Connecticut (English pronunciation: /kəˈnɛtɪkət/) is one of the fifty states that, together with Washington, D.C., make up the United States of America. Its capital is Hartford and its most populated city, Bridgeport. It is located in the Northeast region of the country, New England division, and is bordered to the north by Massachusetts, to the east by Rhode Island, to the south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the west by the state of New York. With 14,357 km², it is the third smallest state - ahead of Delaware and Rhode Island, the smallest - and with 249 inhabitants/km², the third most densely populated, behind New Jersey and Rhode Island. It was admitted to the Union on January 9, 1788, as the 5th state.

Its main source of income is the provision of economic-financial and real estate services. The state capital, Hartford, is known nationally as Insurance City, due to the large number of insurance companies that are located in the city.

It was one of the Thirteen Colonies originally established by the United Kingdom. The colony of Connecticut was the first subdivision located in what is now the United States of America to have a written Constitution, called Fundamental Orders, or First Orders, adopted on January 14, 1639. This Constitution colonial would serve as the basis for the formation of the American Constitution. Connecticut officials played an essential role in passing the "Great Compromise" made at the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which gave the United States Congress its current form. Because of these events, the state is nicknamed The Constitution State, and the Great Compromise of 1787 became known nationally as the Connecticut Compromise. On January 9, 1788, it became the fifth American state.

The origin of the name "Connecticut" comes from the Mohegan word Quinnehtujqut, meaning "Place of the Long River." The first Europeans to settle permanently in the region were English Puritans, coming from Massachusetts, in 1633. The Nutmeg State is another popular nickname and the inhabitants of this state are known nationally as a "nutmegger."



Fairfield County
Southwest Connecticut, near New York City. This area has many beaches and lighthouses and many of the state's largest cities such as Bridgeport, Stamford and Norwalk.

Litchfield Hills
Northwest Connecticut. This is where you'll find the less dense areas of variegated foliage in the fall. There are some smaller towns like Torrington, Danbury and New Milford.

Connecticut River Valley
From North Central Connecticut to the coast. The Knowledge Corridor is home to New England's second largest region, the Connecticut state capital of Hartford, and many historical landmarks.

Greater New Haven
South Central Connecticut. Yale University is located here, as well as numerous museums and theaters. It includes cities like New Haven and Milford.

Mystic Eastern
New London, Tolland, and Windham counties in eastern Connecticut. A good place to get a view of the Long Island Sound with its beaches and the famous Mystic Seaport/Aquarium. Has two of the largest casinos in the world. Includes cities like New London, Mystic, Uncasville and Ledyard.



Bridgeport - most populous city in Connecticut
Hartford - the capital of Connecticut
New Haven - the most interesting tourist city in the state, home of Yale University




Bara-Hack Ghost Town Bara- Hack is an abandoned ghost town near Pomfret, Connecticut. It was found by Welsh immigrants in 1780's.

Dudleytown. Ruins of Dudleytown draws ghost hunters in hopes to find evidence of paranormal activity that allegedly manifests here.

Leatherman. Leatherman background is one of the most tragic love stories full of hopelessness and redemption of one unfortunate man.

Sleeping Giant State Park: Looking from the north and south, the hills look like a sleeping giant. Well-marked hiking trails criss-cross the park. The paths are mostly easy and only occasionally steep. We chose a circular route and hiked for about two and a half hours. There was also some easy climbing. What I didn't know beforehand: From the main parking lot, a path suitable for prams leads up to the observation tower on the left hip of the giant.
Dinosaur State Park:
Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Connecticut


Getting here

By Airplane
Within the state
Bradley International Airport (BDL IATA) in Windsor Locks, Connecticut is the largest airport in the state. Its proximity to Hartford and Springfield, Massachusetts, is rapidly increasing its ridership. Its location north of Hartford makes it inaccessible to northeastern and northwestern interstate residents, but convenient for inland residents. For residents outside the center, flights to New York State, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island may be more convenient. Still, it is the third largest and second busiest airport in New England, making it a suitable alternative destination when all other airports have failed. The airport is named for Eugene M. Bradley, who was killed in action during a training exercise in 1941.
Waterbury-Oxford Airport (Waterbury-Oxford Airport).
Sikorsky-Memmle Airport (BDR IATA) in Stratford serves private aircraft charter flights.
Danbury Municipal Airport (DXR IATA) in Danbury is used primarily for general aviation.
Danielson Airport, located in Danielson, is primarily used for general aviation.
Tweed New Haven Regional Airport (HVN IATA) is a smaller airport with flights to Philadelphia.
Meriden Airport in Meriden (Meriden Airport) offers private air charters.

