Language: Portuguese

Currency: Kwanza (AOA)

Calling code: +244


Angola, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country on the west coast of Africa, whose main territory is bordered to the North and Northeast by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the East by Zambia, to the South by Namibia and to the West by The Atlantic Ocean. It also includes the exclave of Cabinda, through which it borders the Republic of Congo to the North. In addition to the neighbors already mentioned, Angola is the closest country to the British colony of Saint Helena.

The Portuguese have been present since the fifteenth century in some parts of what is now the territory of Angola, interacting in various ways with the native peoples, especially with the inhabitants of the coast. The first European to arrive in Angola was the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão. Angola was a Portuguese colony that only covered the current territory of the country in the nineteenth century and the "effective occupation", as determined by the Berlin Conference in 1884, happened only in the 1920s.

Independence from Portuguese rule was achieved in 1975, after a war of independence. Brazil was the first country to recognize the country's independence, still in 1975. After independence, Angola was the scene of a long and devastating civil war, from 1975 to 2002, mainly between the MPLA and UNITA. Despite internal conflict, areas such as lower Cassanje kept their regional monarchical systems active. In 2000, a peace agreement was signed with the front for the liberation of the enclave of Cabinda, a guerrilla organization that fights for the secession of Cabinda and is still active. It is from the Cabinda region that approximately 65% of Angola's oil comes out.

The country has vast natural resources, such as large reserves of minerals and oil, and since 1990, its economy has shown growth rates that are among the highest in the world, especially after the end of the civil War. However, Angolan living standards remain low and about 70% of the population lives on less than two dollars a day, while life expectancy and infant mortality rates in the country remain among the worst in the world, in addition to the prominent presence of economic inequality, since most of the country's wealth is concentrated in a disproportionately small part of the population. Angola is also considered one of the least developed countries on the planet according to the United Nations (UN) and one of the most corrupt in the world by Transparency International.



Geographically, Angola can be divided into three regions. The landscape areas begin with the coastal plain, and then pass into the transition zone and further into the eastern highlands inland.

The lowland of the coast includes a strip of the Atlantic Ocean 50 to 150 kilometers wide. The transition zone is characterized by hills and is 150 kilometers wide in the north and 30 kilometers wide in the south. It is adjoined by the Bié Highlands. With an average altitude of 1,200 to 1,800 meters, it covers two-thirds of the country.

In addition, the Cabinda exclave can be considered a separate region, since it is located in the Zaire lowland and is separated from the main state territory.



1 Luanda . The capital of Angola is Luanda, and it is a lively city with a fascinating mix of Portuguese colonial architecture and modern skyscrapers. Visitors can visit the National History Museum, explore the central market Roque Santeiro or enjoy the beautiful beaches in the area.
2 M'banza Congo (M'banza-Congo) . M'banza-Congo was the political, religious and cultural center of the Kingdom of the Congo, which existed between the 14th and 19th centuries. Attractions in M'banza-Congo include royal palaces, churches and royal burial sites.
3 Benguela (São Felipe de Benguela) . This coastal town is known for its relaxed atmosphere, colonial architecture and its proximity to the beaches. Especially the "Praia Morena" is popular with tourists.
4 Lubango . Lubango is located in the Huíla province and is surrounded by breathtaking landscapes. The "Tundavala Gorge" nearby offers a breathtaking view of a gorge and is a popular place for hiking and photography.
5 Namibe. This coastal town in the province of the same name offers a fascinating desert landscape, including the famous desert dunes of "Tômbwa". Here you can also explore some interesting rock formations and caves.
6 Malanje . Malanje is located in the north of Angola and is surrounded by lush vegetation and waterfalls. Especially the "Kalandula Waterfall", one of the largest waterfalls in Africa, is worth a visit.


Travel Destinations in Angola

Cangandala National Park that is located in Malanje Province and covers 600 square km is the smallest national park in the country. Yet it is fairly well developed comparing to the rest of the country.

Iona National Park in Angola is a favorite destination for an african safari. It protects an area of 9,960 km² and it is by far the largest national park in Angola.

 Luanda is the largest city in Angola as well as its capital. It is situated on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in the Sao Paulo Province. Although it does have one of the highest crime rates in the country, it is the most civilized part of the country.

Quicama National Park is about 70 km from country's capital of Luanda and covers approximately 9,960 km² in North- west Angola. It protects an area of wetlands along with grasslands that is full of large animals.


Other destinations

1 Quiçama National Park (Parque Nacional da Quissama) . This is a nature reserve that protects various ecosystems and species of animals, including elephants, giraffes, zebras and various species of birds. The complex includes Kissama National Park and Luando Nature Reserve.
2 Kalandula Waterfalls (Quedas de Calandula) . These impressive waterfalls, also known as Duque de Bragança Waterfalls, are some of the largest in Africa. They are surrounded by lush vegetation and offer an impressive sight.
3 Ilha de Luanda . This island off the coast of Luanda is a popular holiday destination and offers beaches, restaurants and a relaxed atmosphere.
4 Tundavala Gorge (Fenda da Tundavala) . This spectacular gorge is located near Lubango and offers breathtaking views of the surrounding mountains and plateaus. You can go hiking and explore the natural beauty of this region.
Fortaleza de São Miguel: This fortress, built in the 16th century, is located in Luanda and served as an administrative center during the Portuguese colonial period. It is one of the most important historical landmarks in the country.
Ruins of M'banza-Congo: These ruins are located in the province of Zaire and were once the capital of the Kingdom of Congo. They offer insights into the precolonial history and architecture of the region.
Tchitundu-Hulu Caves: These caves in southwestern Angola are decorated with prehistoric rock paintings and testify to the early settlement of the region by hunter-gatherers.
Cidade Velha de Kilwa: This is a historic town on the coast of Angola, which served as a commercial center during the Portuguese colonial period. The ruins of the city offer insights into the transatlantic slave trade history of the region.
Kulumbimbi Rock Paintings: These prehistoric rock paintings are located in the province of Huíla and are an important archaeological and cultural heritage of Angola.


Getting here

Requirements before travelling
Both the German and Swiss Foreign Ministries advise against traveling to the Cabinda 2022 exclave (with the exception of the city of Cabinda).

