The state of Massachusetts (USA) borders
New Hampshire and
Vermont to the north, New York to the west,
Rhode Island to the south. To the east lies the Atlantic Ocean.
The islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket lie off the
southeast coast. It is located in the Northeast region of the
country, New England division, bordering to the northwest with
Vermont, to the north with New Hampshire, to the east with the
Gulf of Maine (Atlantic Ocean), to the southeast with Rhode
Island, to the south with Connecticut and to the west with the
state of New York. With 27,336 km² it is the seventh smallest
state - ahead of Vermont, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
Connecticut, Delaware and Rhode Island, the smallest - and with
240 inhabitants/km², the fourth most densely populated, behind
New Jersey, Rhode Island and Connecticut. It was admitted to the
Union on February 6, 1788, as the 6th state.
The state's name derives from the plural of the word Massachusett meaning "the great hill." The capital of Massachusetts is the city of Boston, which is also the most populous city in New England. More than 80% of the population of Massachusetts lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region that influences American history, academia, and industry. Originally dependent on agriculture, fishing, and commerce, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts' economy shifted from manufacturing to services. The state of Massachusetts today is a world leader in biotechnology, engineering, higher education, finance, and maritime commerce.
The state's governor is Maura Healey, and its members of the senate are Elizabeth Warren and Ed Markey. The state is internationally famous for the quality of its universities, among which are Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston College, Boston University, the University of Massachusetts Amherst, Northeastern University, Tufts University or Suffolk University, and for its liberal arts colleges, including Amherst College, Berklee College of Music, Williams College and Clark University. It is also known for its summer resorts in natural settings and its tourist infrastructure. This quality is not exclusive to its famous Cape Cod, but to many other places in New England.
Ten years ago Massachusetts had the highest tax rate of any in the United States, the state earning the nickname Taxachussetts. Today, however, most American states have a higher tax rate than Massachusetts.
The Connecticut River Valley: Franklin, Hampden, and Hampshire Counties
Central Massachusetts: Worcester County and Northwest Middlesex County
Cape Ann: Essex County and Northeast Middlesex County
Norfolk and Suffolk counties and southern Middlesex counties
Bristol and Plymouth counties
and offshore islands: Barnstable, Dukes, and Nantucket counties
Magnificent historic city of Boston is one of the beautiful and unique cities in the United States.
Cambridge – home of Harvard University and the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology
Plimoth Plantation is a museum of the original Plymouth Colony established on this spot in the 17th century by the first English colonists.
The greatest concentration of museums can be found in and around
Boston. Here are some museums further afield:
American Textile History Museum, 491 Dutton St, Lowell. Museum with an exhibition on the history of textile art.
The Art Complex Museum at Duxbury, 189 Alden St, Duxbury. Art museum. Price: Admission free.
Battleship Cove, 5 Water St, Fall River. Considered the world's largest exhibition of historic military ships.
Children's Museum in Easton, 9 Sullivan Ave, North Easton. children's museum.
Hull Lifesaving Museum, 1117 Nantasket Ave, Hull. Museum with an exhibition on sea rescue.
Seekonk Grand Prix, 1098 Fall River Ave, Seekonk. Amusement park in a Massachusetts suburb of Providence, Rhode Island. Several go-kart tracks for drivers of different ages, bumper boats, bumper cars, mini golf and arcade. Not worth the detour (parks like this are ubiquitous in the US), but might be a fun diversion for travelers with kids who are already in Seekonk.
The international airport serving Boston and New England is Logan
International Airport (IATA: BOS). This can also be reached with direct
flights from Germany and Switzerland. Several orders of magnitude
smaller is Nantucket Memorial Airport (ACK) on the island of Nantucket,
which is served mainly during the summer season from various airports
along the US east coast (especially Boston, New York, Washington).
By land, Massachusetts is easily accessible via Amtrak's Acela Express bullet train from Washington DC to Boston via New York. But this is also very expensive. Slightly slower and cheaper is the Northeast Regional train on the same route. From the Great Lakes area (Chicago, Cincinnati, Buffalo) take the Lake Shore Limited to Boston. The Downeaster operates between Boston and the northern state of Maine (Portland, Brunswick).
