Vermont — a
federal state in the northeastern part of the United States. The
capital is Montpellier.
Vermont is located in the New England region, on the northwestern side of the United States. According to the size of the surface, Vermont is the 43rd state in America with 24,000 km². Vermont has a population of 630,337 as of the 2010 census and is the second smallest state in the United States, second only to Wyoming. This is the only state in America that does not border the Atlantic Ocean. Lake Champlain occupies half of Vermont's western border, which shares the border with New York. Vermont borders Massachusetts to the south, New Hampshire to the east, New York to the west, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. Vermont is inhabited by two major American tribes (the Algonquin tribe who spoke the Abenaki language and the Iroquois tribe), most of the territory of present-day Vermont was conquered by France in the early colonial period. For many years, nearby colonies, especially New Hampshire and New York, had control of the territory (then called the New Hampshire Grants). The settlers who lived in that territory fought and created an independent state – the Republic of Vermont. It was created in 1777 during the Revolutionary War and existed for fourteen years. Vermont is one of the seventeen US states (along with Texas, Hawaii, the California Republic, and each of the Thirteen Colonies) that had a monarchist government. In 1791 Vermont joined the United States as the fourteenth state, the first outside the Thirteen Colonies. It did not support slavery while independent and after entering the Union became the first country to do so. Vermont is the largest producer of maple malt in America. The state capital is Montpellier, which with a population of 7,885 is the most populous capital in America. The most populated city is Burlington, whose population is 211,261 inhabitants. Burlington is located in the heart of Chittenden County with a population of 160,000 as of the 2010 census.
Founded in 1777, Vermont is the fourteenth state in America and
is the oldest state not to be part of the thirteen colonies that
formed the United States in 1787 with the constitution. Vermont
joined this union four years later as the 14th state.
The name 'Vermont' probably derives from (ancient) French verts monts "green mountains". However, it is not - as is sometimes assumed - to be attributed to French settlers (there were only large numbers of them in Maine), but to the sympathy of the American founding generation for France, which supported the United States' striving for independence. This francophilia is also reflected in the name of the state capital, Montpelier.
1 Montpelier – Capital of Vermont
2 Burlington – Vermont's largest city with approximately forty thousand residents
5 Rutland (Vermont)
One of Vermont's greatest attractions is the fall foliage color. Americans from other parts of the country and even foreign tourists come to the state at this time of year just to enjoy the amazing colors of the forests.
The state's best-known product is maple syrup. 42% of US production of this sweetener comes from Vermont. In many places it is still produced in family businesses in the traditional way: At the end of winter - late February, early March; During the day it has to be above zero, but there is still frost at night - the trees are tapped and the escaping sap is collected in buckets. This juice is then boiled down in "evaporators" to a viscous concentrate: maple syrup.
Vermont is located in New England, in the northeastern United States.
The territory of the state includes 23,955 km² of land and 968 km² of
water surface, the total area is 24,923 km² (the 45th of the 50 US
The west bank of the Connecticut River separates Vermont from New Hampshire to the east (the river itself is part of New Hampshire). Vermont's main lake, Lake Champlain, which is the sixth largest freshwater lake in the United States, separates Vermont from New York State in the northwest.
The length of Vermont from north to south is 256 km. The largest width of the state from west to east is 143 km (on the border with Canada), and the smallest is only 60 km (near Massachusetts). The geographical center of the state is the town of Washington, 5 kilometers east of Roxbury.
The state has six natural geographic regions: the Northeastern Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain Lowlands, the Valley of Vermont ) and the foothills of Mount Vermont (the Vermont Piedmont).
The exact origin of the unofficial name "Green Mountains State" has not been established. Some researchers believe that this name is due to the dense (compared to forests in the higher mountains of New Hampshire and New York) Vermont forest. Others believe that Vermont is so named because of the greenish mica schist that prevails here.
Although these settlements are large enough to be considered cities they are not incorporated as such. 2010 census population of large towns: Essex - 19,687, Colchester - 17,067, Bennington - 15,764, Brattleboro - 12,046, Milton - 10,352, Hartford - 9,952, Springfield - 9,373, Willingston - 8,698 , Middlebury - 8 496, Barrie - 7 924, St. Jonesbury - 7 603, Shelburne - 7 144 inhabitants.