For tourist entries, EU and EFTA citizens, with the exception of citizens of the European dwarf states, no longer need a visa. They are allowed to stay in the country for thirty days and enter a maximum of three times a year.

In addition, proof of a valid yellow fever vaccination (in Berlin also hepatitis A and B) is required. In addition, proof of US$ 200 per planned day of stay is required. Contrary to international practice, Angolan visas only entitle to entry for 60 days from the date of issue.

For all other purposes, visual endorsements are still required. For some categories, these can also be applied for faster in the SME visa portal to obtain a pre-authorization (pre-autorização) within 72 hours. The prior authorization must then be presented upon entry together with the listed application documents (see embassy websites).

In Germany, the responsible:
Consular section of the embassy. Tel.: +49 30 240 89 728 . The embassy issues visas only for 30 days. The processing time is up to three weeks. There must be enough cash to pay the fee. Open: Pers. Application (according to tel. By appointment), weekdays except Wed.: 9.30-12.30. Price: Tourist (30 days): € 150, Express exhibition (in 8 days) € 250, (within 48 hours): € 500.

In Austria
Consular Section of the Angolan Embassy, Seilerstätte 15/1/10 - 11, 1010 Vienna. Tel.: +43 1 718 74 88 (Information only 15.00-16.30). Tourist visa: up to 3 working days. Also responsible for Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia. Form Download Opened: Tue.-Do. 8.30-12-30, 13.30-16.30, Fr. shorter; appointment is generally desired. Price: Tourist € 200 (Express € 400). Payment of fees via ATMs in the house or bank transfer.

In Switzerland
Section consulaire de l'ambassade, Thunstrasse 73, 3006 Berne. The duration of the exhibition is 3 working days, but the application must be submitted at least 3 weeks before arrival. Passport-remaining valid for at least one year, proof of accommodation. Tourist Visa Formdownload Open: Mon.-Do. 9.00-13.00, Fr. until 12.00; application for fingerprinting in person only Mon, Tue. 9.30-12.30. Price: Tourist: 210 sfr.

Customs regulation
The controls at the airport in Luanda are strict.

Free quantities:
1 l of brandy or 2 l of wine
400 Cigarettes
50 ml of perfume
Cash US$ 5000 (above declaration); import and export of the national currency is prohibited
max. 2 used electrical appliances

International Airport: Luanda (4 de Fevereiro) (IATA: LAD) , 4 km southeast of the city. Flights are operated by British Airways (via London), TAP Portugal (via Lisbon) and Ethiopian Airlines from Frankfurt am Main Airport. The ticket price for the return flight starts at about 500 €.

There are no rail connections to Angola.

By bus
Border crossings of Namibia are open. No carnet de passage was required. Motorcycles are registered in Germany and Switzerland.(As of: Jan 2007)


Local transport

By plane
TAAG Angola Airlines offers regular flights throughout the country departing from Luanda to Cabinda, Catumbela, Dundo, Harare, Huambo, Kuito, Lubango, Luena, Menongue, Moçâmedes, Ondjiva, Saurimo, Soyo and Uíge

By boat
A passenger ferry connects Luanda with the oil port of Soyo and the enclave of Cabinda. Schedules and operators have changed over the years, inquiring directly at the port is probably the easiest way to get information.

By car
The main roads in Luanda and the provinces are in relatively good condition. However, during the rainy season (November-April), bridges and even roads can be washed away by water. When traveling outside of Luanda, travel with someone who knows the local conditions, as conditions can be difficult. When traveling in rural areas, beware of landmines. There may be a lack of gasoline. Avoid driving after dark.

By taxi
Taxi drivers have a habit of charging tourists more. On average distance the taxi costs 150 Kz. Do not give more than 150 Kz in a medium-distance taxi, as these take advantage and change the price.

We also have private taxis, which are at the door of the airport, and can take you to your final destination; the cost is timed, depending on the distance.

By bus / coach
There are some private bus companies that offer services like MACOM and SGO being the largest. These companies offer a wide range of services that deal with places one wants to travel, especially interprovincial courses. There are lines connecting most of the major cities of the country from the coast to the interior. Local transportation is not safe.

By train / train
Angola's railway system is finally being restored with the help of Chinese companies after more than 30 years of disuse. There are three main lines that reflect the country's colonial past, running from the inland to the coast. They do not connect with each other.

The northern Luanda Railway (CFL) line between the capital Luanda and Malenje is back in full service. There are three classes, first, with reclining leather seats with individual television sets; Exspresso, with comfortable chairs arranged in fours around communal tables and televisions; and Tramway, the cheapest option equipped with benches to maximize passenger numbers. Ticket prices hover around 2,500 kwanzas ($26; $ 17). The platforms are clean, Moderna carriages with functional toilets and a restaurant car. There are daily departures.
The middle line, Benguela Railway (CFB) has just started services between Lobito, Cubal and Huambo, with some trains continuing to Luau on the border with the Democratic Republic of Congo. There are several matches per week.
The southern route Mocamedes Railway (CFM) runs between Namibe, Lubango and Menongue.



The official language of Angola is Portuguese, although numerous African languages such as Kimbundu, Kikongo, Umbundu and Chokwe are also spoken in the country.



The national currency Kwanza (bank abbreviation AOA) was € 1 = 550 Kw in October 2023. value. Only 50000 Kwanza can be withdrawn from the machine every day. There are few exchange offices. (As of: Oct 2023)



The traditional cuisine of Angola is influenced by Portuguese and Mozambican, having also received in recent years a strong influence from Brazilian cuisine.

The most commonly used ingredients are cereals grown for centuries in the country, among them sorghum, millet and corn, as well as Friar beans, lentils, yams, dinhungo (mutton squash) and okra. Among the fruits, the highlights are for watermelon, tamarind and imbondeiro fruit. Palm oil (palm oil) is important in the preparation of various recipes.

The most popular dish in Angola is funge or funji, a dough cooked from corn or cassava flour. It can accompany meat or fish. Another traditional recipe is muamba, which can be prepared with chicken, dried meat or fish, accompanied by okra and palm oil.

erally, dining out is not ery easy in Angola, since e en in Luanda restaurant food is expensi E and many of the less well-equipped restaurants ha e poor hygiene. However, Angolan cuisine is varied and tasty, with local dishes based mainly on fish, cassava products and spicy stews.