Out of State
New York's LaGuardia, JFK, and Newark airports are common for travelers in the western part of the state. These are all larger airports than in-state airports and offer more flight opportunities. However, for travelers to the eastern part of the state, these airports are too far away to be very convenient.
Boston's Logan International Airport is one of two airports suitable for travelers with eastern state destinations, but it is far from major Connecticut cities such as Hartford and New Haven. Still, it is about a 60-90 minute drive along the I-395 corridor, making this airport a solid choice for visitors to northeastern Connecticut, especially with the number of flights it offers.
T.F. Green International Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, is a great alternative to Boston if you are traveling to the eastern half of Connecticut. The airport covers many domestic flights and quite a few international flights, often only an hour's drive from your destination.
Westchester County Airport is the closest civilian airport to the Fairfield County subregion. However, this is for U.S. domestic flights only.

By Ferry.
The Bridgeport-Port Jefferson Ferry runs daily across Long Island Sound between Port Jefferson, Long Island and Bridgeport, Connecticut. It carries vehicles and passengers. The Cross Sound Ferry connects New London, Connecticut, with Orient Point, New York, the easternmost point of the Long Island North Fork.

By Train.
Amtrak trains connect Penn Station, New York, and South Station, Boston, with frequent service to destinations in Connecticut. MetroNorth provides frequent service between Grand Central Station in Manhattan and several cities and towns in Fairfield and New Haven Counties in southwestern Connecticut. MetroNorth provides frequent weekday commuter service from several cities and towns in

Similar to rail, intercity buses provide frequent service between South Station in Boston and the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Manhattan, with stops throughout Connecticut. Major bus companies serving Connecticut include Peter Pan and Greyhound.

By Car.
If you are driving into Connecticut from the west, there are three main routes to choose from. Interstate 84 enters Danbury, Connecticut from Pennsylvania and the lower Hudson Valley of New York State and continues to Waterbury, Hartford, and Worcester. The Merritt Parkway, which is closed to truck and bus traffic, enters Connecticut from Westchester County, New York, and is considered one of the most scenic highways in the United States because its design matches the pastoral greenery of the surrounding suburbs. The Parkway extension tunnels under the hills north of New Haven and continues to Meriden, where it joins Interstate 91 and heads north toward Hartford. Interstate 95 crosses the U.S. East Coast from Maine to Florida and runs east to west along the Connecticut coast. According to federal highway signs, I-95 North actually travels eastward through Connecticut, while I-95 South travels westward through Connecticut. Between New York and New Haven, I-95 passes through densely populated suburbs and is heavily congested. East of New Haven (north according to directional signs on the road) I-95 passes through more rural coastal towns and is less congested.

To enter Connecticut from Boston, one would take the Massachusetts Turnpike (also known as Interstate 90) west to I-84 (two-lane road) or Route 6 (two-lane road), or take Interstate 95 from Rhode Island.

Fuel in Connecticut is more expensive than in New York State or Massachusetts.


Local Transport

By Car.
A car is the easiest way to get around the state and is best if you plan on sightseeing. Major highways such as I-95, I-84, I-91, and I-395 run through the state.

By Bus
Connecticut Transit, 100 Leibert Road, ☏ +1 860 522-8101, fax: +1 860 247-1810. Hartford.
Bridgeport has its own service.
Hartford County is also served by the express bus transportation CT Fastrak.

By Train.
There are eight commuter rail lines connecting most major cities and towns. New Haven is a major hub connecting all of these commuter rail lines and the Amtrak line.

Metro-North New Haven Line - runs daily between New York's Grand Central Terminal and New Haven's State Street Station, with stops in Greenwich, Stamford, Norwalk, Bridgeport, Milford, and New Haven.
Metro North New Canaan Branch - Daily service between Stamford's Stamford Station in Stamford and New Canaan's New Canaan Station in New Canaan. Stops include Glenbrook and Sprigdale in Stamford, Talmadge Hill in New Canaan, and downtown New Canaan.
Metro North Waterbury Branch - Daily service between Bridgeport (Bridgeport) and Waterbury (Waterbury) with stops in Shelton, Ansonia, Beacon Falls, and Waterbury.
CT Rail Hartford Line - Daily service from New Haven Union Station (New Haven) to Springfield Union Station (Springfield), with stops in Shelton, Ansonia, Beacon Falls, and Waterbury.
Metro North Danbury Branch - Daily service between South Norwalk Station (Norwalk) and Danbury Station (Danbury).
Amtrak Hartford Line - daily service between New Haven Union Station (New Haven) and Greenfield Station (Greenfield), New Haven, Wallingford, Berlin, Hart Ford, Windsor, Springfield, Holyoke, and Greenfield.
CT Rail Shoreline East - Daily service between New Haven Union Station (New Haven) and New London Union Station (New London) with stops in New Haven, Wallingford, Berlin, Hartford, Windsor, Springfield, Holyoke, and Greenfield.
Amtrak Northeast Corridor - Daily service from Union Station in Washington, D.C. to South Station in Boston, with stops in Stamford, Bridgeport, New Haven, and New London.