Vermont has a humid continental climate, with hot, humid summers and
cold winters that are very cold indeed. Vermont has a Köppen climate
class that is similar to that of Minsk, Stockholm and Fargo.
Vermont is known for its spring precipitation, followed by a generally wet and early summer, a warm August, a colorful fall, and especially cold winters. The rural Northeast in winter often reaches 5.56 degrees Celsius colder than the southern parts of the country. The annual average snowfall is between 153cm and 254cm depending on the altitude. Vermont's annual average temperature is 6 degrees Fahrenheit. And with that it is the seventh coldest country in the United States of America. In the fall, as winter slowly begins to set in, the hills of Vermont are painted with the reds, oranges and golds of the maple forest. The highest temperature recorded in Vermont was 41 degrees Fahrenheit in the town of Vernon on July 4, 1911, while the lowest temperature recorded was -46 degrees Fahrenheit in Bloomfield on December 30, 1933; this is the coldest temperature recorded in New England as well (Big Black River, Maine also measured -46 degrees Fahrenheit in 2009). The agricultural season does not limit us to 0d 120 to 180 days. The Earth receives between 2,000 and 2,400 hours of sunshine per year.
There are five physiographic regions in Vermont. Categorized by
geologic and physical attributes, those five regions are: the Northeast
Highlands, the Green Mountains, the Taconic Mountains, the Champlain
Lowlands, and the Vermont Piedmont. About 500 million years ago, Vermont
was part of Laurentia and was located in the tropics. The central and
southern ranges of the Green Mountains include the oldest rocks in
Vermont, formed about a billion years ago during the first mountain
formation (or orogeny). Later, about 400 billion years ago, the second
period of mountain formation produced the peaks of the Green Mountains
which were 14 600 – 6 100 m above sea level, three or four times the
current elevation compared to the Himalayas. The geologic thrusts that
created those peaks became known as the Champlain Thrusts, running from
north to south, east of the mountains (now the eastern shore of Lake
Champlain). As a result of tectonic formation, the portion of Vermont
east of the Green Mountains is composed of rocks that formed during the
Silurian and Devonian periods. Western Vermont is formed mostly of older
Precambrian and Cambrian material. Some buildings that have been built
in Germany, Hong Kong and Abu Dhabi were first constructed from Vermont
granite. There are eight different colors of granite available in
Vermont including: Berry Gray, Sparkling White. Galactic Blue, Soft
Pink, American Black, Gardenia White, Laurentian Pink and Stansted Grey.
Remnants of the Chezy formation can be seen on the island of La Motte. It was one of the first tropical reefs. It is the side of the Fick Quarry Limestone, which consists of ancient marine fossils such as stomatoporoids. Those fossils date back to 200 billion years ago. It was believed that at some point Vermont was connected to Africa and that fossils and rocks found on the coasts of Africa and America are further evidence of the Pangea theory.
In the past four centuries, Vermont has experienced several earthquakes whose epicenter was rarely located in Vermont territory, the strongest of which was in 1952 with a magnitude of 6.0 on the Richter scale.
Vermont is mostly made up of mixed forests. Most of the state,
especially the Green Mountains, is covered in evergreen trees and
northern hardwoods. The western border with New York and the area around
Lake Champlain lies in the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forest. The
southwestern corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River are
covered by a northeastern riparian mixed oak forest. The state contains
41 species of lizards and amphibians, 89 species of fish, 12 of which
are not native but brought from abroad, 193 species of birds, 58 species
of mammals, more than 15,000 species of insects and 2,000 high-growing
plants. , plus fungi, algae and 75 different types of natural
In the mid-19th century, wild geese were driven off the land by hunting and habitat destruction. Sixteen geese were reintroduced in 1969 and had an increase of 45,000 in 2009.
Since the 1970s, the reduction of farms has resulted in reduced habitat and declining numbers of birds including the American woodcock, the brown thrasher, and others.
White-nose syndrome killed nearly two-thirds of all bats in the state from 2008 to 2010.
Many of Vermont's rivers, including the Winuskay River, are regulated in order to avoid flooding.