Angolan seafood is abundant and very good, and the Angolan coast is a special place to eat fresh lobster next to the fisherman's boat.

Tropical fruit in Angola is also a treat because artisanal production has maintained organic methods so that rich fruit flavors predominate, unusual to Western palates accustomed to industrially produced tropical fruits. If, however, you are situated in Luanda and need to dine, it is recommended that you can get to the island of Luanda, where beach restaurants (of very exclusive or quite informal price classes) can serve most Foreign needs. Restaurants in Luanda grew in number and quality after the 2002 ceasefire brought stability and significant investment to the country.

Be careful: when eating out, do not drink tap water, ask for bottled mineral water instead.

Not all restaurants accept U.S. dollars in cash; ask before ordering. Credit cards will not be accepted at most restaurants, although this is changing rapidly.

Typical dishes
In addition to funge and muamba, they are part of traditional Angolan cuisine, among others:

Kissangua (drink prepared with water, rolão, cornmeal palapala, and sugar).
Beans with palm oil.
Gonguenha (beans, pumpkin and bone broth).
Mututo (plant whose leaves are prepared as a stew, seasoned with tomatoes, onions, garlic and bay leaf).
Muffin (horse mackerel fish, banana bread, chopped onion (vinaigrette), palm oil beans, sweet potatoes).
(It is the same as funge).
Quibeba (stew of cuttlefish, fish, beans or dried meat, accompanied by cassava, sweet potatoes or dinhungo).
Sumatena or Súmate (dried fish or dried meat roasted on coals, with warm water sauce dinhungo).
Funji with kizaka.
Masesi, some dick bugs.
Mengueleca (leaf of the dome).
Kizaca (mandioquera leaf).
Sweet potato branch.



Some of the typical festivals of Angola are:

Festas Do Mar-these traditional festivals called Festas Do Mar, take place in the city of Namibe. These festivals come from an ancient tradition with a cultural, recreational and sporting character. They are usually held in the summer season and it is customary to have exhibitions of products related to agriculture, fisheries, construction, oil and agriculture.
Carnival-the main parade takes place on Avenida da marginal de Luanda. Several Carnival Corsicans, allegorical Corsicans parade on one of the main avenues of Luanda De Benguela do Bie and Dos Manga B.
Festivals of Our Lady of Muxima-sanctuary of Muxima is located in the municipality of Kissama, Bengo province and throughout the year receives thousands of faithful. It is a very popular festival that takes place every year and that inevitably attracts numerous tourists, due to its religious characteristics.
Apart from the nightclubs and bars, mostly located on the island of Luanda and others scattered around the city.



World-class hotels include Tropico Hotel, Alvalade Hotel, Le President Meridien Hotel, Continental Hotel, Skyna Hotel, Epic Sana hotel and Palm Beach Hotel among others.

In Luanda there are several quality hotels.



In Angola, dance distinguishes several genres, meanings, forms and contexts, balancing the recreational aspect with its condition as a vehicle for religious communication, healing, ritual and even social intervention. Not restricted to the traditional and popular scope, it is also manifested through academic and contemporary languages. The constant presence of dance in everyday life is the product of an appealing cultural context for the interiorization of rhythmic structures from an early age. Starting with the close contact of the child with the movements of the mother (on whose back she is transported), this connection is strengthened through the participation of young people in the different social celebrations (young people are the ones who are most involved), where dance proves to be decisive as a factor of integration and preservation of identity and community feeling.

After several centuries of Portuguese colonization, Angola ended up also suffering mixtures with other cultures currently present in Brazil, Mozambique and Cape Verde. With this, Angola today stands out for the most diverse musical styles, having as main ones: the Semba, the Kuduro, the Kizomba and the Tarraxinha.



There was a civil war in Angola until 2002. The security situation can be called relaxed in 2023. Overland trips with your own vehicle can currently be carried out in the south and the center of Angola without greater risk (avoid night trips). In the north of Angola, especially on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the security situation is a little more tense. The German Foreign Office recommends: "If possible, refrain from traveling to Cabinda and the diamond areas of the provinces of Lunda Norte and Lunda Sul.“ (As of: Oct 2023)

Mines and war scrap
After almost 30 years of civil war, the country is contaminated with mines and ammunition parts as well as war equipment. The landmines laid during the Civil War represent a difficult-to-calculate risk. According to estimates, about eight million of them were in Angola. Therefore, some basic rules must be observed.

Basic rule:
Where no local goes, you should not go either.
You should also not use unpaved roads and paths that are not used by locals.
Red stones or wooden pegs are not fetishes, but mark minefields. In addition, there are skulls or triangular signs with the corresponding inscription.
Old military equipment is not an opportunity to play or take heroic photos, but an opportunity to explode.
Ammunition or ammunition parts are not a souvenir, but another way of exploding (Even if local children often play there).
Not everything you see has to be touched.
Going to pee on a street behind a tree can be fatal.

It should also be noted that not all locals pay attention to the danger. UNICEF has therefore launched a corresponding program to increase the so-called “mine awareness” (see also here). The elimination of all mines is not expected before 2025.



The health care system in Angola is in a desolate state. Far away from the big cities, there is almost no no medical care (one doctor per 50,000 inhabitants). The only recommendation: Catholic Hospital in Lubango.

Clean drinking water is rare. Less than 40% of the country has access to clean water. This results in a high infant mortality rate. Therefore, for travelers, filtering or decoction is considered the method of choice. Due to the fecal-oral route of transmission of hepatitis A, vaccination is absolutely recommended and prescribed for foreign visitors for the visa application.

Preventive vaccinations
The health service of the Federal Foreign Office recommends vaccinations against tetanus (tetanus), diphtheria, polio (polio), hepatitis A and typhoid fever, and for long-term stays of more than four weeks, hepatitis B, meningococcal disease (ACWY) and rabies.

Special infectious diseases
Angola is a yellow fever infection area. Hence the requirement for a yellow fever vaccination for all arrivals over 1 year. In addition, Angola is malaria area. Prophylaxis is recommended.


