New York

New York is a state on the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. It is bordered to the north and northwest by the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario, to the east by the states of Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut (from north to south), and to the south by Pennsylvania and New Jersey. New York is the state's largest city, making it the third most populous in the United States. In addition to the Atlantic coast, New York has an inland coast to the large lakes of Ontario and Erie.



Western New York
With Lake Erie and the famous Niagara Falls.
Buffalo Jamestown Niagara Falls Rochester

finger lakes
Named south-east of Lake Ontario after the 11 finger-shaped lakes and the most important wine-growing region in New York.
Auburn Canandaigua Geneva Ithaca Penn Yan Seneca Falls Waterloo

Southern beast
West of the Catskill Mountains and along the Pennsylvania border.
Binghamton · Elmira

Central New York
Region in the heart of Upstate New York with some of the state's must-see cities.
Syracuse Oneida Rome Utica

North Country
The extreme north of New York State just before Canada. Located in the St. Lawrence River, the Thousand Islands form one of the most attractive travel destinations in New York State.
Canton Malone Massena Ogdensburg Plattsburg Watertown

Adirondack Mountains
Dream destination for all outdoor fans: hiking, ice skating and mountaineering included.
Saranac Lake · Lake Placid

Capital District
Around Albany, the capital of the US state of New York.
Amsterdam Glens Falls Rensselaer Saratoga Springs Schenectady Troy

Catskill Mountains
Traditional vacation spot for New Yorkers.
Kingston · Catskill · Woodstock

Shawangunk Ridge
Ridge northwest of New York City.
Middletown Monticello (New York)

Hudson Valley
River valley in the east of the state that has earned the Hudson the nickname "The Rhine of America".
Mt Vernon Newburgh New Rochelle Poughkeepsie Yonkers

Largest metropolis, financial center and cultural capital of the USA.

long Island
Well, every metropolis of millions must also have villa suburbs.



New York City

Albany – Capital of the state
Buffalo – in the west of the state on Lake Erie, "...the swallow is flying over Lake Erie" and..."twenty minutes to Buffalo." Almost everyone knows it from German class and John Maynard is better known here than Fontane, from whom the poem is from.
Syracuse - Central transportation hub of the state
Rochester - University town near Lake Ontario
Niagara Falls - Small town at the falls of the same name


Other destinations

Adirondack State Park is located in a state of New York in United States. It covers an area of 6.1 million acres.

Abandoned ruins of Bannerman Castle is a picturesque structure that implements architecture of the European castle in United States.

Fort Stanwix is a historic military stronghold located in Rome, New York in USA. This star shaped fort covers an area of 16 acres (6.5 ha).

Fort Ticonderoga is a French citadel constructed in 1755- 58 in Ticonderoga, New York State in United States.

Lake Champlain located on the border between Vermont and New York states is claimed to be home of a legendary serpent.

North Brother Island is famous for its abandoned hospital that quarantined patient with transmissible diseases. It most famous patient was typhoid Mary.

Niagara Falls that is located on the border of USA and Canada is one of the most powerful and picturesque waterfalls in the World.

Saratoga National Historic Park protects a site of a battle that was fought here during Revolutionary War.

Smallpox Hospital is an abandoned building of a former medical facility located on Roosevelt Island in the heart of New York City in a state of New York.

Taughannock Falls State Park is famous for its pristine forests and majestic waterfall as well as many other activities available in the park.


What to do

New York City, with its four seasons, offers a wide variety of activities throughout the year. Of course, the busiest time of the year is summer, and it is a wonderful one at that, but each borough has something to keep residents and visitors occupied even in the dead of winter.

New York City is the cultural center of the country, let alone the state, with countless theaters and world-renowned sports teams. None of the upstate cities can match in name recognition or prominence, but they all have enough top-notch attractions and amenities to support tourism. When it comes to recreation, the Big Apple is no match for the natural scenery of the Upstate.

The Catskill and Adirondack Mountains are ideal for hiking and camping, and the state's many waterways, including Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, the Erie Canal, and the Hudson River, see regular boat traffic during the summer months. Hunting and fishing are also big businesses in the northern part of the state.

For winter sports enthusiasts, New York will never be mistaken for Colorado, but the unique glacial terrain and mountainous Adirondacks of western New York offer significant skiing. The Herb Brooks Arena, which has hosted two Winter Olympics and was the site of the 1980 Miracle on Ice, where the amateur U.S. Olympic field hockey team defeated the professional Soviet team in a stunning upset and subsequent gold-medal game.

The entire region is dotted with small towns and villages of historic character, with more than 100 wineries among them. The region produces perhaps the best Riesling outside of Germany, and Finger Lakes Icewine is growing in popularity. Wine tours, which allow visitors to visit several wineries in one trip, attract many visitors, and the region has a growing number of small craft breweries, distilleries, and even cidery breweries. The state's second largest wine-producing region, Peconic and its suburbs in eastern Suffolk County, Long Island, also produce some very good wines.

New York agriculture is also on display at a number of county fairs held in late summer. The fair is the third largest (and one of the oldest) in the nation and rivals the Great New York State Fair (held in suburban Syracuse).



New Yorkers love all kinds of sports. Of course, American football, baseball, and basketball get the most attention, as they do throughout the United States, but soccer, ice hockey, and lacrosse are growing in popularity, especially among young people.

New York is naturally the center of professional sports, and fans of Big Apple sports teams can be found throughout the state! The Yankees and Mets in baseball, the Knicks and Nets in basketball, the Rangers in hockey, and New York City FC in soccer all play in the city. The New York Islanders hockey team plays on Long Island, a suburb of New York City, while the Jets and Giants football teams and the Red Bulls soccer team play in North Jersey, a suburb of the city, as do the New Jersey Devils (field hockey).

In the North, sports businesses are smaller and more localized. Buffalo has two major teams, the Buffalo Bills (football) and the Buffalo Sabers (field hockey), both of which have large fan bases as far east as Syracuse.