In the greater Boston area, the MBTA Commuter Rail is a regional rail system with 11 lines and a total of almost 600 km of route network.
Holyoke Mall, 50 Holyoke St, Holyoke. The Holyoke Mall is always a
top-class shopping experience. After shopping, you can comfortably go to
Springfield for a delicious Boston ale. Open: Mon - Sat 10 a.m. - 9.30
p.m., Sun 11 a.m. - 6 p.m.
Interstate 90 cuts beautifully across Massachusetts and is a great way to drive from Boston to Lenox. In Lenox there is a huge outlet mall where you can find branded clothing at very reasonable prices.
Massachusetts is the seventh smallest state in the United States,
located in the New England region in the northeast of the country, with
an area of 27,340 km². It is bordered to the north by New Hampshire and
Vermont, to the west by New York, to the west. south with Connecticut
and Rhode Island, and to the east with the Atlantic Ocean. Massachusetts
is the most populous state in New England.
Massachusetts is nicknamed "The Bay State" because of several large bays that distinctively shape its coastline: Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay to the east; Buzzards Bay, to the south; and several cities and Mount Hope Bay in which several towns are located on the Massachusetts-Rhode Island border. In the southeastern part of the state there is a large sandy arm-shaped peninsula, Cape Cod. The islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket are located south of Cape Cod, across the Nantucket Strait.
The state stretches from the Appalachian Mountains in the west to the beaches and rocky shores of the Atlantic Coast in the east. The central part of the state has rolling, rocky hills, while the west encompasses a fertile valley and the mountains surrounding the Connecticut River, as well as the Berkshire Mountains. The geographic center of Massachusetts is located in the town of Rutland, in the center of Worcester County.
Boston is the most populous city in Massachusetts, located at the mouth of the Charles River, at the most inland point of Massachusetts Bay. Eastern Massachusetts is fairly densely populated and mostly suburban population. In the west lies the Connecticut River Valley, a fairly even mix of urban (e.g., Springfield, Northampton) and rural (Amherst, South Hadley) enclaves, and the Berkshire Mountains (a branch of the Appalachians) that remain primarily rural.
Massachusetts has 351 cities and towns. Each part of the state is located within an incorporated city or town, but many cities include large rural areas. The state's 14 counties have few government functions and serve as little more than judicial districts.
The main biome of inland Massachusetts is the temperate deciduous
forest. Although much of the primary forest has been cleared for
agriculture, leaving only traces in isolated areas, the growth of
secondary forest has regenerated many rural areas, such as abandoned
farms. Forests currently cover about 62% of the state. Areas most
affected by human development include the Boston area in the east, the
Springfield metropolitan area in the west, and the primarily
agricultural Pioneer Valley. have become locally extinct over the last
few centuries includes the gray wolf, elk, wolverine, and cougar.
Several species are not endangered despite increasing urbanization in Massachusetts. The peregrine falcon uses office buildings in large cities as nesting areas, and the population of coyotes, whose diet can include garbage and carrion, has been increasing in recent decades. White-tailed deer, raccoons, wild turkeys and the eastern gray squirrel can also be found throughout Massachusetts. In the more rural areas of the western part of the state, large mammals such as elk and black bears have returned, largely due to reforestation following the decline of the regional agriculture.
Massachusetts is located on the North Atlantic Flyway, a migratory route for waterfowl along the Atlantic coast. Lakes in the center of the state provide habitat for the greater loon, especially Quabbin Reservoir, while a significant population Long-tailed ducks winter off Nantucket. Small islands and beaches are home to the roseate tern and are important breeding grounds for the threatened piping puffin. Protected areas such as the Monomoy Island National Wildlife Refuge provide breeding habitat for critically endangered shorebirds and a variety of marine fauna including a large population of gray seals.
Freshwater fish species in Massachusetts include bass, carp, catfish, and trout, while saltwater species such as cod, haddock, and American lobster populate marine waters. Other marine species such as endangered harbor seals , right whales, as well as humpback whales, fin whales, minke whales and Atlantic dolphins.