Climate and travel time

The most pleasant travel time for European tourists is June to August, because then it is winter in Angola and a pleasant 25 °C without big rainy seasons are the rule.

The climate ranges from temperate to tropical. The annual amount of precipitation decreases from north to south. Due to the cool Benguela Current, the coast is quite dry up to about the city of Benguela. In the area of this ocean current, it often gets quite cool even in winter (June to August). The city of Namibe even has a rather cold, but dry and sunny climate in winter. In the summer Namibe is hot, it rains rarely. Towards the interior of the country, precipitation is increasing. Cities such as Lubango and Huambo have two annual rainy seasons and temperate climate. On the other hand, Luanda, the capital, is hot and oppressive almost all year round - the winter months are the most pleasant here.


Post and telecommunications

Mobile phone networks in the larger cities, occasionally the 5G expansion began in 2022. Swisscom cards work, for Deutsche Telekom the country is in the expensive country group 3 when it comes to roaming.

Mobile service providers are Movicel, NetOne, the rapidly expanding US-owned Africell since 2022, as well as Unitel (with barely usable data packages). The other three providers have in common that purchased data packages expire after 30 days.



The name Angola is a Portuguese derivation of the term banto n'gola, title of the Kings of the Kingdom of Dongo existing at the time when the Portuguese settled in Luanda, in the sixteenth century.the term has roots in the term ngolo which means "strength" in quimbundo and quicongo, languages of the Ambundo and congos peoples respectively. When the Portuguese arrived in the region of Luanda province, they observed that the local monarch, Angola Quiluanje was so named, coming to call the Kingdom Angola-Dongo with this title.



First inhabitants

The original inhabitants of Angola were hunter-gatherers, scattered and few in number. The expansion of the Bantu peoples, arriving from the north from the second millennium onwards, forced the coissã (when they were not absorbed) to retreat to the south where residual groups exist to this day, in Angola (see ethnic map), Namibia and Botswana.

The Bantu were farmers and hunters. Their expansion from West-Central Africa took place in smaller groups, which relocated according to political-economic and ecological circumstances. Between the 14th and 17th centuries, a series of kingdoms were established, the main one being the Kingdom of the Congo which encompassed the northwest of today's Angola and an adjacent strip of today's Democratic Republic of the Congo, The Republic of the Congo and Gabon; its capital was located in Mabanza Congo and its heyday took place during the 13th and 14th centuries.

Another important Kingdom was the Kingdom of Dongo, constituted at that time south/southeast of the Kingdom of Congo. In the northeast of present-day Angola, but with its center in the south of the present Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Kingdom of Lunda was constituted, without contact with the aforementioned Kingdoms.

In 1482 a Portuguese fleet arrived at the mouth of the Congo River, commanded by Navigator Diogo Cão who immediately established relations with the Kingdom of Congo. This was the first contact of Europeans with inhabitants of the territory now covered by Angola, a contact that would be decisive for the future of this territory and its populations.


European colonization

From the end of the fifteenth century, Portugal followed a dual strategy in the region. On the one hand, it was continuously present in the Kingdom of the Congo, through (always few, but influential) cultured priests (Portuguese and Italian) who promoted a slow Christianization and introduced elements of European culture. On the other hand, he established in 1575 a factory in Luanda, in a point of easy access to the sea and the proximity of the kingdoms of Congo and Dongo. They gradually took control, through a series of treaties and wars, of a strip stretching from Luanda towards the Kingdom of Dongo. This territory, still quite limited in size, was later designated as Angola. Through the kingdoms of Congo, Dongo and Matamba, Luanda developed a slave trade to Portugal, Brazil and Central America that became its economic base. This process has to be seen against the backdrop of a systematic slave trade from Luanda.

The Dutch occupied Angola between 1641 and 1648, seeking to establish alliances with African states in the region. In 1648, Portugal retook Luanda and began a process of military conquest of the Congo and Dongo states that ended with the victory of the Portuguese in 1671, resulting in control over those kingdoms.

However, Portugal had begun to extend its presence on the coast towards the South. In 1657 he established a settlement near the current city of Porto Amboim, transferred in 1617 to the current Benguela that became a second factory, independent of Luanda. Benguela gradually took control over a small territory to the North and East, and in turn began a slave trade, with the help of African intermediaries based in the Central Highlands of today's Angola.

Although since the beginning of its presence in Luanda and Benguela, there have been occasional incursions by the Portuguese beyond the small territories under its control, serious efforts to penetrate the interior only began in the first decades of the nineteenth century, slowed in the middle of that century, but restarted with more vigor in its last decades. These advances were partly military, aimed at establishing a lasting dominion over certain regions, and generally had to overcome, by arms, a greater or lesser resistance of the respective populations. In other cases, however, it was only a question of creating outposts designed to facilitate the extension of commercial networks. Particular forms of economic penetration were developed in the South, starting from Moçâmedes (today Namibe). Finally, in that century the first Catholic missions were established beyond the perimeters controlled by Luanda and Benguela.

When the Berlin Conference was held in 1884/85, aimed at settling the distribution of Africa among the colonial powers, Portugal could assert a secular presence in two points of the coast, and a more recent presence (administrative/military, commercial, missionary) in a series of points of the interior, but it was very far from an "effective occupation" of the territory now covered by Angola.

Faced with the threat of the other colonial powers appropriating parts of the territory claimed by Portugal, this country finally began, following the Berlin Conference, an effort aimed at the occupation of the entire territory of present-day Angola. Given their limited resources, progress in this direction was, however, slow: as late as 1906, only 5% to 6% of the territories could, with any reason, be considered "actually occupied". Only after the advent of the Republic in Portugal, in 1910, did the expansion of the colonial state advance more consistently. By the mid-1920s, full control of the territory was achieved, although there was still a brief outbreak of "primary resistance" on the part of the vacuval ethnic group in 1941. Although slow, this occupation effort nevertheless provoked new social, economic and political dynamics.