Due to its proximity to immigrant gateways such as historic Ellis Island, many of Connecticut's towns and cities have a strong minority culture.

Historically, Connecticut was settled by English, Scots, Irish, and Germans, but most of Connecticut's large cities today, including Bridgeport, Hartford, New Haven, and Waterbury, are populated by Latinos. Some areas, including New Britain, are known for their large Polish communities, New Haven's Chinatown is crowded with Mandarin speakers, and Wooster Street serves as the city's "Little Italy." Indeed, the southwestern part of the state in particular has a large population of residents of Italian heritage, while the northeastern part of Connecticut has a large population of French-Canadian heritage. The northeastern part of Connecticut is also home to a large population of people of French-Canadian heritage.

Because of their location, there are several variations of American English in the regions of Connecticut. For example, many people in Fairfield County speak English that resembles a New York accent (probably due to the county's proximity to New York), while some people in northern and northeastern Connecticut speak English that resembles a Boston accent. On the other hand, some people in northern and northeastern Connecticut have accents that resemble Boston accents. In some places, other languages have merged with American English to create entirely new accents. If anything, the speaking style in Connecticut is not uniform.

Spanish is the most widely spoken second language due to the large urban Latino population, and a significant portion of the rest of the population understands it, at least to some extent, as it is the most common foreign language choice in schools. French is also taught in schools to some extent, but is not widely known, except among older French-Canadians. Other languages are rarely understood, except by certain ethnic minorities.



Connecticut is crammed with restaurants everywhere. Downtown New Haven has more top-notch Zagat-rated restaurants than any other Connecticut city. Interesting ethnic restaurants including Eritrean, Malaysian, Turkish, Spanish, French, Mexican, Cuban, Jamaican, Ethiopian, Lebanese, Vietnamese, Thai, South and North Indian, Nepalese, Cantonese and Italian restaurants can be found throughout the city. The state's major casinos also have many restaurants.

Connecticut, especially New Haven, is known for its old-fashioned thin-crust pizza, locally referred to as "apizza".

Southington, Connecticut, between Hartford and Waterbury, is famous for its many apple orchards. This small town of forty thousand people has an incredible variety and supply of apples and celebrates its staple with the annual harvest festival in October. Those traveling through this beautiful state in the fall must stop in Southington for a bag of apple fritters and other staples made from the city's famous apples.



Alcohol may only be sold Monday-Saturday 8:00 a.m. - 10:00 p.m. and Sunday 10:00 a.m. - 6:00 p.m. Bars and other establishments can sell inside from 9 a.m. to 1 a.m. Monday through Thursday, 9 a.m. to 2 a.m. Friday through Saturday, and 11 a.m. to 1 a.m. on Sunday.

Discover Connecticut's craft beer culture, which boasts great microbreweries, quality brewpubs and beer bars, homebrew supply stores, and beer festivals. Many breweries offer tours of their facilities and free tastings.


Stay Safe

Connecticut is known for its affluence and is the third wealthiest state in the U.S., but some of the state's larger cities (especially Bridgeport, New Haven, and Waterbury) can be dangerous, especially at night. However, Connecticut is widely considered one of the safest states in the nation, so common sense will keep you away from any signs of trouble.

Connecticut is the birthplace of the infamous Lyme disease. Take precautions to avoid tick bites and seek medical attention as soon as possible if you see a bull's-eye shaped rash around the bite site or develop flu-like symptoms after walking in areas where ticks may be present (such as forests). The tick season typically runs from spring to fall.

Connecticut is known for its rapidly changing weather. Be prepared for freezing temperatures and blizzards in the winter and thunderstorms in the spring and summer.



Connecticut is bordered to the north by Massachusetts, to the east by Rhode Island, to the south by Long Island Sound, and to the west by New York. Most of its coastline does not have direct contact with the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, but with the waters of Long Island Sound, an estuary of numerous rivers.

The main river that crosses the state is the Connecticut River, and it has about a thousand lakes, although all of them are small in size; the vast majority of these lakes were formed through ancient glaciers melting thousands of years ago. Forests cover more than 60% of the state.