Baseball is the largest professional sport in the northern part of the state. Buffalo, Rochester, and Syracuse all have AAA clubs with near big league talent at minor league prices. Binghamton has an AA club, and Auburn, Batavia, Fishkill, and Troy have Single-A short-season teams (as does Brooklyn, New York).

Hockey is also thriving in upstate cities. Rochester, Syracuse, Utica, Binghamton, and Albany all have American Hockey League teams, the second level of professional hockey, while Elmira and Glens Falls have third-level ECHL teams. New York is also a hotbed of amateur field hockey, and no state has as many college field hockey teams as New York; 10 New York colleges and universities play Division I men's hockey, eight play women's hockey, and 14 have D-III teams.

New York high schools have produced many outstanding lacrosse players, which is reflected in the growing popularity of professional lacrosse. Rochester and Buffalo have National Lacrosse League indoor teams, and Rochester and Hempstead (Long Island) have Major League Lacrosse outdoor teams.

Soccer is popular among New York City youth, but professional soccer has not penetrated the city very well. Rochester has a top-level women's team and a second-level men's team; New York has a top-level and a second-level men's team (top-level women's and men's teams also play in New Jersey).



New York State has no national parks (the closest being Cuyahoga Valley National Park near Cleveland, Ohio) but 101 state parks, offering hiking and other recreational opportunities in often beautiful scenery. The two largest parks are the Adirondack SP (24,000 km²) and the Catskill SP (2,800 km²).

The largest number of parks can be found in the North Country, including four on Lake Ontario (Long Point SP, Sackets Harbor Battlefield SP, Southwich Beach SP, Westcott Beach SP), several in the Thousand Islands (Burnham Point SP, Canoe Point And Picnic Point SP, Cedar Island SP, Cedar Point SP, Grass Point SP, Keewaydin Point SP, Kring Point SP, Mary Island SP, Wellesley Island SP), others further along the Saint Lawrence River (Jacques Cartier SP, Robert Moses SP, Saint Lawrence SP), at the foot of the Adirondacks (Higley Flow SP, Sand Flats SP, Whetstone Gulf SP) and further east towards Lake Champlain (Cumberland Bay SP, Miner Lake SP).

Western New York has the oldest and most famous New York State Park: Niagara Falls SP, but a number of others, namely on the Niagara River (Brydges SP, Devils Hole SP, Fort Niagara SP, Fourmile Creek SP, Joseph Davis SP, Lower Niagara River SP, Whirlpool SP), on Lake Ontario (Braddock Bay SP, Golden Hill SP, Hamlin Beach SP, Lakeside Beach SP), on Grand Island (Beaver Island SP, Buckhorn Island SP), on Lake Erie (Evangola SP, Lake Erie SP) and on the Pennsylvania border (Allegany SP). Arguably the most beautiful parks, however, are in the Finger Lakes area: Letchworth SP and Watkins Glen SP offer dramatic rocky gorges through which torrential waters tumble; other parks (Buttermilk Falls SP, Fillmore Glen SP, Taughannock Falls SP) are slightly smaller versions of similar scenarios. There is also a Lake Ontario park (Fair Haven Beach SP), Finger Lakes shore parks (Cayuga Lake SP, Sampson SP, Seneca Lake SP, Silver Lake SP) and a historical monument (Boyd-Parker SP). The adjoining Southern Tier has three parks (Chenango Valley SP, Gilbert Lake SP, Stony Brook SP), each of which has very different bodies of water.

In Central New York one finds parks on Lake Ontario (Selkirk Shores SP) and other lake shores (Clark Reservation SP, Green Lakes SP, Verona Beach SP), on river banks (Battle Island SP), in gorges and waterfalls (Boonville Gorge SP, Chittenango Falls SP) and two historical parks (Erie Canal SP, Fort Brewerton SP). The 9 state parks in the Capital District include historical parks (Clermont SP, Saratoga Spa SP, Sir William Johnson SP), waterfront parks (Lake George Beach SP, Lake Taghkanic SP, Moreau Lake SP, Peebles Island SP), and landscape-only parks ( Max V Shaul SP, Thacher SP). The Hudson Valley offers parks directly on the Hudson River (Mills Memorial SP/Norrie SP, Palisades Interstate Park, Rockland Lake SP, Stony Point SP, Storm King SP), a historical park (Mohansic SP), high altitude parks (Bear Mountain SP, High Tor SP , Hook Mountain SP, Hudson Highlands SP, Taconic SP, Tallman Mountain SP) and other landscape parks (Blauvelt SP, Clarence Fahnestock Memorial SP, James Baird SP).

There are no state parks in the metropolitan area of New York City. But there is all the more on Long Island: on the coast (Captree SP, Gilgo SP, Heckscher SP, Hither Hills SP, Jones Beach SP, Orient Beach SP, Sunken Meadow SP, Wildwood SP), on inland waters (Belmont Lake SP, Hempstead Lake SP) and interior landscape parks (Bethpage SP, Caumsett SP, Valley Stream SP).


What to do

The Metropolitan Opera (Met) in New York City is world famous. There are also a number of other opera houses in and around NYC. On the other hand, opera fans are by no means dependent on the big city. Interesting offers can also be found in Upstate. West to Southeast (i.e. towards New York City):

Chautauqua Opera Festival, Chautauqua (summer opera, July and August only)
Syracuse Opera, Syracuse (the premier opera house in Upstate)
Tri-cities Opera, Binghamton
Glimmerglass Opera, Cooperstown (upstate's premier summer opera, July and August only)
Opera Saratoga, Saratoga Springs (Summer Opera, June only)
Caramoor International Music Festival, Katonah (Summer Opera)



New York is mostly known only as a city and less as a state. This state, which was one of the original 13 British colonies, is more than worth seeing. The area of the present state was inhabited by the Lenape, Algonquian and Iroquois tribes before colonization by Europeans. Originally founded by the Dutch in 1621 as the colony of Nieuw Nederland, the area fell to the English in 1664. They share territory in New Jersey and New York, named after the Duke of York. In 1685 New York became a crown colony and three years later became part of the Dominion of New England. One hundred years later, New York becomes the 11th state to become a member of the United States of America. Overall, about a third of the combat operations of the American Revolutionary War took place in New York.