Decolonization process

Once the desired "effective occupation" was achieved, Portugal — better said: the dictatorial regime, meanwhile established in that country by António de Oliveira Salazar — concentrated in Angola on consolidating the colonial state. This goal has been achieved with some effectiveness. In a relatively short period of time, an administrative machine was built, endowed with a not faultless but undoubtedly significant capacity for control and management. This ensured the functioning of an economy based on two pillars: that of a Portuguese immigration that, in a few decades, made the European population rise to more than 100,000, with a strong business component, and that of an African population without the right to citizenship, for the most part — that is, with the exception of the (agro-)pastoral peoples of the — small-scale agriculture oriented to the products required by the colonizer (coffee, corn, sisal), paying taxes and fees of various kinds, and often forced, by economic circumstances and/or administrative pressure, to accept salaried work usually poorly paid.

Between 1939 and 1943, the Portuguese army carried out operations against the Mucubal nomads, accused of rebellion, which led to the death of half of their population. The survivors were incarcerated in forced labor camps, where the vast majority of them perished due to the brutality of the labor system, malnutrition and executions.

In the 1950s, a multifaceted resistance began to be articulated against colonial domination, driven by the decolonization that had begun on the African continent after the end of World War II in 1945. This resistance, which aimed at transforming the colony of Angola into an independent country, led from 1961 to an armed combat against Portugal that had three main protagonists:
the Popular Movement for the liberation of Angola (MPLA), whose main social base was the ambundos and the mestizo population, as well as parts of the White intelligence, and which had ties to communist parties in Portugal and countries belonging to the then Warsaw Pact;
the National Front for the liberation of Angola (FNLA), with strong social roots among the congos and ties to the United States government and the Mobutu Sese Seko regime in Zaire, among others;
the National Union for the Total independence of Angola (UNITA), socially rooted among the ovimbundos and beneficiary of some support from China.

Soon after the start of the armed conflict, a "liberal wing" within Portuguese politics imposed an incisive reorientation of colonial policy. Revoking already in 1962 the statute of the Indigenato and other discriminatory provisions, Portugal granted citizen rights to all the inhabitants of Angola that from "colony" became "province" and later the "state of Angola". At the same time, it greatly expanded the education system, thus giving the black population entirely new possibilities for social mobility — through schooling and then through jobs in the Civil Service and the private economy.

The purpose of this reorientation was to win "minds and hearts" of the Angolan populations to the model of a multi-racial Angola that would remain part of Portugal, or be closely linked to the "metropolis". This option was, however, rejected by the three liberation movements that continued their struggle. However, there were more setbacks than progress, and in the early 1970s the chances of achieving independence by arms became very slim.

In most of the territory life continued with colonial normalcy. Admittedly, there have been a number of security measures, of which some — such as circulation controls, or the establishment of "concentrated villages" in areas such as the Central Plateau, in the Cuanza Norte and in the Cuanza Sul. - affected the population to a greater or lesser degree.

The situation changed completely when in April 1974 the Carnation Revolution took place in Portugal, a military coup that put an end to the dictatorship in Portugal. The new holders of power immediately proclaimed their intention to allow the Portuguese colonies access to independence without delay.

The prospect of independence brought about by the Carnation Revolution in Portugal in April 1974, and the immediate cessation of fighting by Portuguese military forces in Angola, led to a fierce armed struggle for power between the three movements and their allies.

The FNLA entered Angola with a regular army, trained and equipped by the Zairian Armed Forces, with US support; the MPLA was able to quickly mobilize the intervention of thousands of Cuban soldiers, with logistical support from the Soviet Union; and UNITA obtained the support of the Armed Forces of the apartheid regime then in force in South Africa. Efforts by the new Portuguese regime to form a government of national unity were unsuccessful. However, the MPLA leadership's struggle for power, both before and after the declaration of independence, caused numerous casualties.

The armed conflict led to the departure — to Portugal, but also to South Africa and Brazil — of most of the approximately 350,000 Portuguese who were then based in Angola. As a result of colonial policy, these constituted the bulk of the cadres of the territory, which led to the collapse of Public Administration, industry, agriculture and Commerce. On the other hand, the ovimbundos who had been recruited by the colonial administration to work in the coffee and tobacco plantations and diamond mines of the North, also decided to return to their homelands in the Central Highlands. The once prosperous Angolan economy thus fell into decay.

On November 11, 1975, the independence of Angola was proclaimed by the MPLA in Luanda, and by the FNLA and UNITA, together in Huambo. The Portuguese armed forces that still remained in the territory returned to Portugal.


Independence, Civil war and Republic

With the independence of Angola began two processes that conditioned each other. On the one hand, the MPLA — which in 1977 adopted Marxism-Leninism as a doctrine — established a political and economic regime inspired by the model then in force in the countries of the "socialist bloc", therefore single-party and based on a state economy, centrally planned. While the political component of this regime came to work within the postulated molds, albeit with somewhat less rigor than in certain "socialist" countries of Europe. The economic component was severely damaged by the armed struggle and, in essence, was sustained only thanks to the oil whose exploitation the regime entrusted to American oil companies.

On the other hand, the Angolan Civil War between the three movements began shortly after the declaration of independence, since the FNLA and, above all, UNITA were not satisfied either with their military defeat or with their exclusion from the political system. This war lasted until 2002 and ended with the death, in combat, of the historical leader of UNITA, Jonas Savimbi. Rarely assuming the character of a "regular" war, it consisted essentially of a guerrilla war that in the 1990s involved practically the entire country. It cost thousands of dead and wounded and major destruction in villages, cities and infrastructure (roads, railways, bridges). A considerable part of the rural population, especially in the Central Highlands and some eastern regions, fled to the cities or to other regions, including neighbouring countries.

In the late 1990s, the MPLA decided to abandon Marxist-Leninist doctrine and change the regime to a system of multiparty democracy and a market economy. UNITA and FNLA agreed to participate in the new regime and ran in the first elections held in Angola in 1992, from which the MPLA emerged as the winner. Not accepting the results of these elections, UNITA immediately resumed the war, but participated at the same time in the political system.

Soon after the death of its historic leader, UNITA abandoned its arms and its armed wing — the Armed Forces for the liberation of Angola (FALA) — was demobilized or integrated into the Angolan armed forces. Like the FNLA, it began to focus on participation, as a party, in Parliament and other political bodies. In the situation of peace, after four decades of armed conflict, the reconstruction of the country began and, thanks to a remarkable growth of the economy, a development globally quite marked, but for now with strong regional disparities and social inequalities. Peace is also favouring the consolidation of a comprehensive, "national" social identity, which began to form gradually from the 1950s.