The oldest human traces date back to around 10,500
BC. At that time, Massachusetts was south of the North American ice
sheet, which was breaking up at the end of the Ice Age. Around 8000 BC
the megafauna disappeared and the Paleo-Indian cultures were succeeded
by the archaic ones. A distinction is made between three phases, namely
the early, middle and late phase, the limits of which are around 6000
and 4000 BC. The late phase extends to about 1500 BC.
The earliest traces of settlement in the urban area of Boston are those from around 5000 BC.
When the first Europeans came to the region, numerous tribes of the Algonquian language group lived along the coast and inland, such as the Wampanoag, Massachusett, Nauset, Nantucket, Pennacook, Pokanoket and Pocasset. South-central Massachusetts was home to the Mohegan, who included the Nipmuck and Pequot, while west was home to the Mohican, who included the Pocumtuc. Today only the Wampanoag are recognized as a tribe, but there are also five other tribes: the Chappaquiddick Tribe of the Wampanoag Indian Nation around Andover, the Chappiquiddic Band of Massachuset around Pocasset, the Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People around Franklin, the Hassanamisco Nipmuc Tribe in the Hassanamisco Reservation and the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe Mashpee.
Samuel de Champlain met
the Nauset on Cape Cod in 1606. Captain Thomas Hunt captured seven
Nauset and twenty Patuxet in 1614 and sold them as slaves. The Nauset
were initially hostile to the Europeans, but soon allied with them and
became Christians. Mooney estimated in 1928 that there were around 1200
Nauset in 1605. In 1621 there were still around 500 and in 1674 there
were still 462 Nauset. They gathered in Mashpee, where they live to this
In 1614, John Smith was the first European to sail the region. In 1617 the Massachuset, whose number Mooney estimated at 3,000 in 1628, fell victim to a severe epidemic; at the same time they were at war with their northeastern neighbors. In 1631 they numbered only 500 members. The approximately 500 Nipmuck allied themselves in 1675 in the King Philip's War against the colonists; they then had to flee to the Hudson River or to Canada. So did the Pocumtuc, who fled north, and the Pennacook. Beginning in 1675, Native Americans were barred from entering Boston by a law that was not repealed until 2005.
In 1620 the English founded the Plymouth Colony in the southeast of
what later became the state, which existed until 1691. Nine years later,
the Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by English Puritans. In 1630
another Puritan group founded Boston. The two resulting colonies were
united in 1691.
Especially John Eliot (1604-1690) drove the mission among the Indians. They were collected in separate villages, but there they fell victim to diseases introduced by Europeans. Only the descendants of Punkapog live in Canton, Mattapan and Mansfield to this day. For the Housatonic, a tribe of the Mahican, who was allied both with the rebellious colonies against the British colonial power and previously with them against the French, Stockbridge was built in western Massachusetts in 1739, where a mission station existed; nevertheless, they were later resettled in upstate New York.
From the 18th century
Massachusetts was one of the thirteen colonies that rebelled against British rule during the American Revolution. In 1780, the Massachusetts Constitution was passed, which is still in effect today and is one of the oldest modern constitutions in the world. Around 1800, around 1100 African Americans lived in Boston, making them the largest closed group in North America. The Black Heritage Trail was established to commemorate them. In 1781, the black slave Mum Bett sued for his release and won the case on the basis of the constitution. She changed her name to Elizabeth Freeman.
In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Massachusetts' economy benefited primarily from whaling off the island of Nantucket and the cities of New Bedford and Salem, as well as from the cod fisheries, the world's best fishing grounds at the time lying offshore there. Numerous representations and symbols of this fish on coins and as architectural decorations in the capital Boston testify to this. In particular, the Sacred Cod of Massachusetts, a carved cod in the Massachusetts House of Representatives, points to this tradition.
The state of Maine was part of Massachusetts until 1820, although it
was not directly contiguous. The reason for the split was Missouri's
application for admission to the United States. Since this would have
tipped the 11:11 balance between pro-slavery and anti-slavery, the
Missouri Compromise agreed that Maine was separated and incorporated as
a non-slavery state.