Between 8500 and 7000 BC, when the Champlain Sea existed, Native Americans settled and hunted in Vermont. During the ancient period, from the 8th millennium BC to 1000 BC, Native Americans migrated about once a year. During the Wood Age, from 1000 BCE to 1600, new villages and networks were established and pottery and bow and arrow technology were developed. After Vermont before Columbus, the western part of the state was home to a small population of Algonquian tribes, including the Mohicans and the Abenaki. Sometime between 1500 and 1600, the Iroquois drove many of the smaller native tribes out of Vermont, later using the area as a hunting and warfare area with the Abenaki tribe that remained in Vermont territory. The population in 1500 was estimated at 10,000 people.
The first European to see Vermont is thought to have been Jacques Cartier in 1535. On July 30, 1609, French explorer Samuel de Champlain claimed Vermont as part of New France and in 1666 erected Fort Lamott, which was the first European settlement in Vermont. In 1638, a "violent" earthquake was felt in New England, centered in the valley of St. Lawrence. This was the first seismic event recorded in Vermont. In 1690, a group of Dutch-British settlers from Albany established a settlement and trading post at Chimney, 13 km west of present-day Addison. The first permanent British settlement was established in 1724 with the construction of Fort Dummer, protecting the nearby settlements of Dummerstony Brotherborough. From 1731 – 1734, the French built Fort St. Frederick which gave the French control of the New France/Vermont border region of Lake Champlain. With the outbreak of the French–Indian War in 1754, the French began construction of Fort Carillon in present-day Ticonderoga, New York in 1755. The British failed to capture the fortress of St. Frederick or Fort Carillon between 1755 and 1758. In 1759, a combined army of 12,000 British regular and provincial troops under Sir Jeffery Amherst captured Carillon and the French abandoned Fort St. Frederick. Amherst then built the Crown Fort next to the remains of Fort St. Frederick, securing British control of the site. After France's loss in the French–Indian War, the Treaty of Paris in 1763 gave the British control of the land. Colonial settlement was limited by land acquisition east of the Appalachians. Vermont was divided almost in half by a curved line that ran from Fort William Henry to Lake George diagonally northeast to Lake Memphremagog. The end of the war brought new settlers to Vermont. Eventually, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and New York all won/gained this front area. On March 20, 1764, King George III established the boundary between New Hampshire and New York along the west bank of the Connecticut River, north of Massachusetts, and south of 45 degrees north latitude. When New York did not accept the names of lands known as New Hampshire Grants (towns created by grants of land sold by New Hampshire Governor Benning Wentbort), disgruntled colonists organized in opposition, leading to the creation of Vermont's independence on January 15, 1777. . In 1770, Ethan Allen, his brothers Ira and Levi, and Seth Warner recruited an informal militia, known as the Green Mountain Boys, to protect the interests of the original New Hampshire settlers against new settlers from New York.
On January 15, 1777, representatives of New Hampshire declared the independence of Vermont. For the first six months of its existence, it was called the Republic of New Connecticut. On June 2, 1777, a second convention of 72 delegates met to adopt the name "Vermont." This was on the advice of a friendly Pennsylvanian who wrote to them how to gain admission into the newly independent United States as 14 states. On July 4, the Vermont Constitution was voted on at the Windsor Tavern, and was adopted by the delegates on July 8. The Constitution was among the first written constitutions in North America and was arguably the first to abolish the institution of slavery, grant the right to vote to every adult male, and require the support of public schools. It was in force from 1777 to 1791. Slavery was again outlawed by state law on November 25, 1858.
The Battle of Bennington The Battle of Bennington, fought on August 16, 1777, was a pivotal event in the history of the state of Vermont. A combined American force, under General Stark, attacked the British column at Hoosick, New York, across the border from Bennington, and killed or captured nearly the entire British detachment. General Burgon never recovered from this loss and eventually surrendered the remainder of his force. 6,000 men at Saratoga, New York, on October 17. The Battles of Bennington and Saratoga are known as a turning point in the Revolutionary War because they were the first major defeat of the British Army. The anniversary of the battle is still celebrated in Vermont as a state holiday. The Battle of Hubbarton (July 7, 1777) was the only battle fought in present-day Vermont, and although the Continental forces were technically defeated, the British forces were damaged to the point that they did not pursue the retreating Americans from Fort Ticonderoga.