Politically, it continues to have a strong predominance of the MPLA, which obtained clear parliamentary majorities in the elections held in 1992, 2008 and 2012, guaranteeing the permanence in the functions of President of the state, between 1979 and 2017, of José Eduardo dos Santos. While the FNLA virtually disappeared from the scene, UNITA consolidated its position as the main opposition party in the 2012 elections. At the economic level, Angola experienced strong growth on the one hand, facing difficulties that forced it to request support from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), failing to stop the emergence of very sharp economic and social inequalities.



Angola is located on the southern Atlantic coast of West Africa, between Namibia and the Republic of Congo. It also borders the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia to the East. The country is divided between an arid coastal strip stretching from Namibia almost to Luanda, a humid interior plateau, a dry savanna in the south and southeast interior, and tropical forest in the North and Cabinda.

The Zambezi River and several tributaries of the Congo River have their sources in Angola. The coastal strip is tempered by the cold Benguela Current, originating a climate similar to that of the coast of Peru or Baja California. There is a short rainy season, which lasts from February to April. Summers are hot and dry, winters are temperate.

The Inland Highlands have a mild climate with a rainy season from November to April, followed by a cooler dry season from May to October. The altitudes vary greatly, with the most inland areas between 1000 and 2000 m.the northern regions and Cabinda have rains throughout almost the entire year. Most of Angola's rivers originate in the Bié plateau, the main ones are: the Cuanza, the Cuango, the Cuando, the Cubango and the Cunene.



Angola, despite being located in a tropical zone, has a climate that is not characterized for this region, due to the confluence of three factors: the Benguela Current, cold, along the southern part of the coast; the relief in the interior; and the influence of the Namib Desert, to the southwest.

As a result, the climate of Angola is characterized by two seasons: the rainy season, from October to April and the dry season, known as Cacimbo, from May to August, drier, as the name implies and with lower temperatures. On the other hand, while the coastline has high rainfall rates, which decrease from North to South and from 800 mm to 50 mm, with average annual temperatures above 23 °C, the Inland zone can be divided into three areas: north, with great rainfall and high temperatures; Central Plateau, with a dry season and average temperatures of the order of 19 °C; and South with rather sharp thermal amplitudes due to the proximity of the Calaari Desert and the influence of tropical air masses.



The population of Angola in 2014, after the first post-independence census and the final results of the 2014 General Census of Population and housing, is 25,789,024 inhabitants, 52% of whom are female.

The country's population is expected to grow to more than 47 million people by 2060, nearly doubling from 24.3 million in 2014. The last official census was conducted in 1970 and showed that the total population was 5.6 million inhabitants.


Ethnic composition

The population consists of 37% ovimbundos (umbundu language), 25% ambundos (quimbundo language), 13% congos and 32% other ethnic groups (such as the chócues, ovambos, vambunda and xindongas), as well as about 2% mestizos (mixture of Europeans and Africans) and 1% Europeans. The ethnicities of the ambundos and ovimbundos form, combined, the majority of the population (62%).

Angola is estimated to have received just over 12,000 refugees and about 3,000 asylum seekers by the end of 2007. About 11,000 of these refugees were originally from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), who arrived in 1970. In 2008, it was estimated that there were approximately 400,000 migrant workers from the DRC, at least 30,000 Portuguese and about 259,000 Chinese living in Angola.

Since 2003, more than 400,000 Congolese immigrants have been expelled from Angola. Before independence in 1975, Angola had a Lusitanian community of about 350,000 people; in 2013 there were about 200,000 Portuguese registered with consulates. The Chinese population is 258,920 people, mostly made up of temporary migrants. The country's total fertility rate is 5.54 children per woman (2012 estimates), the 11th highest in the world.



Portuguese is the official language of Angola. Among the African languages spoken in the country, some have the status of a national language. These, like the other African languages, are spoken by their respective ethnicities and have dialects corresponding to ethnic subgroups. The ethnic language with the most speakers in Angola is umbundo, spoken by the ovimbundos in the south-central region of Angola and in many urban areas. It is the mother tongue of about a third of Angolans..

Quimbundo (or kimbundo) is the second most spoken ethnic language — by about a quarter of the population, the ambundos living in the north-central zone, on the Luanda-Malanje axis and in the Southern Cuanza. It is a language with great relevance, as it is the language of the capital and the ancient kingdom of Dongo. It was this language that gave many words to the Portuguese language and vice versa. The quicongo (or kikongo) spoken in the North, (Uíge and Zaire) has several dialects. It was the language of the former Kingdom of the Congo, and with the postcolonial migration of the congos to the South it now has a significant presence also in Luanda. Also in this region, in the province of Cabinda, fiote or ibinda is spoken. Chócue (or tchokwe) is the language of the East, par excellence. It has overlapped with others in the eastern zone and is, without a doubt, the one that has had the greatest expansion through the territory of present-day Angola, from Lunda Norte to Cuando-Cubango. Cuanhama (kwanyama or oxikwanyama), nhaneca (or nyaneca) and especially umbundo are other languages of banta origin spoken in Angola. In the south of Angola, other languages are still spoken, some belonging to the coissã group, spoken by small groups of san, also called Bushmen, others spoken by small Bantu ethnic groups.

Although ethnic languages are those usually spoken by the majority of the population, Portuguese is the first language of 40% of the Angolan population — a proportion that is much higher in the capital of the country —, while about 71% of Angolans claim to use it as a first or second language. Six ethnic languages have the official status of" national language": in order of numerical importance they are umbundo, quimbundo, quicongo, chócue, ganguela and cuanhama. These languages occupy a certain (limited)space in the media, in documents (e.g. warnings) issued by official entities and in education.