During the 19th century Massachusetts became the leading state for the progress of the Industrial Revolution. Numerous factories were built here, producing textiles, paper, tools and shoes. Before the Civil War, Massachusetts was one of the most progressive states on the abolition of slavery. Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson were among the leading American thinkers. Massachusetts was the first state to field a black regiment during the Civil War, the legendary 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry under Robert Gould Shaw. The Robert Gould Shaw Memorial on Boston Common commemorates the 54th Regiment.
In the late 19th century, the Boston and Springfield area industrialized, bringing many workers, b. a. of Irish and Italian descent, offered work that greatly changed the composition of the population. The Great Depression of 1929 hit Massachusetts hard. The Kennedy family of Massachusetts played an important role in American diplomacy and politics. Its most important representatives were Joseph P. Kennedy Sr., John F. Kennedy, Robert F. Kennedy, Ted Kennedy and Eunice Kennedy Shriver, founder of the Special Olympics.
In 1987, work began on the Big Dig, a costly transportation project in Boston.
The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of
Massachusetts was 6,646,144 on July 1, 2012, an increase of 1.5% since
the 2010 census. With 809.8 people per square kilometer in the year As
of 2000, Massachusetts was the third most densely populated state in the
country, behind New Jersey and Rhode Island.
Most residents live within the Boston metropolitan area, also known as Greater Boston, which in its broadest sense includes two large New England cities, Boston and Worcester. The Springfield metropolitan area located in the Connecticut River Valley, also known as Greater Springfield, is the second major metropolitan area in the state, includes the revitalization of the city of Springfield, and an eclectic variety of college towns (e.g., Amherst and Northampton) and rural areas in the north and west of the state. The geographic center of population is in the city of Natick.
Like the rest of the northeastern United States, Massachusetts' population has continued to grow in recent decades, although at a slower rate than states in the South or West. The latest census estimates show that Massachusetts' population grew 3.9% since 2000, compared to nearly 10% nationally. In their decision to leave Massachusetts, longtime residents cite high housing costs and a high cost of living. Another factor has been the transformation from an industrial economy to one based on high technology, leaving few employment options for less qualified workers, especially men.
Foreign immigration offsets these losses, causing the state's population to continue growing as of the 2010 census (especially in cities where the costs of living are lower). According to a study by the Census Bureau in 2005, 40% of foreign immigrants come from Central or South America. Many areas of the state showed relatively stable population trends between 2000 and 2010. The Boston suburbs and coastal areas grew the fastest, while Berkshire County in the west and Barnstable County on Cape Cod were the only counties that showed a decline in population starting in 2010. In 2005, 79% of the state's population spoke English, 7% Spanish, 3.5% Portuguese, and 1% French or Chinese.
According to the 2010 census, the population was 6,547,629
inhabitants, of which 3,166,628 (48.4%) were men and 3,381,001 (51.6%)
were women. Regarding age, 78.3% were over 18 years of age and 13.8%
were over 65 years of age, with an average age of 39.1 years. The
average age for men is 37.7 years and 40.3 years for women.
Regarding race and ethnicity it was:
84.1% white (76.4% non-Hispanic white)
7.8% African Americans
0.5% American Indian or Alaska Native
5.6% Asian (1.9% Chinese, 1.2% Indian and 0.7% Vietnamese)
0.1% Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders
4.7% other races
Hispanics or Latinos of any nationality make up 9.9% of the population.
Non-Hispanic whites are the most populous ethnic group in the state, this group has decreased from 95.4% in 1970 to 76.4% in 2011.6163 As of 2011, they accounted for 63.6% of all births. 64 As late as 1795, almost 95% of the population of Massachusetts was of English descent. In the early and mid-19th century, groups of immigrants from Ireland began to arrive in large numbers. The Irish are the largest group in the state , with almost 25% of the total population. Other groups later arrived from Quebec, as well as from other places in Europe, such as Italy and Poland. In the early 20th century, a number of African Americans immigrated to Massachusetts, although in smaller numbers compared to other northern states. Later in In the 20th century, immigration from Latin America, Africa, and East Asia increased considerably. Massachusetts has the third largest population of Haitians in the United States.
