucus Junction. In addition, NJ Transit operates three Light Rail lines, a type of tram that runs partly on its own track bed and connects several cities. They cover a total of more than 90km route network. However, the most common form of public transport is the bus network with 267 lines.

Some locations in the south of the state are served by the SEPTA Regional Rail, the metropolitan area's regional rail network. SEPTA buses also operate in the Philadelphia suburbs that are part of New Jersey.



Area, location and general information
New Jersey has a total area of 22,588 km², of which 3377 km² are bodies of water. The state borders New York to the north and northeast, where the Hudson River forms a natural boundary. To the west, New Jersey is completely separated from the states of Pennsylvania and Delaware by the Delaware River. Finally, to the south, in the Delaware Bay, and to the east, New Jersey has portions of the Atlantic.

The state is roughly in the shape of the head and torso of a human, with the head slightly bent forward. From this image, the head, which is the north of the country, is the region with the higher elevations in an otherwise flat country. Here in the Greater Appalachian Valley (also known as the Kittatinny Valley), which stretches from Alabama to the Hudson River, on the New York State border, is the High Point, New Jersey's highest mountain, which at 550 meters is the average exceeds the national level by more than seven times.

The east of the country, the catchment area of the Hudson and the largest US metropolis, New York City, is densely populated. That metropolitan area west of the Hudson already includes all four major cities in the country with Newark, Jersey City, Paterson and Elizabeth.

To the south of this begins the Atlantic coastal plain, which is more than 200 km long and is a popular holiday destination with its numerous seaside resorts. The coastal strip is relatively densely populated, especially in the northern and then again in the southern part with its numerous medium-sized towns lined up one after the other. The largest cities along the coast are Long Branch in the north and Atlantic City in the south, which is important for tourism.

Inland to the southern part, dense forests characterize the image of the state. A well-known and popular travel destination in this region are the Pine Barrens, which are protected and are associated with the myth of the Jersey Devil.



Pre-Columbian New Jersey

New Jersey was originally settled by Native Americans, and the Lenape were the dominant tribe at the time of the arrival of Europeans. The Lenape were loosely organized into groups that practiced small-scale agriculture (based primarily on growing corn), hunting, and gathering, settled primarily in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, and western Long Island Sound. The society was divided into matrilineal clans that were based on common female ancestors. These clans were organized into three different phratries, identified by their sign: turtle, turkey, and wolf. Their first contact with Europeans was with the Dutch at the beginning of the 17th century, and their main relationship was through the fur trade.


Colonial era

The Dutch were the first Europeans to claim the lands of New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherlands consisted of parts of the present-day Mid-Atlantic states. Although European ownership of land was not initially recognized by the Lenape, the Dutch West India Company required its settlers to purchase land to settle. The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronage named Pavonia along the northern river that eventually became Bergen. Peter Minuit purchases the lands along the Delaware River and establishes the colony of New Sweden. The entire region became a territory of England in 1664, when an English fleet under Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed to what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province.

During the English Civil War the island of Jersey remained loyal to the Crown and gave asylum to the king. It was from the royal square of Saint Helier that Charles II was first proclaimed king in 1649, after the execution of his father, Charles I. The lands of North America were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York (later King James II), the region between New England and Maryland. James then granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained faithful during the Civil War: George Carteret and John Berkeley. The area was named the province of New Jersey.

Since the state's creation, New Jersey has been characterized by ethnic and religious diversity. New England Congregationalists lived alongside Scottish Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While most residents lived in towns with individual 100-acre (40 ha) plots, a few wealthy people owned vast estates. Unlike Plymouth, Jamestown, and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a second wave of immigrants who came from other colonies rather than those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial period, with commercial agriculture developing only sporadically. Some municipalities such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy emerged as important ports for shipping to New York and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policies attracted more settlers, and the population increased to 120,000 by 1775.

Unlike other colonies that were settled by immigrants from Europe, New Jersey was settled by a secondary wave of settlement from communities already established in North America. On March 18, 1673, Berkeley sold half of his colony to Quakers in England, who settled as a Quaker colony in the Delaware Valley region. New Jersey was very briefly governed as two distinct provinces, East and West Jersey between 1674 and 1702, sometimes as part of the Province of New York or the Dominion of New England. In 1702 the two provinces were united under a royal colony. Edward Hyde, Lord of Cornbury, became the colony's first governor. The Lord of Cornbury was an ineffective and corrupt ruler, accepting bribes and land speculation, so in 1708 he was recalled to England. New Jersey was then governed by the governors of New York, but this angered New Jersey settlers who accused the governors of favoritism to New York. Judge Lewis Morris led the case for an independent governor, and was appointed governor by King George II in 1738.