Connecticut can be divided into five distinct geographic regions:

The Coastal Plains form a narrow strip of land, between 6 and 16 kilometers thick, that extends along the coastline with Long Island Sound. They have the lowest altitudes in the state, in addition to having flatter and less rugged terrain than the other four regions.
The Western New England Plateau occupies most of the western region. It is between 300 and 427 meters high, and the highest altitude regions are located to the northwest, decreasing as you travel south or east.
The Eastern New England Plateau is the largest of Connecticut's five geographic regions, occupying the eastern region of the state. The Plateau is crossed by several narrow rivers, and is mostly covered by forests. It has lower altitudes than the Western Plateau, with few peaks exceeding 370 meters in altitude.
The Lower Valleys of Connecticut are a strip of land that runs along the north-central coast, approximately 30 kilometers wide. These valleys form the Connecticut River watershed. This region has lower altitudes than the surrounding Plateaus, with peaks between 90 and 180 meters high being the highest points in the region.
The Northwest Section is a small piece of land located in the far northwest. It is characterized by its rocky and rugged terrain, and its altitude. The highest point in the state, which is 725 meters high, is located in this region.



It has a temperate climate, and relatively homogeneous throughout the state, due to its small territorial area. In general, the mountainous regions in the northwest and northeast record the lowest average temperatures while, on the coast, average temperatures are higher. Connectitut's climate is softened by the presence of large bodies of water in the south of the state.

In the winter, Connectitut has an average temperature of -3°C. The average of the minimum is -7 °C, and the average of the maximum is 3 °C. The lowest temperature recorded in Connecticut was -36°C, in Falls Village, on February 16, 1943.

In the summer, it has an average temperature of 22 °C. The average of the minimum is 15 °C, and the average of the maximum is 28 °C. The highest temperature recorded was 41°C, in Danbury, on July 15, 1995.

The average annual rainfall rate is 119 centimeters. The average annual snowfall rate varies between 90 centimeters in the northwest to 64 centimeters along the southwestern coast of the state.



Until 1788

The region that currently constitutes the state was inhabited, before the arrival of the first European explorers of the region, by various tribes of Native Americans belonging to the Amerindian family of the Algonquins.

The first European to explore present-day Connecticut was the Dutchman Adriaen Block, in 1614. Block claimed the region for the Dutch government. The Dutch would build a fort, Fort Hope House, in 1633, where Hartford is currently located. However, despite claiming the region, the Dutch never made any efforts to establish a permanent colony in the region, only founding small towns that were abandoned after a few years. In 1654, the English would expel the Dutch.

The first permanent European settlement in present-day Connecticut was founded by English settlers from Massachusetts. Some towns founded by these settlers include Hartford, New London, Saybrook, Wethersfield, and Windsor, during the 1630s. In 1636, Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor were united to form together a single colony, the Colony of Connecticut, which took a form theocratic government. Two years later, New Haven was founded as a new colony. Other small towns scattered throughout present-day Connecticut joined the New Haven colony in 1662.

During the first decade of colonization, European foreigners suffered constant attacks from the Pequot Native American tribe, who viewed Europeans as a threat. The conflict between the Pequots and the English settlers of Connecticut was known as the Pequot War. In 1637, John Mason, aided by the Mohegan and Narragansett Native American tribes, destroyed the main Pequot settlement and burned 600 men, women and children alive in their Mystic River stronghold.

Many of the colonists had left England in search of political and religious freedom. In 1638, Thomas Hooker worked for the end of theocracy and the implementation of a democratic form of government. In 1639, Connecticut adopted the "Fundamental Mandates." This document is seen by many as the first Constitution written on American soil.

Until the 1660s, various English settlements in the region would join the Colony of Connecticut. In 1662, the English monarch gave John Winthrop, an inhabitant of the Colony, a strip of land 117 kilometers long, along Narragansett Bay, also including the Colony of New Haven. This act of the English monarch effectively meant the merger of the latter with the Colony of Connecticut. New Haveners initially protested the move, but agreed to the merger in December 1664, ending the unification process in 1665.

Until the 1670s it had an economy based on subsistence agriculture. From then on, the colony began to export agricultural and craft products to other English colonies in the region. The manufacturing industry would become an important source of income for the colony during the early 18th century, when it became a center for ship and watch manufacturing.

In 1686, Edmund Andros was chosen by the English crown to become the first royal governor of the Dominion of New England. Andros claimed that he and his government had annulled the license instituted by the English monarch in 1662, and that Connecticut would become part of the Dominion of New England. Connecticut initially ignored Andros, but he landed there in October 1687, with troops and naval support. The then governor, Robert Treat, had no choice but to dissolve the colony's legislative assembly. Andros met Treat and the General Court on the night of October 31, 1687.