There is no official language in the state of New York; the most spoken language is American English.


Getting here

Plane: Usually you fly to New York City (JFK, Newark or LaGuardia). Buffalo (BUF), Albany (ALB), Rochester (ROC) and Syracuse (SYR) airports are located in the Upstate, but these are only accessible by domestic flights.
Rail: Numerous long-distance Amtrak trains - from Washington, New England, the Midwest, the South States or Canada - serve New York Penn Station. The only high-speed train in the USA (Acela Express) runs on the Boston-NYC-Philadelphia-Washington, DC route. From the direction of Chicago, Montreal or Toronto, trains also run through the northern part of the state (Albany, partly also Syracuse, Rochester, Buffalo).
Road: Interstate 87 connects New York City (260 km) to Montreal, Canada (350 km), while Interstate 90 crosses the state from Springfield, Massachusetts (140 km) in the east through Syracuse (230 km) to Buffalo in the west .



New York is a large state, but not so large that it cannot be traveled by car. The trip from Buffalo to New York City takes about 7 hours, which is certainly too long for a day trip, but a weekend trip is possible with a private car. It is certainly too long for a day trip, but a weekend trip is possible for the enthusiast. Another option is to take a small regional jet from one of the northern cities to New York City. Amtrak also runs trains between five major cities, providing an intermediate solution. However, if you are heading to a more suburban area, you will probably need to drive.


In the case of cars

The main regions of the state are well served by the interstate highway network, with state highways running between all but the smallest villages. Highways are mostly limited to interstate highways, with a few exceptions.

In New York City, highway exits are still sequentially numbered; you can go much farther than 26 miles by looking for Exit 2 to Exit 28.

Most gas stations in New York, as elsewhere in the country, are self-service only. The state fuel tax (incorporated into the listed price, as in the rest of the U.S.) is only imposed on the portion of a gallon over $2.00.


Major Routes

The most important highway in New York is the New York State Thruway, which runs on I-90 west from the Pennsylvania border northeast to Buffalo, then east past Rochester, through Syracuse, and on to Albany I-90 continues to Boston, where the Thruway turns south on I-87 to New York City. The Thruway is a toll road for most of its length and is a major route connecting major cities in the upstate and is often used to travel to and from New York. The toll is about 4 cents a mile (2 cents a kilometer, for example, from downtown Buffalo to downtown Albany, $13.10 for a car without a trailer). Most New Yorkers complain about this fee, but pay it anyway for the efficiency of this route offers.

To avoid leaving the highway (and paying tolls) before reaching their destination, the Thruway is dotted with large service plazas every 35-50 miles (55-80 km). Each has two or three restaurants/snack stands (at least one open all night), a gift store, and a convenience store. Burger King, Tim Hortons, Roy Rogers, and TCBY are the most common. There are vending machines, free Wi-Fi, and of course gas stations. Prices are all high, but that's the advantage of having a monopoly on the market.

To get to New York from the west, the Southern Tier Expressway (I-86) is cheaper, but somewhat slower. East of Binghamton, one encounters a few multi-level crossings, but the route is still fast and toll-free.

If you want to avoid the toll roads and drive through areas where the Thruway passes, take State Route 5, which begins as a continuation of the similarly numbered Pennsylvania State Highway at the state line along Lake Erie and ends in downtown Albany near the state capitol . Most of the cross-state route is relatively close to the Thruway.

The slowest but most "interesting" route across the state is U.S. Route 20, which runs concurrently with Route 5 in some areas, especially north of the Finger Lakes. As a route that traverses the northern U.S. from coast to coast, it encompasses roughly the same locations as today's Interstate 90. However, U.S. 20 is much older, passing through the middle of countless old villages south of the Thruway, often further south than Route 5. Most of the sections in New York State are simple two-lane highways, but if you have the time and patience, they may be more interesting than the long stretches of nothingness along the Thruway and Southern Tier Expressway.

I-81 and I-87 are the major north-south routes; I-81 runs south from the Thousand Islands on the Canadian border through Syracuse and Binghamton to Pennsylvania; I-87 (known as the Northway north of Albany) connects Montreal, Quebec, with Albany and I-88 runs diagonally from northeast to southwest, connecting Binghamton and Albany. The only significant east-west route across the state is U.S. 11, which branches off I-81 at Watertown and heads northeast and then east.

In western New York, Rochester is served by I-390 south to Corning. From Buffalo, it is either southwest on I-90 or south on U.S. Route 219, part of which has been upgraded to an interstate. (If heading southeast, take the Thruway to I-390.)


State Routes

New York has an extensive network of state routes, and most counties are served by county roads. Most villages are located at the intersection of two or more state routes, and signs are usually clear, so finding your way to a particular location is relatively easy. State and county roads are well maintained (and plowed in winter) and are rarely far from civilization. It is sometimes possible to build an interesting itinerary simply by following a particular route as far as it will take you.

Generally, single and double-digit state routes are the main routes, but there are many exceptions. Major interstate routes include the 3, 5, 7, 17, and 104.



New York's municipalities are well prepared for winter weather, but sometimes the weather can be so severe that even professional staff cannot keep up. In New York City, when they tell you to shut down the streets, they mean it. During less severe winter storms, drive slowly and carefully. If possible, follow the snowplows (at a safe distance).

Cell phone service can be spotty in the northern part of the state. Be aware that you may not be able to easily call for help on the highways in this area.

Miscellaneous Traffic Laws

State law requires that headlights be on when wipers are activated.
Drivers, front seat passengers, and children sitting anywhere must wear seat belts in the first instance.
The use of cell phones while driving is prohibited. Hands-free cell phones are permitted, but special care must be taken in their use.
Right turns on red lights are permitted after a stop sign, except when there is a sign such as "Do not turn on red light. In New York City, however, this rule is reversed.
Right turns on red lights are prohibited.
Left-turning vehicles must yield to oncoming traffic unless the left arrow is green.
The state speed limit is 55 mph unless otherwise posted, just as rural highways are 65 mph. The speed limit on public roads is generally 30 mph in cities and villages, although it can be 35-45 mph in the suburbs, and the default speed limit in New York City is 25 mph. In school zones, speeds may be limited to 15-45 mph during school hours from 7 am to 6 pm.
New York City has "safe and cautious" speed limits, so in inclement weather, even if you are under the speed limit, you may be pulled over if you appear to be slipping or struggling to maintain control of your vehicle.