Today the state of New Jersey is one of the richest and most advanced in the US. Its wealth is due to the proximity of the cities of New York and Philadelphia.

Its more than 8.8 million inhabitants are very diverse. It is an important destination for foreign immigrants to the United States. There is a large Hispanic population, and also many Chinese and Haitians. New Jersey is also home to one of the largest Italian communities in the country. It also has a reputation for being one of the most liberal and tolerant states in the nation. The state revoked the death penalty in December 2007.



The state of New Jersey has a population of 8,791,894 inhabitants (2010), representing an increase of 4.5% compared to the 2000 census population (8,414,350). New Jersey has an area of 19,047.4 km² and a population density of 461.6 inhabitants/km², making it the most densely populated state in the United States. It has an urban population of 8,324,126 inhabitants (94.7%) and a rural population of 467,768 inhabitants (5.3%). The ethnic distribution of the state is made up of:
68.6% white
13.7% African American or black
0.3% Amerindians or Native Americans
8.3% Asian
6.4% from other ethnicities
2.7% from two or more ethnicities



Its agricultural products include vegetables and fruits (specifically eggplant and blueberries), seafood, and dairy products. Its primary industrial products are: pharmaceutical and chemical products, and tourism. The state is famous for its beautiful beaches, collectively called the Jersey Shore.



Development towards the supremacy of the Democrats
Like Connecticut, New Jersey, formerly a swing state, has become a democratically dominated state in recent years.

At the state level, Republican Chris Christie was elected governor in 2009 and was confirmed in office in 2013 with a clear majority. The Democrats are clearly focusing on the large industrial cities of Newark and Jersey City in the New York metropolitan area, as this is where one of their classic target groups, the middle and lower class working class and ethnic minorities, is very well represented. New Jersey has 14 electoral votes in presidential elections.

Democrats Bob Menendez and Cory Booker currently represent the state in the US Senate. The latter won the by-election for the late Frank Lautenberg's mandate against Republican Steve Lonegan.

The United States House of Representatives in the 116th Congress includes one Republican and eleven Democrats from New Jersey.

In December 2007, a majority of the New Jersey Legislature (Senate and House of Representatives) voted to abolish the death penalty.



New Jersey is the hub of several major highways and rail lines, especially the Northeast Corridor. The "New Jersey Turnpike" is one of the best-known and most used highways in the United States. Commonly referred to as "The Turnpike", it is also known for its numerous rest areas, individually named after prominent natural-born citizens of the state, as diverse as inventor Thomas Edison; United States Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton; United States Presidents such as Grover Cleveland and Woodrow Wilson; writers James Fenimore Cooper, Joyce Kilmer among others.

The "Garden State Parkway", or simply "The Parkway", carries much more state traffic and crosses the state from the town of Montvale (in northern New Jersey), to the southernmost tip in Cape May for a total of 172 .4 miles. It is the main road that connects New York with Atlantic City.

Other freeways in New Jersey include the Atlantic City Expressway, the Palisades Interstate Parkway, Interstate 76, Interstate 78, Interstate 80, Interstate 95 (called the "New Jersey Turnpike"), Interstate 195, Interstate 280, Interstate 287, and Interstate 295.

There is also a state corporation (NJ Transit) that runs many buses and trains across the state. Newark Liberty International Airport is in the city of Newark and is one of the largest airports in the United States.



In the major professional leagues, the only team identified with New Jersey is the New Jersey Devils, which competes in the National Hockey League and is based in Newark. However, several New York teams have used New Jersey stadiums for their home games: the New York Giants and New York Jets of the National Football League, located in East Rutherford, and the New York Red Bulls of the Major League Soccer, which they play in Harrison. Previously, the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association played in East Rutherford and Newark.

The three most prominent college teams in New Jersey are the Rutgers Scarlet Knights, Princeton Tigers, and Seton Hall Pirates.

Since 2008, several editions of the Barclays PGA Tour have been played in New Jersey. Likewise, Baltusrol has hosted seven editions of the United States Open.

Trenton Speedway was an oval that hosted AAA National Championship, USAC National Championship, CART and NASCAR Grand National races in the 1940s to 1970s. Additionally, the Meadowlands Grand Prix was a CART street race 1984 until 1991.

There is a project to hold the Formula 1 American Grand Prix on a street circuit in Port Imperial.