Andros praised the strong industry and government of Connecticut, but after reading his commission, he demanded the return of the license instituted by the English monarch in 1662. At the moment the document was placed on the table, the candles that illuminated the construction were shut down. When those candles were lit again, the document had disappeared. Legend says that such a document was placed in an oak tree, which would later be known as the Charter Oak.

Andros considered New York and Massachusetts to be the most important parts of the dominion, initially ignoring Connecticut. Aside from some taxes sent to the Dominion of New England's capital, Boston, Connecticut also largely ignored the region's new unified government. When the inhabitants of the region learned of the Glorious Revolution, the inhabitants of Boston forced Andros into exile. The members of the Connecticut court met on May 9, 1689, where in a vote, they reestablished the license of the Colony of Connecticut, and Robert Treat was re-elected as governor of the colony.

In the 1750s, the Susquehannah Company of Windham purchased from Native Americans a strip of land along the Susquehanna River, covering one-third of the present-day state of Pennsylvania. This claimed, for its part, the region. The sale and purchase of the region was also not welcomed by many citizens, mainly due to the fear that a possible armed conflict between Connecticut and Pennsylvania could threaten the Fundamental Mandates. The British monarch, however, judged that Connecticut had a right to the Susquehanna River region. Connecticut began settling the region in 1769.

During the 1760s, various actions by the British, such as the creation of taxes, generated revolts in the Thirteen Colonies, an event that would trigger the American War of Independence in 1775. Connecticut ratified the Articles of Confederation—the predecessor of the current Constitution of the United States of America—on July 9, 1778. Connecticut was located in an extremely vulnerable position against British attacks along its coastline in Long Island Sound, given its extensive coastline and the proximity of Long Island in the south, which was then under British control. It had an impetuous maritime force, largely thanks to its strong shipbuilding industry, although it was thanks to giving up many of its ships to other American forces, a fact that generated friction among Connecticut political leaders, as to whether it was more important the defense of the state or the country. It was the only one of the Thirteen Colonies that did not go through a revolution, thanks to its strong political structure, which gave it considerable political independence from the United Kingdom, and the then governor of Connecticut, Johnattan Trumbull, who supported the American rebels.

Meanwhile, throughout the 1770s, Pennsylvania, which still claimed the Susquehanna River region, carried out several attacks against settlers in the Susquehanna region, culminating in an attack in December 1778, where approximately 150 settlers were killed. , and thousands were forced to flee. Connecticut tried several times to recover the region, without success, and the various groups of settlers who tried to settle in the region were subsequently expelled by Pennsylvania militias. The same year the American Revolution ended, in 1783, the U.S. government ruled that the Susquehanna River region was rightfully Pennsylvania. Connecticut then quickly claimed the region located immediately west of the Susquehanna River region of Pennsylvania, in the northeast of the current state of Ohio, although it had sold these lands to investors in 1796, with the financial resources obtained from the sale being used for educational.

At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, Connecticut representatives favored a strong centralized government, and played an essential role in shaping the current United States Congress, where large states like New York wanted state representation in Congress was based on the population of the states, while states with smaller populations wanted equal representation. Representatives from Connecticut were the main proponents of the adoption of a mixed system, resulting in the Great Compromise, also known as the Connecticut Compromise.

Connecticut ratified the U.S. Constitution on January 9, 1788, becoming the fifth American state to join the Union.


1788 - present

Until the 1800s, it had a strong industry producing consumer products. Most of this industry, however, used artisanal production methods. From the beginning of the 19th century, it went through a period of rapid industrial expansion.

In 1808, Eli Terry invented the world's first mass production method for watches. In 1810, the first textile factory in the state was inaugurated. Samuel Colt founded a weapons factory in 1836. In 1839, Charles Goodyear discovered the method of vulcanizing rubber. At that time, Connecticut was a national center for the textile industry. An efficient transportation system was an important factor for rapid industrialization during the 19th century. Between the 1830s and 1860s, the state received large numbers of Canadian and European immigrants, mainly Irish.

Connecticut actively supported the Union during the American Civil War. More than 50,000 men from the state joined the Union troops. The war further accelerated Connecticut's industrialization process. This, together with the small size of the state, meant that after the war industry surpassed agriculture as the state's main source of income, and accelerated the process of migration of the population from the countryside to the cities. During the 1870s, more than half of the population lived in cities. During the final decades of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a large number of immigrants settled, mainly Germans, Irish and Italians. Most of these new inhabitants did so in the cities. By the end of the 1900s, more than half of the population lived in cities, and about 30% of the state's population was born outside the country.

In 1910, New London became the headquarters of the United States Coast Guard, until then located in Maryland and Massachusetts. The United States Navy founded a base in Groton in 1917. During World War I, several weapons factories were built in the state.