Amtrak provides passenger rail service primarily between the "Big 5" cities. However, if you are outside the Erie Canal/Mohawk River/Hudson River corridor, you are probably out of luck.

The Lakeshore Limited from Chicago stops in Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse, Utica, Schenectady, and Albany, from where passengers can transfer to a train to Boston or continue their journey to Penn Station in New York (stopping in Croton-on-Hudson) The Empire Service will stop in Niagara Falls, Niagara County. The Empire Service will originate in Niagara Falls, but will follow the same route as the Lakeshore Limited to Buffalo, with a few additional stops along the way. The Maple Leaf is the same as the Empire Service except it continues across the Canadian border to Toronto.

The Adirondack Line runs from New York to Montreal, mostly along I-87. The Ethan Allen Express splits from the Adirondack route and goes to Vermont, not Quebec.


By Bus

Trailways of New York (Adirondacks, Pine Hills, NY) ☏ +1 716 855-7533, toll-free: +1-800-776-7548. The largest intrastate bus operator, serving several cities and towns in New York State on multiple routes.
Coach USA Shortline. In addition to Megabus, Coach USA also operates shortline commuter buses from Rockland, Orange, and Sullivan Counties, New York; Bergen County, New Jersey; and Pike County, Pennsylvania to midtown, downtown, East Side, and Wall Street in Manhattan; Monticello, Shortline operates as a long-distance bus service from Binghamton, Ithaca, Orwego, Elmira, Corning, Alfred, and other locations.
Megabus, toll-free +1-877-462-6342. operates between New York and Toronto via Binghamton, Syracuse, Rochester, Ithaca, and Buffalo.
Greyhound, toll-free +1-800-231-2222. between New York and Toronto via Binghamton, Syracuse, Rochester, Ithaca, Geneva, and Buffalo; New York to Montreal via Albany, Glen Falls, and Plattsburgh New York to Montreal via Albany, Glen Falls, and Plattsburgh. Another route between Boston and Cleveland makes stops in Albany, Utica, Syracuse, and Buffalo.
Hampton Jitney, ☏ +1 631-283-4600, from multiple stops in Manhattan and Brooklyn to various locations on eastern Long Island.


By Boat

Each year, thousands of travelers use the New York State Canal System to cruise the calm waters for a few hours, days, or even weeks, visiting various villages and cities along the way. From New York City, one can travel up the Hudson River to the Great Lakes and beyond via this waterway. You can also make side trips to the Finger Lakes and Lake Champlain in western New York and Vermont. Canoes, kayaks, and other small watercraft are available on these canals.

The crown jewel of the canal system is the famous Erie Canal, which has been in operation for nearly two centuries. The Erie Canal runs from Buffalo to the Hudson River in Albany, but there are also several smaller canals that connect the Erie Canal to other waterways. The Cayuga-Seneca Canal leads to the Finger Lakes, the Oswego Canal to Lake Ontario, and the Champlain Canal to Lake Champlain. This extensive network means that, in theory, one can see all six major cities in the state from a boat.

The canal is drained and closed each winter from November 16 to April 30. The canal opens at 7:00 AM and closes between 5:00 PM and 10:00 PM, depending on the season. For information and conditions of the canal, call toll-free☏ +1-800-422-6254 (1-800-4CANAL4).

There are locks and sometimes lift bridges throughout the canal; 2-day, 10-day, and all-season passes are available, with prices depending on the length of the boat. Permits can be purchased in advance by mail or in person at any Canal Corporation Section office. Many of these offices are located next to locks and bridges, but not all of them. A list of offices and mailing forms are available on the Canal's website. permit fees as of 2017



English is the predominant language in the state. The most commonly spoken English in the state is New York City English. This dialect has a unique pronunciation system and is known to differ slightly in grammar and vocabulary from standard English. New Yorkers tend to say stand-on-line, while most English speakers tend to say stand-in-line. Also, in New York City, where many Ashkenazi Jews live, Yiddish expressions are often used. For example, west of Syracuse, carbonated drinks tend to be called "pop" rather than "soda.

Spanish is widely spoken in the state due to immigration from Latin American countries (primarily Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic). Spanish speakers are most prevalent in large cities, especially in New York City, and are also evident in the Hudson Valley.

Hundreds of languages are spoken in New York City. There is hardly a major language that is not spoken there.



New York City is a treasure trove of shopping. New York City's Midtown Manhattan, of course, is home to world-renowned fashion and retail stores. Elsewhere in the state, many of the same brands offer discounts at outlet malls like Woodbury Common in Orange County, a popular day trip from New York City, and even further upstate at Waterloo and Niagara Falls. There are also many shopping malls in the suburbs of New York City, as well as in Albany and Buffalo in upstate New York. Rural towns such as the Catskills and Finger Lakes have unique antique stores.


Sales Tax

The state levies a 4% sales tax, most often topped by a county sales tax of approximately the same amount. New York City levies the tax, but most cities do not. In Dutchess, Nassau, Orange, Putnam, Rockland, Suffolk, and Westchester counties, an additional 0.375% is added to support the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, which provides commuter rail service. As a practical matter, sales tax rates range from 7% in some counties north of Albany to 8.875% in New York City and Yonkers.

Although the sales tax rates vary considerably, what is subject to sales tax is consistent throughout the state. For example, bagels that are bought at a deli, taken home, and eaten as desired are exempt from tax, but sliced and topped with cream cheese are taxed (most unheated foods and foods sold for eating outside the store are also exempt from tax) . For more information on foods that are and are not taxed in New York, click here. Clothing and footwear are taxable on purchases over $110, an exemption designed to address the fact that four of the six states that exempt clothing from sales tax are adjacent to New York State (this only applies to the state tax portion, and counties have the option to do so, not all counties do so).

