Bahuaja Sonene National Park


Location: 37 mi (60 km) South-west from Puerto Maldonado Map

Area: 1,092,142 ha (4,216.78 sq mi)


Description of Bahuaja Sonene National Park

Bahuaja Sonene National Park is located 37 mi (60 km) South-west from Puerto Maldonado in Peru. This national park covers an area of 1,092,142 ha (4,216.78 sq mi). Bahuaja Sonene National Park is a protected area situate in the Tambopata and Carabaya Provinces in the South- East area of Peru. The closest settlement to the park entrance is Puerto Maldonado. This portion of the Amazon rainforest contains an incredible diversity of flora and fauna including over 20,000 plant species, more than 600 bird species, over 170 mammal species, at least 100 species of reptiles and amphibians, more than 230 species of fish and over 1300 species of butterflies.
Bahuaja Sonene National Park is dominated by tropical level of humidity. The average annual temperature is about 26 C or 79 F. The worst time to visit Bahuaja Sonene National Park is between December and March that are wet months of the year. While average annual rainfall varies between 1600 millimetres (63 inches) and 2400 millimetres (94 inches), most of precipitations fall during these months.



The park tries to preserve a mosaic of different habitats that combines many elements of the biodiversity of the southern and northern Amazon. The park protects unique areas of Peru, such as the humid tropical savannah of the Pampas del Heath on the Río Heath and the formations of the Valley of Candamo in the Selva de Candamo. The indigenous minority of the Ese-eja Indians lives in the park, and their cultural characteristics are also protected. The Amazon rainforest ecoregion serves as a typical tropical forest and montane rainforest habitat. The area features lakes or lagoons, palm swamps and seasonally flooded areas. The Pampas del Heath was declared a protected area in 1983. From December to April, the flat grassland, which is dotted with small groups of palms up to 2 meters high, is flooded so that the palm trees form small islands. It forms the southern border of the tropical forests and then merges into the Benian flooded savannah of the Moxos plain. Much of the area now belongs to the Ese-eja ethnic group, of the Tacana language family, which is now concentrated in the communities of Infierno, Palma Real and Sonene just on the edge of the park. A fourth community called Kotsimba belongs to the Pukirieri ethnic group.


Flora and fauna

The park has a remarkable biodiversity.

Among the at least 180 species of mammals are u. forest dog (Speothos venaticus), maikong (Cerdocyon thous), short-eared fox (Atelocynus microtis), giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis), marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), the black-faced spider monkey (Ateles chamek) and the jaguar (Panthera onca). In 2012, the bat species Trinycteris nicefori and eastern pipistrelle (Pipistrellus subflavus) were detected in the park for the first time.

At least 600 bird species are known in the park, with approximately 376 occurring on the Río Heath. So live here u. Black tinamu (Tinamus osgoodi), red-throated tinamu (Crypturellus strigulosus), black-capped tinamu (Crypturellus atrocapillus), orinoco goose (Neochen jubata), harpies (Harpia harpyja), white-browed buzzard (Leucopternis kuhli), strangler eagle (Morphnus guianensis), white-winged trumpeter (Psophia leucoptera), Dusky Parrot (Pionites leucogaster), Blue-headed Macaw (Primolius couloni), Black-capped Parakeet (Pyrrhura rupicola), Amazon Parakeet (Nannopsittaca dachilleae), Orange-backed Hummingbird (Phaethornis philippii), Dalmatian Macaw (Pteroglossus beauharnaesii), Gold-fronted Pygmy Woodpecker (Picumnus aurifrons), White-throated Painter (Brachygalba). albogularis), Blue-fronted Shining-bird (Galbula cyanescens), Half-ringed Slothbird (Malacoptila semicincta), Western Yellow-bellied Pipra (Neopelma sulphureiventer), Yungaspipra (Chiroxiphia boliviana), Black-capped Pipra (Heterocercus linteatus), Striped-breasted Todityrane (Hemitriccus flammulatus), White-bellied Scaly-headed Tyrant ( Lophotriccus eulophotes), Weisswangen-To dityrann (Poecilotriccus albifacies), bamboo ant shrike (Cymbilaimus sanctaemariae), blue-grey shrike (Thamnomanes schistogynus), olive brown ant-shrike (Epinecrophylla leucophthalma), yellow-striped ant-shrike (Myrmotherula sclateri), manua ant-shrike (Myrmotherula iheringi), manua ant-shrike (Myrmotherula iheringi), gray ant-shrike (Cercomacra manu). maculicauda), Red-crested Antbird (Myrmoborus lophotes), Goeldia Antbird (Akletos goeldii), Banded-tailed Antbird (Gymnopithys salvini), Rust-fronted Ant-Thrush (Formicarius rufifrons), Olive-mantled Antpitta (Hylopezus berlepschi), Strong-billed Leaf Scout (Syndactyla ucayalae), Rust-crowned -Dutch tanagers (Synallaxis cabanisi), black-capped bunting (Coryphaspiza melanotis), mirror-tanagers (Conothraupis speculigera), tanagers (Tachyphonus rufiventer), buff-fronted tanagers (Lanio versicolor) and scarlet-headed barbets (Eubucco tucinkae). Also, seven species of Scarlet Macaw (Ara), Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea ajaja) and King Vulture (Sarcoramphus papa) occur in the park. Among the thirty new species of birds found in the park during a 2012 study are: Magpie's eagle (Spizaetus melanoleucus), Wilson's water treader (Steganopus tricolor) and gray-throated cuckoo (Coccycua cinerea).

Among the reptiles one can find the black caiman (Melanosuchus niger), the giant anaconda (Eunectes murinus) and the Terekay track turtle (Podocnemis unifilis). Some of the frogs in the park include: Ameerega simulans and the giant lemur frog.

So far, at least 180 species of fish have been discovered in the park.

With 1200 species of butterflies, the biodiversity in the park is huge.

Among the plants one can find the Buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa), Hevea guianensis and Cedrelinga cateniformis, West Indian cedar (Cedrela odorata), American mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla), Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa) and various palms such as Iriartea deltoidea, Euterpe sp. or Oenocarpus bataua.



The park is at an interface between humid tropical and subtropical Amazonian climates. Average annual precipitation is equivalent to 2,400 mm. The average temperature is 30 °C. In summer up to 38 °C can be reached. Occasionally the temperature drops to 8 °C. Then Antarctic winds penetrate the park, eventually resulting in low temperatures in June and July. With the rainy season from December to March, the plains are covered with water resulting in huge swamp formation.