Economic prosperity continued through the 1920s, with the state's continued industrialization. However, the Great Depression of the 1930s caused a major economic recession in the state, the effects of which would be minimized throughout the end of the decade thanks to socioeconomic measures, such as socioeconomic assistance programs and public programs. The Second World War again brought a period of economic prosperity, which continues to this day. During the war it was one of the main producers of weapons in general, mainly aircraft, ship and submarine components.

Equipped with a strong high-tech industry, it was actively involved in the development of nuclear technologies during the 1950s and beyond. The first nuclear submarine in history, the USS Nautilus, was built in Connecticut (in Groton) in 1954. In the late 1960s, it became the first US state to supply submarines for the US Navy. Equipped with a strong diversified economy, it became the state with the highest per capita income in the country starting in the 1960s.

A problem in Connecticut's government was the poor representation of large cities in the state Legislature. Until 1964, each city, regardless of its population, had the right to at least one representative in each chamber of the state Legislature, the result of which was a high number of representatives from small cities (10% of the population could elect the majority of representatives of the state Legislative Branch), and a small number of representatives from large cities. In 1964, the Supreme Court of the United States of America forced the state to modify the system of representation of its Legislative Branch, which had been used for 327 years, since the adoption of the Fundamental Orders. Thus, Connecticut modified its legislative districts in 1965, so that they all had approximately the same number of voters as each other. This measure favored the Democrats, who were stronger in the big cities.

Its strong economy allowed it to spend more on education, public health and transportation. However, the rapid growth of the population, mainly of African Americans from the American South and Hispanic immigrants, generated social problems in the state's main cities, and a drastic increase in public spending. In 1971, Connecticut instituted an income tax, although large public protests forced the state to repeal this law (and instead increase taxes on consumer products). In 1979, a financial aid program for school districts was instituted. who were going through serious financial problems. In 1991, an income tax was again instituted, and the construction of casinos was legalized. Meanwhile, the end of the Cold War caused Connecticut to receive fewer orders for military vessels, then one of the state's main sources of income. This, however, had few negative effects, thanks to its strong diversified economy.



The total gross domestic product as of 2010 was $237 billion. The per capita income in 2007 was $64,833, placing the state fourth behind the District of Columbia, Delaware, and Alaska. There is, however, a large disparity in income across the state. For example, New Canan has one of the highest per capita incomes in America, while Hartford is one of the ten cities with the lowest per capita incomes in America. Like Bridgeport, New Haven County and other cities in the state, Hartford is surrounded by affluent suburbs. The unemployment rate as of December 2012 was 8.2%.

New Canan is the wealthiest city in Connecticut, with a per capita income of $85,459. The cities of Darien, Greenwich, Weston, Westport, and Wilton also have per capita incomes of over $65,000. Hartford is the poorest municipality in Connecticut, with per capita income of $13,428 in 2000. There are other small, low-income towns located mostly in the eastern part of the state.



Connecticut's first public schools were founded during the 1650s, when the then-English colony mandated that every settlement with more than 50 families offer educational services—hiring a person from the community to teach children to read and write—without Families will need to pay directly for such services. In addition to that, the construction of a high school was declared mandatory in every city with more than one hundred families.

All educational institutions need to follow rules and regulations set by the Connecticut Department of Education, made up of nine members appointed by the governor for terms of up to four years in length. These nine members in turn appoint a tenth member to serve as the commissioner of education - Chairman of the department - for terms of up to four years in duration. This department directly controls the state's public school system, which is divided into different school districts. Each major city (city), various secondary cities (towns), and each county is served by a school district. In cities, the responsibility for managing schools lies with the municipal school district, while in less densely populated regions, this responsibility lies with school districts operating throughout the county as a whole. Connecticut allows the operation of charter schools — independent public schools, which are not managed by school districts, but which depend on public budgets to operate. School attendance is mandatory for all children and adolescents over six years of age, until the completion of secondary education or until the age of fifteen.

In 1999, the state's public schools served approximately 554,000 students, employing approximately 39,000 teachers. Private schools served about 70.1 thousand students, employing approximately 6.9 thousand teachers. The state's public school system consumed about $5.08 million, and public school spending was approximately $9.6 thousand per student. About 87.5% of the state's inhabitants over 25 years of age have a high school diploma.

The first library in the state was founded in 1701. It was part of the then Collegiate Institute, now Yale University. The state's first municipal public library was founded in 1733, in Durham. It currently has 194 public library systems, which annually move an average of 8.4 books per inhabitant.

Connecticut's first institution of higher education was the Collegiate Institute—now Yale University—founded in 1701. Yale University is the third oldest institution of higher education in the country, behind only Harvard University and William and Mary College.