In addition to the sales tax levy, soda and bottled water containers are subject to a 5-cent deposit. These containers may be returned in the same manner as alcoholic beverage containers described in the "Beverages" section above. As in other states that charge this deposit, you do not have to be the purchaser to claim the refunded deposit, making this a great way to earn a small amount in a pinch, as long as you don't mind getting your hands dirty.



New York City's diversity is on full display when considering its cuisine. Of course, with the arrival of so many immigrants, New York is home to some of the most authentic and diverse ethnic cuisines in the country. But even in cities not known for their upstate diversity, one can find a wide variety of cuisines.

American cuisine is ubiquitous, with the exception of such neighborhoods as Chinatown and Little Italy in New York City. Italian food (much of which is admittedly Americanized) is also found throughout the state. Asian food is mostly Chinese and Japanese, although there are some Thai and Indian restaurants in the larger cities. Greek food is readily available, mostly in family restaurants, and there is also a wide variety of American and Italian food. The North Country also has some French-Canadian-influenced cuisine.

Notably, each city in the northern part of the state has its own local cuisine. Buffalo is famous for its chicken wings, of course, but "beef on weck" is also a specialty. Rochester has "white hots" and the late-night favorite "garbage plate. Syracuse has the "Salt Potatoes," the Utica-Rome area has the "Chicken Riggies," the "Spidey," which originated in Binghamton, and Plattsburgh has the "Michigan" hot dog. While perhaps not as famous as Philadelphia's cheesesteaks, most of these local favorites are worth trying, if only for a taste of the local "flavor. Take a look at the Upstate Eats Trail.

From the Finger Lakes region to the North Country, Amish and Mennonite communities offer fresh vegetables, fruits, and baked goods, often found at roadside farm stands and farmers' markets. And New York City is well known for its New York-style pizza, pastrami, bagels, pretzels, cheesecakes, danishes, black and whites, and other specialties.

Many tourists do not realize that New York still has a very large agricultural industry. New York State is one of the nation's top producers of apples, grapes, milk, sweet corn, and maple syrup. To highlight New York-grown food and beverages, the state has implemented the Taste NY program to provide consumers, especially tourists, with a taste of the state. There are Taste NY stores (or shelves) in several service areas along the Thruway, at airports throughout the state, and at New York's Grand Central Terminal. You can also find Taste NY stands at farmers' markets (including a large market in Manhattan's Union Square three times each week) and at more than five minor league ballparks.



New York State is the third largest wine producer in the United States, behind California and Washington State. The Finger Lakes is the largest wine-producing region in the state, and there is also a substantial wine industry in Peconic, consisting of the Long Island divide and the adjacent countryside at the eastern end of Suffolk County. The oldest wine region is the Hudson Valley, which still has several wineries.

The Ommegang brewery in Cooperstown produces an excellent Belgian-style ale, and the Brooklyn Brewery makes a solid lager.

Whiskey is also produced in New York. Bating Hollow on Long Island produces excellent whiskey, and Hudson's in the Hudson Valley produces excellent, if pricey, whiskey and rye.

New York, a major apple-producing state, also produces both unfermented and hard ciders, but the best way to get these ciders is to buy them fresh from an apple orchard or at a bar specializing in hard ciders.

All alcoholic beverages are subject to sales and excise taxes. In addition, a 5-cent deposit is charged on all single-serving size containers, with the exception of hard cider. This deposit is refundable upon return of the bottle or can to the supermarket. Supermarkets usually have machines for this purpose, but there are also a growing number of for-profit redemption centers.

Compared to some neighboring states, New York's liquor laws are fairly lax.

The drinking age is 21, the same as in other states. Minors are not allowed to sell alcohol or loiter in liquor stores, even if accompanied by an adult.
Beer and low-alcohol beverages can be purchased at supermarkets, drugstores, and convenience stores. Liquor stores are prohibited by law from selling beer. They also cannot accept returns, so all sales are final.
Also, in New York, every liquor store must be owned by one actual person who lives within a certain distance of the store, and that person can only have one license. This effectively prohibits chain liquor stores.
Liquor stores must be closed at least one day a week. Most liquor stores are closed on Sundays, even though they are no longer required to be closed on Sundays.
Unlike many other states, New York does not require breweries to use their own brewery-specific growlers if they pour their beer or ale into a growler for off-store consumption. Certain convenience stores can also fill growlers with beer.
State law requires that bars must close at 4:00 a.m., but individual counties and municipalities may have earlier closing times. In most counties, alcohol cannot be sold before noon on Sundays, and all sales for off-store consumption are prohibited between 3:00 AM and 6:00 AM.
In New York State, counties cannot prohibit alcohol, but towns can, to varying degrees (for example, West Almond in Cattaraugus County prohibits the sale of alcohol outside stores, while several other towns prohibit alcohol sales inside stores). Most of the completely alcohol-free areas are located in remote, sparsely populated rural areas, where travelers are unlikely to visit without a specific reason.
In New York State, driving while intoxicated is a crime. The maximum blood alcohol level is .08, but if you are overtly intoxicated, you can be cited for DUI even at .05. The blood alcohol level for minors under the age of 21 is .02. It is also illegal to drive with an open container of alcoholic beverage in the car, regardless of who is drinking.
Hunting while intoxicated or incapacitated is also against the law and can result in jail time.