In Angola there are currently about 1000 religions organized in churches or similar forms. Reliable data as to the numbers of the faithful do not exist, but the vast majority of Angolans adhere to a Christian religion or inspired by Christianity. About 41% of the population is linked to the Catholic Church and about 38% to one of the Protestant churches: the Baptists (Baptist Convention of Angola and Evangelical Baptist Church in Angola), rooted mainly among the congos, the Methodists, concentrated in the ambundos area, and the congregational, implanted among the ovimbundos, in addition to smaller communities of reformed Protestants and Lutherans. To these must be added Adventists, neo-apostolics and a large number of Pentecostal churches, some of which have a strong Brazilian influence. There are, finally, two syncretic churches, the quimbanguists originating in Congo-Quinxassa, and the tocoists who were constituted in Angola, both with communities of very limited size. It is significant, but not amenable to quantification, the proportion of people without religion.

Practitioners of traditional African religions constitute a small minority, of a residual nature, but among Christians there are, with some frequency, beliefs and Customs inherited from those religions. There are only 1 to 2% of Muslims, almost all immigrants from other countries (e.g. West Africa), whose diversity does not allow them to constitute a community, although they are all Sunni. An increasing part of the urban population has no or does not practice any religion, which is due less to the influence of Marxism-Leninism officially professed in the first postcolonial phase, and more to the international trend towards secularization. On the other hand, the experience of the Angolan Civil War and severe poverty have led many people to a greater intensity of their faith and religious practice, or else to join new churches where religious fervor is greater. The Catholic Church, the traditional Protestant churches and one or the other of the Pentecostal churches have social works of some importance, designed to fill deficiencies both in society and in the state. Both the Catholic Church and the traditional Protestant churches occasionally speak out on political issues. Its role in the anti-colonial and civil wars has given rise to controversy.


Government and politics

The current political regime in Angola is presidentialism, in which the president of the Republic is also the head of government, who also has legislative powers. The executive branch of the government is composed of President João Lourenço, vice-president Esperança da Costa and the Council of Ministers. The governors of the 18 provinces are appointed by the president and carry out his directives. The Constitutional Law of 1992 established the broad outlines of the structure of government and framed the rights and duties of citizens. The legal system is based on Portuguese and customary law, but is weak and fragmented. There are courts in only 12 of the country's more than 140 municipalities.

Among the aspects that deserve special attention are those resulting from the policies called decentralization and deconcentration, adopted in recent years, and which refer to the need to analyze the political reality at the regional (everything goes up provincial) and local levels. On the other hand, Angola is beginning to feel a certain international weight, particularly at the regional level, due to its economic strength and military might.

What these mechanisms mean in practice can only be understood against the background of the overwhelming weight, in terms of electoral results and the holding and exercise of power, of the party that imposed itself in the decolonization process and the civil war that followed it, the MPLA. In fact, the regime described above falls into the category of a dominant party system that does everything to perpetuate itself.

In 2014, Angola rose two places in the world ranking of e-government, according to the e-Government Development Index report published by the UN, which analyzes the use of information and communication technology by governments in the dissemination of information and public services on the Internet. The average E-Government Development Index in Africa is 0.27. Angola is above the African average with a development index of 0.3.

A Supreme Court serves as an appellate court. The Constitutional Court is the supreme body of constitutional jurisdiction, it had its Organic Law approved by law N.° 2/08, of 17 June, and its first task was the validation of the candidacies of political parties to the legislative elections of 5 September 2008. A new Angolan Penal Code is expected to come into force in 2014, as a result of the already completed revision of the legislation in force. According to the judge advisor of the Angolan Constitutional Court, Tomás Miguel, who coordinates the Justice and Law Reform Commission (CRJD), the criminalization of money laundering is one of the novelties provided for in the new legislation.


Electoral system

Legislative elections were held on 5 and 6 September 2008, the first elections since 1992. The elections went smoothly and were considered valid by the international community, but not before several NGOs and international observers denounced some irregularities. The MPLA obtained more than 80% of the votes, UNITA about 10%, with the remaining votes distributed by a number of small parties, of which only one (PRS, Lunda regional) managed to elect a deputy. The MPLA could therefore now govern with an overwhelming majority.

According to the new constitution, adopted in January 2010, presidential elections are not held, with the president and Vice president being the heads of list of the party that has the majority in the legislative elections. The new constitution has been criticized for not consolidating democracy and using the symbols of the MPLA as national symbols.

The Angolan regime held its first general elections on 31 August 2012, a new constitutional model, following the merger of legislative and presidential elections, respecting for the first time the constitutional period of 4 years between elections. In addition to the 5 parties with seats in the National Assembly — MPLA, UNITA, PRS (social Renewal Party), FNLA, ND (New Democracy) — there were 67 other parties in principle eligible to run. José Eduardo dos Santos announced at one point his intention not to be a candidate again, but ended up heading his party's list. As the MPLA again won the elections, with about 71% (175 deputies), he was automatically elected president, in accordance with the constitutional rules in force. UNITA increased its quota to about 18% (32 deputies), and the Broad Convergence for the Salvation of Angola (CASA), recently founded by Abel Epalanga Chivukuvuku, obtained 6% (8 deputies). In addition to these three parties, the social Renewal Party (PRS, 3 deputies) and the FNLA (2 deputies) also managed to enter parliament, with votes slightly less than 2%. The disparities between regions are very significant, especially as regards the results of the opposition parties: in the provinces of Cabinda and Luanda, for example, the opposition obtained about 40% of the votes, while UNITA's share was about 30% in Huambo and Luanda, and 36% in Bié. The abstention rate was the highest since the start of multiparty elections: 37.2 percent, up from 12.5 percent in 2008.


International relations

On 16 October 2014, Angola was elected for the second time as a non-permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, with 190 votes in favour out of a total of 193. The term of office began on 1 January 2015 and lasted for two years.

Since January 2014, the Republic of Angola holds the presidency of the International Conference for the Great Lakes region (ICGLR). In 2015, the Executive Secretary of CIRGL, Ntumba Luaba, stated that Angola is the example to be followed by the members of the organization, due to the significant advances registered over the 12 years of peace, namely in terms of socio-economic and political-military stability.