Massachusetts also has a relatively large population of Portuguese. Many of the first Portuguese-speaking immigrants came from the Azores in the 19th century, to work in the whaling industry, in cities such as New Bedford. More waves later arrived, this time to work in the textile industry. Lowell is home to the second largest Cambodian (Khmer) community in the country. The Wampanoag tribe maintains reservations at Aquinnah on Martha's Vineyard, Grafton, and Mashpee on Cape Cod, while the Nipmuck maintain two recognized state reservations in the central part of the state. Although Massachusetts avoided many of the more violent forms of racial strife seen elsewhere in the United States, examples such as the projections of nativist (mainly anti-Catholic) Know Nothing electoral success in the decade of the controversial executions of Sacco and Vanzetti in The 1920s, and Boston's opposition to desegregation of school transportation in the 1970s, show that Massachusetts's ethnic history was not entirely harmonious.
Massachusetts was founded and established by Puritans in the 17th
century, but today their descendants belong to very diverse Churches. In
the direct line of inheritance are the congregational United Church of
Christ and Unitarian Universalists. Both denominations are characterized
by their strong support of social justice, civil rights and moral
issues, such as the abolition of slavery, the strong defense of women's
rights and, after 2000, the legal recognition of marriage of people of
the same sex.
The world headquarters of the Unitarian Universalist Church is located on Beacon Hill in Boston. Today Protestants represent less than a quarter of the State's population. Catholics now predominate due to mass immigration from Ireland, Quebec, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. A large Jewish population arrived in the 1880s–1920s from the Boston area. In 1879 in the city of Boston the Church of Christ, Scientist, commonly called the Christian Science church, was founded. Buddhists, pagans, Hindus, Seventh-day Adventists, Muslims and Mormons can also be found. Kripalu and Insight Meditation Center (Barre) are examples of religious centers in Massachusetts.
According to the Single Association of Religion Data Archives, the denominations with the most members are the Catholic Church, with 3,092,296, the United Church of Christ, with 121,826, and the Episcopal Church with 98,963 adherents, while Jewish congregations had approximately 275,000 members.
Protestants - 23%
Catholics - 34%,
Orthodox Christians - 1%
Other religions - 9%
No religion - 33%
Population by religion
Catholics - 2,380,358
Protestants - 1,610,242
Orthodox Christians - 70,001
Other religions - 630,094
Without religion - 2,310,347
The United States Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that
Massachusetts' gross domestic product in 2008 was $365 billion. Per
capita income was $50,735, the third highest in the nation. 13 Fortune
Companies 500 are located in the state, of which the largest are Liberty
Mutual Insurance Company Group of Boston and MassMutual of Springfield.
CNBC's "Top States for Business for 2010" list recognized Massachusetts
as the fifth best in the nation.
Sectors vital to the economy include higher education, biotechnology, finance, health and tourism. High tech remains an important sector, although few of the largest technology companies are based there. In recent years tourism has played an increasingly important role in the state's economy, with Boston and Cape Cod being the main destinations. Especially in summer, the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket are important tourist destinations, the former being the favorite place of former presidents Clinton and Obama. Other popular tourist destinations include Salem, Plymouth and the Berkshires. In June 2012 the state unemployment rate was 6.0%, well below the national level of 8.2%.
As of 2005, there were 7,700 farms in Massachusetts covering a total of 2,100 km², averaging 0.28 km² each. Nearly 2,300 of the 6,100 farms in the state raised less than $2,500 in 2007. Certain notable agricultural products include tobacco, livestock, fruits, nuts, and berries. It is also the second-largest cranberry-producing state in the union (after of Wisconsin).
The Massachusetts constitution was written by John Adams and passed in 1780, while the Revolutionary War was still going on; four years after the Articles of Confederation were approved and eight years before the Constitution of the United States was ratified, on June 21, 1788. It is currently the oldest written constitution in continuous force in the world. It has been modified 120 times, the last in 2000.
Massachusetts is known for its progressive politics; It is a bastion
of American liberalism and the Democratic Party. In a 2018 Gallup poll,
Massachusetts was the state with the highest percentage of its
population identifying as liberal and the lowest percentage identifying
as conservative, at 35% and 21% respectively.