Stay safe

Whether you are using a wireless or landline phone, dialing 9-1-1 is free and will connect you to local police, fire, and ambulance in the event of an emergency.
In New York State, it is illegal to use a cell phone while driving a motor vehicle or riding a bicycle, unless it is a hands-free cell phone. Violators are subject to hefty fines, but enforcement varies widely from state to state. Texting while driving is also prohibited. The state has installed limited free Wi-Fi at all interstate rest stops to provide an alternative for drivers.
Deer are very common in New York and pose a threat to drivers, especially at night. To reduce the likelihood of accidents, please slow down at night in suburban and rural areas.
Stay away from wild animals, especially if they are unusually friendly or confused. Rabies can occur in animals. Seek medical attention immediately, especially if you are bitten by a raccoon, bat, skunk, fox, or dog.
Upstate New York is home to several species of venomous snakes, including the copperhead, eastern massasauga, and timber rattlesnake. It is rare to encounter these snakes, but if you are bitten, seek medical attention immediately.
Also watch out for black widow spiders and seek medical attention if bitten.
Rifles and Shotguns In contrast to neighboring New Jersey, which has virtually zero tolerance for firearms of any kind, New York (except for New York City) has a policy of welcoming long guns (rifles and shotguns) except for so-called "assault weapons" " Rifles and shotguns are not allowed. Rifles and shotguns must be unloaded and cased in the trunk of a vehicle while being transported, and may be carried outdoors during hunting and target shooting. See the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation website for the appropriate hunting license. The same cannot be said for handguns.
Handguns Do not bring a handgun into New York State without a New York State handgun license. New York State handguns must be registered and are listed on your personal handgun license. Unregistered handguns cannot be used in New York State (even if you are a license holder) and you may not carry a handgun in New York State without a license. New York State does not recognize any out-of-state licenses. Air travelers who live in neighboring Vermont and use Albany International Airport as their closest airport to home have been arrested when checking in with the airline for having a handgun in their checked luggage.



New York is the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement in the United States, which was sparked by the Stonewall Rebellion of 1969. New York and the New England states were among the earliest U.S. states to legally recognize same-sex marriage. The majority of New Yorkers are socially tolerant and accustomed to diversity, even in upstate areas considered more conservative than New York City.

It is important to remember that New York City was one of the targets of the 9/11 attacks in 2001, and the memory of 9/11 is still fresh in the minds of New Yorkers, especially New Yorkers; some may not want to talk about 9/11, while others will gladly share their personal stories.



In summer, i. H. from June, you can expect sunshine and temperatures around 20-30 °C in New York State; it is often even warmer in the New York Metropolitan Area. Copious use of sunscreen lotion with a high sun protection factor and air conditioning in the car are essential. Under no circumstances should children be left in the car.

However, New York State's scenery is at its most scenic during Indian Summer. That's what they call early autumn in the American East, when the greening foliage offers a spectacular play of colors. This spectacle usually reaches its peak in mid-October and lasts little more than 2 weeks; after that the trees are quickly defoliated. This can be followed by more or less violent storms.

The first snow often falls in late October and November, but it can only be reliably expected at the end of December. In the northern part of New York, blizzards, heavy snowfalls, often bring 30 cm of fresh snow overnight. On the edge of the Great Lakes (Lake Erie, Lake Ontario), more than 50 cm of fresh snow often falls overnight. Many parts of upstate New York, such as the Adirondack Mountains, offer excellent winter skiing. Morning temperatures of -25°C are not uncommon in New York, and it can get even colder in the North Country. In the event that you get stuck in the snow, you shouldn't travel by car without woolen blankets.

By the end of March the snow is mostly over (locals can't stand the color white by that time either) and April can bring changeable weather similar to Germany. The first warm days with temperatures above 20 °C usually follow in May. There may be isolated tornadoes in early summer, but they are far less common here than in the south.



By the time the Europeans appeared, the Indian tribes of the Iroquois and Algonquins lived in these places. The development of the region by Europeans began with the exploration of the Hudson (Hudson) River. Giovanni Verrazano visited New York Bay in 1524. In 1609, the navigator Henry Hudson, who served with the Dutch, came down the river to the place where the city of Albany is now located. Here in 1614-1618 there was the first settlement of Fort Nassau. In 1621, this territory was included in the Dutch colonial possessions in North America, called New Netherland. In 1626, the city of New Amsterdam (the future New York) was founded, which became the center of the Dutch colonies. This territory became the object of a long Anglo-Dutch struggle. In 1664, the Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant, under pressure from the British fleet, surrendered the colony to the British. From 1664 (except 1673-1674) it was owned by the British, who gave their new colony the name New York. In 1664, the territory now known as the state of New Jersey was separated from the colony, a year later the border between New York and Connecticut was established, which has not changed since. In 1688, New York, along with other colonies, became part of the Dominion of New England. After the uprising led by J. Liesler, power in the colony was in the hands of the rebels for two years (1689-1691).

In 1691, after the restoration of the power of the English crown, it was decided to create a legislative assembly. New York was the center of action during the French and Indian Wars, and many times, until the defeat of the French in 1761, was subjected to devastating raids.

During the Revolutionary War, the future state also occupied a strategic position in the plans of the parties. In 1776-77, a number of major clashes took place on its territory. On February 6, 1778, New York ratified the first US constitutional document, the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. In April 1787, New York ratified the US Constitution and in July 1788 became the 11th state with a temporary capital in the city of Kingston (in 1797 the capital was moved to Albany).

By the end of the first quarter of the 19th century, the state had a highly developed agriculture and manufacturing industry with its center in New York. The transportation network developed rapidly, helped by both the presence of natural waterways and the state's location itself. In 1825, the construction of the Erie Canal was completed, in 1831 the first railroad was built connecting Albany and Schenectady, and 25 years later the entire state was covered by a network of railroads. In the 1830s and 1840s, significant changes took place in society: the process of democratization developed, organizations of farmers, women, and abolitionists were actively operating. Reformist tendencies were strong, giving rise to a galaxy of prominent New York politicians, including Martin Van Buren, William Henry Seward, Horace Greeley.

By 1820, New York State ranked first among the states in terms of population.

From 1839, a conflict broke out in the state between farmers, dissatisfied with predatory rent laws, and the government, which lasted until 1846 and was called the Anti-Rent War.