Vermont continued to govern itself as a sovereign entity located in the eastern part of the city of Windsor for fourteen years. The independent state of Vermont issued its own coins from 1785 to 1788 and provided postal service throughout the state. Thomas Chittenden was governor from 1778-1789 and in 1790-1791. The state was required to settle conflicting property disputes with New Yorkers. In 1791, Vermont joined the state union as the fourteenth state and the first to enter the union after the thirteen original colonies. From the mid-1850s onwards, changes can be seen among Vermonters, from people who mainly favor the retention of slaves, to far more serious opposition to the institution of slavery, creating the Radical Republicans and the abolitionist (opponent of slavery) Thaddeus Stevens. As the Whig party waned and the Republican party emerged, Vermont stood firm in supporting its candidates. In 1860 Vermont voted for President Abraham Lincoln, giving him the largest margin of victory of any state.
Vermont in the American Civil War During the American Civil War, Vermont sent more than 34,000 men to serve in the United States. Almost 2,500 ie. 15 percent were killed or mortally wounded in action or died of disease, a higher percentage than any other country. The northernmost land action of the war, St. Albans, took place in Vermont.
The first election in which women were allowed to vote was on December 18, 1880, when women were given the legal right to vote and were first allowed to vote and participate in city elections and then in state legislative races. Major floods occurred in early November 1927. During this incident, 84 people died, including the deputy governor of the state. In 1938, a New England hurricane blew away 15,000,000 acres (61,000 m²) of timber, one-third of the total forested area in New England at the time. Many of the older trees in the state are about 75 years old, dating back to the storm. Another flood occurred in 1973, causing the death of two people and millions of dollars in property damage. In 1964, the US Supreme Court's decision in Reynolds v. Sims, which imposed a statewide "one man, one vote" policy, required major changes in Vermont, giving cities a proportional share of the vote in both houses for the entire state. Until then, states were often represented by district in the state senate and were often apathetic to possible solutions to urban problems that could raise taxes. 2011 Vermont has another flood caused by Tropical Storm Irene, one of the worst of the 20th and 21st centuries, second only to the 1927 flood.
The center of population of Vermont is located in Washington County in the city of Warren. According to the US Census Bureau, as of 2005, Vermont had an estimated population of 623,050, an increase of 1.18 or 0.3 percent from the previous year and an increase of 14,223 or 2.3 percent from 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 7,148 people (33,606 births minus 26,458 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 7,889 people into the state. Immigration from outside the borders of the United States resulted in a net increase of 4,359 people, and migration within the country itself contributed to a net increase of 5,530 people. As of 2009, 47.8% of Vermont's population was born outside the state, with first- and second-generation Vermonters representing the majority of the population. Vermont is the least populated state in New England. In 2006, it had the second lowest birth rate in the country, 42/1000 women. The average age of the workforce was 42.3, which was the highest in the country. In 2009, 12.6 percent of people over the age of 15 were divorced. This was the fifth highest percentage in the country.
In 2008, more than half of Vermonters identified as Christian. The largest single religious body in the state is the Roman Catholic Church. According to archived data on religious people carried out by the association ARDA, in 2000 the Catholic Church had 147,918 members. Nearly one-third of Vermont's population self-identified as Protestant. The Common United Church of Jesus is the largest Protestant denomination (21,597) and Vermont has the largest percentage of this denomination in the state. The number of communities of the United Church of Jesus was greater than the number of Catholic communities. The second largest Protestant denomination is the Evangelical-Methodist Church with 19,000 members, followed by the Episcopal, other Christian and Baptist churches. 24% of Vermont's population attends church regularly. In 2008, 34% of the population did not declare themselves to be of any religion, this was the highest percentage in the country. One study suggested that people in Vermont and New Hampshire, polled together, were less likely to attend Sunday services and less likely to believe in God (54%) than people in the rest of the nation (71%). Both states were at the lowest levels among states for religious commitment. About 23% of respondents attend a church service at least once a week (39% nationally). 36% stated that religion is very important to them (56% nationally). Joseph Smith Jr. and Brigham Young, the first two leaders of the Church of Jesus Christ, were born in Vermont. Joseph Smith's memorial, at his birthplace in Sharon, attracts about 70,000 visitors a year. As of 2010, the church reported 4,386 members in twelve communities across the state. Vermont may have the largest concentration of Western-oriented Buddhists in the country February 000 people of the Islamic faith are estimated to live in the state.