Since the 2010 census, the state is responsible for electing 9 representatives. Democrats have complete control over Massachusetts' congressional delegation; That is, there are no Republicans elected by the state to serve at the federal level. Both the 2 senators and the 9 representatives are Democrats. Only one Republican (former Senator Scott Brown) has been elected by the state to either house of Congress, since 1994. Massachusetts is the most populous state that is represented in the United States Congress entirely by a single party. .
he head of the state executive is the governor, although there are
also other executive officials who are not under the control of the
governor. The constitution states that certain officials are elected
separately. Some public services or independent agencies are created by
special laws and the governor exercises only indirect control over them,
through appointments. The governor, lieutenant governor, attorney
general, secretary of state, state auditor, and treasurer general are
separately elected officials.
The governor is elected for a 4-year term, as is the lieutenant governor. From 1780 to 1918 the position was elected annually and between 1918 and 1964, every 2 years. In 1966, the candidates for governor and lieutenant governor were allowed to be on the same ballot; to ensure they were from the same party.
There is also a Governor's Council, which consists of eight members, elected by districts every two years. The council provides advice and consent for judicial appointments, appointment of certain public officials, including notaries public and justices of the peace, pardons and commutations of sentences, and authorizes certain payments from the state treasury. The governor presides over the council without the right to vote, and in his absence, by the lieutenant governor.
The governor has a cabinet of eleven secretaries, who oversee state agencies, which are under the governor's direct control. Nine of the secretaries preside over the executive office of their respective areas.
The current governor is Democrat Maura Healey.
The state legislature is formally known as the Massachusetts General
Court, reflecting its colonial-era judicial duties. It has two chambers:
the Senate with 40 members and the House of Representatives with 160
members. Members of both chambers have two-year terms. Each chamber
elects its presidents.
The general court is responsible for enacting the laws of the state. A bill becomes law when it is approved by both chambers and the governor; or if he has vetoed it, if it is approved by two-thirds of both chambers. The laws are published in a bulletin of Massachusetts laws and rulings, which are codified.
The judiciary interprets and applies state law, ensures equality
before the law, and provides a mechanism for dispute resolution. The
Massachusetts court system consists of the Supreme Judicial Court, the
Court of Appeals, and trial courts.
The supreme judicial court oversees the judicial system. It is composed of a president and 6 associate judges, appointed by the governor, with the consent of the governor's council. In addition to its appellate functions, the supreme judicial court is responsible for the governance of the judicial system and the bar, establishes (or approves) the rules for the operation of the courts, and, upon request, provides advisory opinions to the governor and the legislature. on legal matters. This court also oversees affiliated judicial agencies, including the Board of Bar Supervisors, Board of Bar Examiners, Client Safety Board, Mental Health Legal Advisory Committee, and Correctional Legal Services.
There is also a state court of appeals, composed of 25 members, and numerous trial courts.
Massachusetts is divided into 14 counties. Of these, five have
self-government (Barnstable, Bristol, Dukes County, Norfolk, Plymouth)
and two have Nantucket and Suffolk combined city-county government.
Despite this distribution, legal and judicial distinctions are preserved
between the counties, considered different geographical entities,
although not at the political level.
Basketball and volleyball are sports that were invented in
Massachusetts. The state has professional teams in the four major
leagues: the Boston Red Sox of Major League Baseball is the team with
the most championships in this century with four (2004, 2007, 2013,
2018), the New England Patriots of National Football League winners of
the Super Bowl in 2017 and runners-up a year later, the Boston Celtics
of the National Basketball Association, and the Boston Bruins of the
National Hockey League. All of them have achieved multiple national
titles, in particular the Celtics, who together with the Los Angeles
Lakers lead the history of the NBA, with 17 championships. For its part,
the New England Revolution of Major League Soccer has been runner-up
In American college football, the Boston College Eagles have won a championship in the Big East Conference and won the Sugar Bowl and the Cotton Bowl, while the Harvard Crimson were national champions eight times between 1875 and 1919. In college basketball, the Holy Cross The Crusaders were NCAA champions and the Boston College Eagles reached the quarterfinals three times.
The Boston Marathon is one of the most prestigious in the world, and has been held since 1897.
The Country Club of Brookline was one of those that founded the United States Golf Association, and hosted the US Open and the Ryder Cup. Meanwhile, the Deutsche Bank Championship has been held since 2003 at the TPC in Boston.