Before the Civil War, it became the leading industrial state of the country; in the American Civil War 1861-1865 participated on the side of the North. More than 500 thousand residents of the state took part in the war, 50 thousand people died. After the war, the economic development of the state continued at the same pace; the second half of the 19th century was characterized by the growth of corporations and the formation of giant trusts, the influx of immigrants from Europe. There was a sharp stratification of society, difficult working conditions worsened, corruption flourished in political life. The dominance of Tammany Hall was finally brought to an end only in the 1930s by the efforts of many prominent politicians, including New York City Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia (1934–1945).

In New York State, in 2009, an amendment to the electoral law was introduced, according to which in all cities of the state, where more than a million people live, all documents related to the election process must be translated into Russian. Russian has become one of eight foreign languages in New York, in which all official campaign materials must be printed. Previously, the list included Spanish, Korean, Filipino, Creole and three dialects of Chinese.

In June 2011, same-sex marriage was legalized in the state.



New York borders Pennsylvania and New Jersey to the south, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Vermont to the east, and the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Ontario to the north and northwest. New York also shares a maritime border with Rhode Island. The state covers an area of just over 141,000 km², making it the 27th largest US state by area.



New York State is characterized by the northern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains. The average height above sea level is between 300 and 1000 m. To the north are the Adirondacks with Mount Marcy, the highest mountain in the state at 1629 m.

In the north, the state borders Lake Erie and Lake Ontario as well as the St. Lawrence River, where there are smaller lowlands. In the southeast is the Hudson River Valley and Long Island, an island approximately 200 km long and 20 to 30 km wide on which large parts of New York City lie.



The Appalachian Mountains, which occupy most of the state, are a folded mountain range. The mountain ranges in the state belong to the northern part of the Appalachians and are therefore around 500 million years old and are among the mountain ranges that were formed by the Caledonian orogeny. However, due to this old age, a lot of material has already been removed. This explains the relatively low altitude that the Appalachians have compared to other fold mountains. The lowlands and Long Island are geological tables.



The soils (especially black earth) are very similar to those in Central Europe and are relatively fertile, but still of low quality. The higher it gets in the Appalachians, the rockier and therefore more infertile the soil becomes. There are no extensive mineral deposits, only small deposits of iron ores, rock salt and petroleum/natural gas as well as lead and zinc.



The entire state of New York has a temperate climate. The average temperature on the coast is around 12 °C. The temperature is around 0 °C in winter (December–March) and around 25–30 °C in summer (June–September). The difference is relatively high for a coastal region, up to 30 °C. The high temperatures in summer are explained by the relatively southern location (approx. 42° n.B.). The cool temperatures of winter result from influences from the Appalachian Mountains. The annual rainfall is approximately 1000 mm, the rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.

In the Appalachians, on the other hand, temperatures are lower due to the altitude and there is less precipitation. In the winter months the average temperature is down to −10 °C, in summer it is around 20 °C. The amount of precipitation is 200 to 300 mm less than on the coast, but is still evenly distributed. In the northwestern part of the state, along the lakes and St. Lawrence River, the climate differs little from that of the Appalachian Mountains, except that it is somewhat milder due to the lower altitude.



The most important river is the Hudson River, which rises in the north of the state. It has numerous smaller tributaries (e.g. Mohawk River), which also rise in the Appalachians. Other important rivers include the St. Lawrence River, which forms part of the border with Ontario, the Susquehanna River and the Delaware River.

The state lies on Lake Erie to the west and Lake Ontario to the northwest. There are also a number of small and medium-sized lakes (e.g. the Finger Lakes with Seneca Lake, Cayuga Lake and Oneida Lake, Lake George and Lake Champlain, which forms the border with the state of Vermont in the northeast), as well as many waterfalls ( e.g. Niagara Falls or Taughannock Falls).



Much of the state's area is covered by deciduous mixed deciduous forests and grassland; at higher elevations in the Appalachians, mixed deciduous forests predominate.



GDP of New York State 2016: approx. 1,487 billion US dollars (share of total US GDP: 8.1%)

New York State GDP per capita 2016: $75,360 (US average $57,118)

Economic growth (2014): 2.5% (US average: 2.2%)

Unemployment rate (November 2017): 4.7% (national average: 4.1%).


Economic sectors

Overall, the New York economic area is characterized by the secondary (industry) and tertiary (services) economic sectors. Agriculture (mixed and traditional) and fishing play a relatively minor role. Fruit (especially apples, strawberries and cherries) is grown on the Hudson and Lake Ontario, and small amounts of wheat are also grown in the Rochester area. There are also small wine-growing areas. Livestock is also raised in the hillier areas. The state of New York is therefore one of the largest milk producers in the USA. The farms are small; the “agribusiness” that is common in the Midwest and South of the USA does not exist here because the areas are relatively small. Raw material extraction, which is also part of the primary sector, is carried out primarily in the north of the state. Iron ore and steel refiners are mined in a few places, as are rock salts (in the Rochester area), and small amounts of oil and natural gas in the Southwest. Industry plays a major role in the medium-sized cities (Buffalo, Rochester, Albany), and the entire state of New York belongs to the Manufacturing Belt. The most important industrial sectors are mechanical and vehicle construction as well as electrical engineering. The basis for this is iron and steel production, which is primarily carried out in and around Buffalo.

Electrical engineering and printing are among the most important industries in the New York City region. Nevertheless, this region occupies an exceptional position because services are by far the most important economic sector here. Numerous companies in the high-tech industry (e.g. IBM), banking and finance (e.g. Goldman Sachs, JP Morgan) and influential newspapers (e.g. The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal) and television channels (e.g. NBC, HBO) are based in New York City, as is the world's most important stock exchange (New York Stock Exchange). In addition, New York City is home to numerous important academic (e.g. New York University, Columbia University) and cultural (e.g. Metropolitan Opera, Museum of Modern Art) institutions in a very small area.



The infrastructure is well developed in the state of New York; the New York State Department of Transportation, in particular, is responsible for planning, construction and maintenance, along with other authorities. Several highways connect New York City with the cities on the Great Lakes as well as with other states, especially New Jersey, which is home to many people who work in New York City. Only in the southwest of the state is the road network very wide-meshed, although there is little need there due to the low population density.