In 2007, Vermont was ranked by Forbes magazine as 32nd among states with a favorable climate for business. It was the 30th the previous year. In 2008, an economist stated that the state has "really stagnated the economy, which is what we predict for the next 30 years for Vermont" May 2010, unemployment at 6.2% was the fourth lowest rate in the state. This rate reflects the second-lowest decline among the 50 states since the previous May. According to the US Bureau of Economic Analysis in 2010, Vermont's Gross Domestic Product was $26 billion. This places the state at number 50 out of 50 states. Canada was Vermont's largest foreign trading partner in 2007. The country's second largest foreign trade partner was Taiwan. One of the measures of economic activity is retail sales. The state had $52 billion in 2007. In 2008, 8,631 new businesses registered in Vermont, a decrease of 500 from 2007.
Median household income in 2002-2004 was $45,692. This was the 15th place seen at the national level. The national median wage in 2008 was $15.31 per hour or $31,845 per year. About 80 percent of the 68,000 Vermonters eligible for food stamps actually received them in 2007. 40 percent of seniors, people age 75 or older live on annual incomes of $21,660 or less.
Agriculture contributes $26 billion, about 12%, directly or indirectly to the state's economy. However, another study claims that agriculture contributes 2.2 percent of the state's domestic product. In 2000, about 3 percent of the country's working population was engaged in agriculture. Over the past two centuries, logging has declined as over-cutting and exploitation of other forests has made Vermont's forest less attractive. The decline of farms has resulted in the regrowth of Vermont's forests, due to environmental consequences. Today, most of Vermont's forests are secondary. State and non-profit organizations actively encourage regrowth and careful forest management. Over 78 percent of the country's surface is forested. More than 85 percent of that area is non-industrial and privately owned by individuals or families. Agriculture, dairy work and primary source of farm income. In the last half of the 20th century, developers had plans to build houses on open land that were very cheap. The Vermont government responded with a series of laws controlling development and some pioneering initiatives to prevent the loss of Vermont's dairy industry. However, the number of beef farms in Vermont has declined by more than 85% from the 11,206 that operated in 1947. In 2003, there were fewer than 1,500 beef farms in the state; in 2006 there were 1,138; in 2007 there were 1,087. The number of cattle farms is decreasing by 10% every year. The number of livestock in Vermont has decreased by 40%, yet milk production has doubled in the same period and is due to the tripling of cow's milk production. While milk production has increased, Vermont's share of the market has decreased. In the group of states supplying the Boston and New York markets, Vermont was third in market share with 10.6%; New York has 44.9% and Pennsylvania has 32.9%. In 2007, livestock farmers made a record $23.60 for 45 kg of milk. In 2008 this sale dropped to $17. An average dairy farm produced 0.585 million kilograms of milk annually during 2008. Dairy farms remain an iconic image of Vermont, but with an 87% decline in active dairy farms between 1947 and 2003, the preservation of dairy barns has become increasingly dependent on the obligation to maintain heritage rather than a basic need of the agricultural economy. The Vermont Census of Barns, organized as a result of a collaboration of educational and nonprofit state and local historic preservation programs, has developed educational and administrative systems for recording the number, condition, and features of Vermont's barns. In 2009, there were 543 organic farms. Twenty percent of cow farms are organic and 23% (128) vegetable farms are organic. Organic farming increases in 2006-07 and stagnates in 2008-09. It remains at the same level in 2010. A considerable quantity of milk is shipped to the Boston markets. That's why Massachusetts Public Health certifies that Vermont farms meet Massachusetts sanitary standards. Without this certificate, the farmer cannot sell milk for distribution in the bulk market. An important and growing part of Vermont's economy is the production and sale of products that have been a Vermont trademark. Vermont developed its own brand of products that the state managed and protected. Examples of specialty exports of Vermont products include: Cabot Cheese, Vermont Teddy Bear Company, Fine Paints of Europe, Vermont Butter and Cheese Company, several small breweries, Barton Boards for snow, chocolates - Lake Champlain, flour - King Arthur and Ben and Jerry's ice cream. There were approximately 2,000 manufacturers of maple products in 2010. In 2001, Vermont produced 1,040,000 gallons of maple malt, about a quarter of the US production. For 2005, this number was 1,600,000 liters, occupying 37% of the state production. This increased to 3,500,000 liters in 2009. Vermont's wine industry began in 1985. Today there are 14 wineries. An estimated 2,000 illegal immigrants have been hired from farms in the state since 2005. The local authorities ignored the problem, sympathizing in a way with the employers and allowing them to run the farms successfully.