School education

The Connecticut Board of Education operates the public school system for children. Members of the board of education are appointed by the governor of the state. The statistics for each school are available to the public through an online database system called CEDAR.

Private schools
Greenwich Country Day School
Fairfield Country Day School
Notre Dame Catholic High School
Hopkins School
Choate Rosemary Hall
Miss Porter's School
Northwest Catholic High School
Colleges and universities
Connecticut had its first law school, Litchfield Law School, operating from 1773 to 1833 in Litchfield. Hartford Public High School (1638) is the third oldest high school in the country after Collegiate School (1628) in Manhattan and Boston Latin School (1635).

Yale University (1701)
Trinity College (1823)
Wesleyan University (1831)
University of Hartford (1877)
Poston University (1890)
Connecticut College (1911)
University of New Haven (1920)
Albertus Magnus College (1925)
Bridgeport University (1927)
Quinnipack University (1929)
St. Joseph University (1932)
Mitchell College (1938)
Fairfield University (1942)
Sacred Heart University (1963)

University of Central Connecticut (1849)
University of Connecticut (1881)
Eastern Connecticut University (1889)
University of Southern Connecticut (1893)
Western Connecticut University (1903)
United States Coast Guard Military Academy (1915)
Charterock College (1973)


Administration and politics

The current Constitution of Connecticut was adopted in 1965. Previous constitutions were adopted in 1639 and 1818. The Constitution of 1639—officially called the "Fundamental Mandates"—was the first Constitution adopted in what is now the United States. Amendments to the Constitution are proposed by the Connecticut Legislature, and to be approved, they need to receive at least 51% favorable votes from the state Senate and House of Representatives, and two-thirds of the votes of the population Connecticut election, in a referendum. The population of the state can also propose amendments to the Constitution by collecting a certain number of signatures. When these signatures are accepted by the government, to be approved, they need to receive the approval of at least a quarter of the members of both houses of the Connecticut Legislature, and at least 51% of the votes of the electoral population. Amendments can also be proposed and introduced by constitutional conventions, which need to receive at least 51% of the votes of both chambers of the Legislative Branch and two-thirds of the votes of the electoral population, in a referendum.

The chief executive branch official is the governor. He is elected by the state's voters for terms of up to four years, and can be re-elected as many times as he can. Voters also elect the Lieutenant Governor, the Secretary of State and three other state Executive officials.

The General Assembly, the legislative branch of the state, is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has a total of 36 members, while the House of Representatives has a total of 151 members. Connecticut is divided into 36 senatorial districts and 151 representative districts. The voters of each district elect a senator/representative, who will represent each district in the Senate/House of Representatives. The term of office of senators and representatives is four years.

The highest court of the state's judiciary is the Connecticut Supreme Court, composed of seven justices. Other courts of the state Judicial Branch are the Court of Appeals, the Superior Court and the Probate Courts, each with 11, 150 and 132 judges, respectively. Judges of all state courts except Probate Courts are chosen by the Connecticut Legislature for terms of up to eight years. The judges of the Probate Courts are elected by the population of the state for terms of up to four years in length.

It is divided into eight counties. Unlike other American states, Connecticut counties do not have a county seat. The main administrative entity, apart from the state government, are the governments of the 169 municipalities (towns) of the state. Certain more densely populated regions of these municipalities form boroughs (districts). Connecticut has 19 cities (cities).

More than half of the government's budget is generated by state taxes. The remainder comes from budgets received from the national government and loans. In 2002, the state government spent 20,117 million dollars, having generated 16,993 million dollars. The government debt is 20,784 million dollars. The debt per capita is $6,009, the value of state taxes per capita is $2,611, and the value of government expenditures per capita is $5,816.

Connecticut has primarily supported the Republican Party since it was created in 1854, and politically the state was dominated by Republicans until the 1960s. Of 20 governors elected between 1856 and 1932, fifteen were Republicans and five were Democrats. Since the 1930s, however, the Democratic Party has grown stronger in the state. Thus, since the 1960s, the Democrats, in the 12 elections held until 2004 in the country's presidential elections, seven have been mostly dominated by Democrats.



According to the 2000 national census of the United States Census Bureau, the population of Connecticut was 3,405,565, a growth of 3.6% relative to the state's 1990 population of 3,287,116. . A forecast made in 2005 estimates the state's population at 3,510,297 inhabitants, a growth of 6.7% in relation to the state's population in 1990, 3.1%, in relation to the state's population in 2000, and of 0.3% in relation to the estimated population in 2004.