Long-distance passenger rail transport within New York is only available with the so-called Empire Service, which runs the New York – Albany main line every day with twelve pairs of trains, three of which continue to Niagara Falls and one of which to Toronto; There is also a connecting connection to Chicago once a day in Buffalo. Two pairs of trains run daily between New York and Glens Falls, one of which continues to Montreal. In New York City there are excellent connections on the relatively well-developed Amtrak Acela route Boston - NYC - Philadelphia - Baltimore - Washington, D.C., from whose respective endpoints the rest of the East Coast can be reached.

What is rather atypical for the USA, however, is the extensive and heavily used subway and regional train network in the city of New York. This network relieves pressure on the roads, which often already have large traffic jams.

New York City has J. F. Kennedy Airport (mainly for international flights), the thirteenth largest airport in the world (41.9 million passengers in 2005; sixth largest airport in the USA). Another airport is La Guardia Airport, which is mainly used for domestic flights. A good 25 million passengers were handled there in 2006. Other airports are in Albany, Rochester, Buffalo (Buffalo Niagara International Airport and Buffalo Municipal Airport) and Syracuse, i.e. in every major city.

The Port of New York is the largest seaport on the US East Coast. Container throughput has increased enormously, especially at the Newark (NJ) location of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

An important inland port is that of the city of Buffalo. Raw materials are primarily used here for industries based in New York State, such as: B. coal, iron ores and steel. The Erie Canal also flows here, connecting Lake Erie to the Atlantic Ocean via the Hudson.

As is the case throughout the United States, not all residents in New York State have access to clean drinking water: lead pipes in the local water supply are still relatively widespread; Drinking water often contains relatively high levels of fertilizers and industrial chemicals, even in larger cities; and in rural areas, many families still rely on their own groundwater wells, which often do not provide very clean water.

The telecommunications network (including the Internet) is relatively well developed, but there are gaps in the less densely populated parts of the state, and as throughout the United States, Internet connections are relatively slow and expensive compared to most advanced nations.

The electricity supply is very good, but these supply networks are also in great need of renovation, which repeatedly leads to power outages due to storms. In 2019, 27% of electricity came from renewable energies, and 88% of this came from hydropower. New York's 2020 Clean Energy Standard regulation mandates that renewable energy contribute 70% of electricity generation in 2030 and that this should increase to 100% by 2040.

New York's last coal-fired power plant closed in early 2020, and since then most of its share has been generated by natural gas and two nuclear power plants with multiple nuclear reactors.

Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Station. Construction began in 1970, a boiling water reactor, 852 MW (net)
Nine Mile Point nuclear power plant project started in 1963, two boiling water reactors, together 1756 MW (net)
The Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant in Buchanan, approximately 55 km north of New York City - two pressurized water reactors, built in 1966 and 1969, 1020 and 1025 MW (net) - was shut down on April 30, 2021.



Governor and state government

The state's governor has been Kathy Hochul from the Democratic Party since August 24, 2021.

The governor exercises executive power at the state level, meaning he leads the state government and determines policy guidelines. He has the right to pardon, appoints high-ranking officials and judges to the Federal Constitutional Court and plays a central role in legislation by signing or vetoing legislative resolutions. He is also commander in chief of the New York National Guard and represents the state externally. The governor is elected directly by the people every four years. Other important members of the executive branch are the Lieutenant Governor, the Attorney General, the Secretary of State and the State Treasurer (roughly equivalent to a Secretary of the Treasury).


State Legislature

State legislative power is exercised by the New York State Legislature. It consists of a State Senate with 63 directly elected senators and the State Assembly with 150 directly elected representatives. The terms of office are four and two years respectively. Since the 2018 state legislative elections, Democrats have had a clear majority in both chambers. The seat of the State Legislature is the Capitol in Albany, the state capital.


Presidential elections and Congress

Between 1809 and 1972, New York was the state with the most electoral votes in the Electoral College of presidential elections, but is now only fourth in this regard behind California, Texas and Florida. The state is of great importance to the Democratic Party of the USA; It is considered a Democratic stronghold and the last time a majority voted for the Republican candidate in a presidential election was in 1984. In the last elections, the Democrats in New York achieved results that were always just below or even above 60 percent. However, this concentration is limited to the cities of New York City, Buffalo and Rochester; As in other states in the USA, the rural population overwhelmingly votes Republican.

It's also worth mentioning that New York Republicans, who have played a major role in the Democratic-leaning state over the past decade, tend to be on the left wing of their party. George Pataki and Rudy Giuliani should be mentioned here. Synonymous with “moderate Republican” is the former US Vice President and Governor of New York State Nelson Rockefeller.


Environmental policy

In August 2020, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation published a proposed law to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and thereby implement the Climate Leadership and Community Protection Act. The proposal calls for an initial 40 percent reduction in methane and other harmful gases by 2030 and an 85 percent reduction by 2050. In addition, a carbon-free electricity system must be created by 2040.



New York State is an important educational location in the USA. The most important state universities are grouped into the State University of New York and the City University of New York. The best-known private universities are Columbia University, Cornell University and New York University. Other well-known private colleges include Fordham University, Hofstra University, Long Island University, St. John's University, Syracuse University, University of Rochester, and Yeshiva University. Other universities are included in the list of universities in New York.

Lake Placid hosted the 1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics. Lake Placid is one of only three locations to host the Winter Games twice.



Important destinations for the Americans are Long Island (many beaches and large fish reserves for fishing), a few small towns in the Appalachians (winter sports resorts), and almost the entire state in autumn, when the leaves of the deciduous trees of many different, exceptionally intense colors are obtained. New York City is very interesting with its many cultural institutions (Metropolitan Opera, Museum of Modern Art, Guggenheim Museum) and famous buildings (Statue of Liberty, Empire State Building, Chrysler Building).

Overall, tourism is becoming more and more important because it is becoming more popular to spend your summer vacation on Long Island again. The increase in airfares in recent years is the reason why many Americans no longer fly to the Caribbean or even further (e.g. to Hawaii). The winter sports areas are still very poorly developed. Indian Summer is still popular.