The largest profitable employer, IBM in Essex, provides 25% of all manufacturing jobs in Vermont, employing 6,800 workers in 2007. The company is responsible for $1 billion of the state's annual economy. In 2010 a study from the University of Connecticut reported that Vermont, Rhode Island and New Hampshire tied as the most expensive states in the US for manufacturers.
An aging population is expected to improve the position of this industry in the state economy. In 2008, Fletcher Allen Health Center was the second largest employer of people in the state. In 2010, all Vermont hospitals billed patients $3.76 billion and collected $2 billion.
In 2007, Vermont was the 17th state in the nation to allow mortgages. Yet in the other 41 states, residents contributed plus or minus 4% of Vermont's 18.4% of household income to the mortgage. Housing prices did not rise much during the early 2000s. As a result, the collapse in real estate values was not dangerous. While foreclosures increased significantly in 2007, the state ranked 50th in household foreclosures. While home sales declined annually from 2004-2008, prices continued to rise. In 2007, Vermont was the best in the country for building new energy-efficient homes as rated by the US Environmental Protection Agency under the Energy Star program. However, about 60% of Vermont homes were heated with oil in 2008. In August 2008, Vermont costs of various heating sources per 1 million BTU ranged from $14.39 for wood to $43.50 for kerosene. While the number of homes sold in the state fell from 8,318 in 2004 to 8,120 in 2005, 6,919 in 2006 and 5,820 in 2007, the median price continued to rise to $202,500 in 2008 ($200,000 in 2007). In 2009, the average rent for a two-room apartment was $920 per month. Vacant rent was at 5.4%, the lowest in the state February 800 people were considered homeless in January 2010, 22% more than 2008. In 2011, Vermont was fifth among the states with the highest number of foreclosures requiring court processing, which would take an estimated 18 years. The national average was 8 years.
As of 2006, there were 305,000 workers in Vermont. 11% of them were union organized. Out of the workforce of 299,200 workers, 52,000 jobs were in government, federal, state and local government jobs. The modern high unemployment rate of 9% was reached in June 1976. A low of 2.4% was measured in February 2000. As of September 2010, the unemployment rate was 5.8%. Employment grew by 7.5% from 2000 to 2006. From 1980 to 2000, employment increased by 3.4%; at the national level up to 4.6%. Real wages were $33,385 in 2006 and remained so through 2006; nationally $36,871.
Captive insurance plays a significant role in Vermont's economy. With this type of alternative insurance, large corporations or industry associations form independent insurance companies to insure their own risks, thereby significantly reducing their insurance premiums and gaining a significant measure of control over the types of risks that will be covered. There are also significant tax advantages that can be derived from the establishment and operation of tariff insurance companies. According to information from the Insurance Institute, in 2009 Vermont was the third largest residence in the world for rate insurance companies, after Bermuda and the Cayman Islands. In 2009, there were 560 such companies. In 2010, the state had 900 such companies.
"Moonlight Over Vermont" — 1969 song by American rock musician Captain Beefheart.
Vermont hosts a number of festivals including the Vermont Maple Festival, Greenery Festival, Apple Festival, Marlborough Music Festival. The symphony orchestra is supported by the state and performs throughout its territory. The Poetry Society publishes the literary magazine Troubadour of the Green Mountains. The Brattleboro-based Theater Company holds a Shakespeare Festival each summer. Montpelier hosts the annual Green Mountains Film Festival. One of Vermont's landmarks is the birthplace memorial of Joseph Smith, the founder of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, whose members are better known as Mormons, in the town of Sharon.