The natural population growth between 2000 and 2005 was 67,427 inhabitants (222,222 births minus 154,795 deaths), the population growth caused by immigration was 75,991 inhabitants, while interstate migration increased by 41,718 inhabitants. Between 2000 and 2005, the population grew by 223,181 inhabitants, and between 2004 and 2005, by 11,331 inhabitants.

In 2004, 11.4% of the state's population (approximately 400,000 inhabitants) had been born outside the country, with estimates indicating that 10% of these are illegal immigrants (1.1% of the state's population).



The gross domestic product was $187 billion. The state's per capita income, meanwhile, was $75,398, the highest among the 50 US states. The unemployment rate is 2.9%.

The primary sector accounts for 1% of Connecticut's GDP. The state has 3,800 farms, which occupy about 10% of the state. Agriculture and livestock together account for 1% of the state's GDP, and employ approximately 37 thousand people. Milk and cherries are the main products produced by the agricultural industry, which produces more than 25% of all cherries consumed in the country. The effects of fishing and forestry are not very representative in the state's economy, together employing nearly two thousand people. The annual value of fishing in the state is 28 million dollars.

The secondary sector accounts for 20% of the GDP. The total value of products manufactured in the state is $28 billion. The main industrialized products manufactured in the state are transportation equipment, chemical products, machinery, electronic components and computers, industrialized foods and printed materials. The manufacturing industry accounts for 17% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 285 thousand people. The construction industry is 3% of the state's GDP and employs approximately 99 thousand people. The effects of mining are unimportant; This sector employs about 1.9 thousand people.

The tertiary sector contributes 79% of the state's GDP. Connecticut is a great hub for the insurance industry. The provision of financial and real estate services accounts for more than 28% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 231 thousand people. Hartford is the financial center of the state, being the largest insurance sector center in the United States, and the second largest in the world (behind only London). About 22% of the state's GDP is generated through the provision of community and personal services. This sector employs about 682 thousand people. Wholesale and retail trade accounts for 14% of the state's GDP, and employs approximately 410 thousand people. Government Services are 9% of GDP, employing approximately 225 thousand people. Transportation, telecommunications and public utilities employ 84 thousand people, and account for 6% of the GDP. 46% of all electricity consumed annually in the state is generated in oil-fired thermal plants, and 1% in hydroelectric plants. 52% is imported from neighboring states and the Canadian province of Quebec.




In 2002 it owned 893 kilometers of railway tracks. The Amtrak company provides passenger rail transportation service in Hartford and various small cities located along the state's coastline with the Atlantic Ocean. In 2003 it had 33,939 kilometers of public roads, of which 557 kilometers were interstate highways, part of the United States federal highway system.



Connecticut's first newspaper, and the oldest in the country still published, was the Connecticut Courant (now the Hartford Courant), which was first published in 1764, in Hartford. Currently, about 110 newspapers are published in the state, of which 19 are daily newspapers.

The state's first radio station was founded in 1922, in Hartford. The first television station was founded in 1948, in New Haven. Connecticut currently has 77 radio stations—of which 29 are AM and 48 are FM—and 13 television stations.

The global sports network ESPN is based in the city of Bristol, located in this state.




The Hartford Whalers played in the National Hockey League from 1979 to 1997, after which they moved states. The Hartford Dark Blues played in the National Baseball League in 1876.

The Hartford Blues played in the National Football League in 1926. Meanwhile, the New York Giants played at home in the Yale Bowl in New Haven in the 1973 and 1974 seasons, during the construction of Giants Stadium.

The Boston Celtics of the National Basketball Association played some home games at the Hartford Civic Center between 1975 and 1995. The Connecticut Sun has played the WNBA since 2003 in the town of Uncasville.

In terms of college sports, the UConn Huskies play in the American Athletic Conference of the NCAA Division I, achieving multiple national championships in American football and men's and women's basketball. Meanwhile, the Harvard Crimson and Yale Bulldogs of the Ivy League maintain one of the oldest American football rivalries, having faced each other for the first time in 1875.

Since 1952, the PGA Tour has held an annual golf tournament in Hartford, currently called the Travelers Championship. Meanwhile, the New Haven Tournament has been part of the WTA Tour since 1998 and the ATP Tour since 2005. For its part, the Lime Rock Park road course has hosted races for the IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series and Rolex Sports Car Series.


State symbols

Tree: White oak (Quercus alba)
Constitution State
Arsenal of the Nation (unofficial)
Nutmeg State (unofficial)
Fossil: Eubrontes giganteus
Flower: Kalmia latifolia
Insect: Praying mantis
Motto: Qui transtulit sustinet
Mammal: Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus)
Mineral: Garnet
Music: Yankee Doodle
Bird: American robin (Turdus migratorius)
Fish: American shad (Alosa sapidissima)
Slogan: Full of Surprises