Human rights

However, the 27-year civil war caused great damage to the country's political and social institutions. The United Nations estimates the number of internally displaced people at 1.8 million, while the most widely accepted figure among those affected by the war is 4 million. Daily living conditions throughout the country and especially in Luanda (which has a population of about 4 million, although some unofficial estimates point to a much higher number) mirror the collapse of administrative infrastructures as well as many social institutions. The serious economic situation of the country makes it impossible to provide effective government support to many social institutions. There are hospitals without medicines or basic equipment, there are schools that do not have books and civil servants often do not have what they need for their work. In addition, the country was classified as "not free" by Freedom House in its 2013 Freedom in the World Report, where the organization also notes that the August 2012 parliamentary elections, in which the Popular Movement for the liberation of Angola won more than 70% of the vote, had serious flaws, such as outdated and inaccurate voter lists.

The country is also classified as an" authoritarian regime " and as one of the least democratic nations in the world, ranking 133rd.Ranked among the 167 countries analyzed by the 2011 Democracy Index, calculated by The Economist Intelligence Unit. Angola also ranked poorly in the 2013 Ibrahim Index of African Governance, when it was ranked 39th.Ranked among the 52 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, with a particularly poor assessment in areas such as" participation and Human Rights"," Sustainable Economic Opportunity "and"Human Development". The Ibrahim Index uses a number of different variables to compile its ranking, which reflects the state of governments in Africa. Angola is also considered one of the most corrupt in the world by Transparency International.

However, it also had some breakthroughs. Apparently inspired by popular uprisings in different Arab countries, initiatives were taken between February and March 2011 to organize demonstrations of protest against the regime via the Internet in Luanda. A new demonstration, targeting in particular the person of the president, took place in early September 2011. In 2019, homosexuality was decriminalized, and the government also banned discrimination based on sexual orientation. The vote was overwhelming: 155 for, 1 against, 7 abstentions.



Until the 1970s, Angola's economy was predominantly agricultural, with coffee being its main crop. It was followed by sugarcane, sisal, corn, coconut oil and peanuts. Among the cash crops, cotton, tobacco and rubber stood out. The production of potatoes, rice, cocoa and bananas was relatively important. The largest herds were cattle, goats and pigs.

Angola is rich in minerals, especially diamonds, oil and iron ore; it also has deposits of copper, manganese, phosphates, salt, mica, lead, tin, gold, silver and platinum. The diamond mines are located near Dundo in Luanda district. Important oil deposits were discovered in 1966, off Cabinda, and later off the coast to Luanda, making Angola one of the important oil producing countries, with economic development enabled and dominated by this activity. In 1975 uranium deposits were located near the border with Namibia.

The main industries of the territory are the processing of oilseeds, cereals, meat, cotton and tobacco. It is also worth mentioning the production of sugar, beer, cement and wood, in addition to oil refining. Industries include tires, fertilizers, pulp, glass, and steel. The factory park is powered by five hydroelectric plants, which have an energy potential exceeding consumption.

The railway system of Angola consists of five lines that connect the coast to the interior. The most important of these is the Benguela Railway, which connects to the Katanga lines on the border with Zaire. The road network, mostly consisting of second-class roads, connects the main cities. The busiest ports are those of Luanda, Lobito, Soyo, Namibe and Cabinda. Luanda airport is the hub of airlines that connect the country with other African, European and American cities.

A serious structural problem of the Angolan economy is the very marked inequality between the different regions, partly caused by the protracted civil war. The most telling fact is the concentration of about a third of economic activity in Luanda and the contiguous province of Bengo, while in several areas of the interior there are even regression processes.

An increasingly salient feature of the Angolan economy is that a substantial part of private investment, made possible by an exorbitant accumulation in the hands of a small fringe of society (see below), is channelled out of the country. For now, Portugal is the preferred target of these investments, which takes place in banking, energy, telecommunications and media, but also in wine and fruit growing, in real estate, as well as in tourist developments.

Angola has made several investments and bets in the training of new entrepreneurs and in the creation of new businesses and subsequent jobs, as well as in the formulation of partnerships with other countries, leading the PALOPs Business Conference, always maintaining a mutually beneficial relationship with Portugal — whose exports from Angola to this totaled 1,127 000 million euros, in the first four months of 2013. Investments in Angola are also on the rise by countries outside the lusophone area: according to ANIP (National Association of private investment) investment in Angola has been growing and very marked.

The benefits of Angola's economic growth reach quite unevenly to the population. The rapid enrichment of a social segment linked to the holders of political, administrative and military power is visible. A range of" middle classes " are forming in cities where more than 50% of the population is concentrated. In the country, a large part of the population lives in conditions of relative poverty, with large differences between cities and the countryside: a survey carried out in 2008 by the National Statistics Institute indicates that 37% of the Angolan population lives below the poverty line, especially in rural areas (the poverty rate is 58.3%, while that of the urban environment is 19%). In cities, most families, in addition to those classified as poor, are committed to survival strategies. In urban areas, social inequalities are also more evident, especially in Luanda.

The advent of military peace in 2002 allowed a differentiated assessment of the extremely complex economic and social problems facing the country, but also of the range of possibilities that opened up. The indicators available to date indicate that the logic of political economy, followed since the 1980s and most manifestly in the 2000s, has led to remarkable economic growth, in global terms, but at the same time has maintained and accentuated serious distortions, in social as well as economic terms.

It should be noted that, in the lists of the Human Development Index prepared by the UN, Angola always occupies a place among the most poorly placed countries.

In June 2014, Brazil announced that it supports Angola's candidacy for non-permanent membership in the UN Security Council. According to Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff, " Angola will be able to offer a careful look and balanced alternatives to the current challenges of international peace and security."

With a stock of assets corresponding to 70 000 million US$, (6,8 billion Kz), Angola is today the third largest financial market in sub-Saharan Africa, surpassed only by Nigeria and South Africa. According to Angolan economy minister Abraão Gourgel, the country's financial market has grown modestly since 2002 and today ranks third in Sub-Saharan Africa.

In 2013 Angola was the African country that made the most investments abroad, especially in Portugal, revealed a report by the United Nations Conference on trade and development. The fact that Angola has assumed itself as an issuer of foreign direct investment is particularly surprising, given the large volume of investments that the country has received in recent years, mainly in oil and natural gas exploration, as well as road and rail infrastructure.

Globally, Sub-Saharan African countries have been making significant improvements in people's well-being, according to a report by the Tony Blair Africa Governance Initiative in conjunction with the Boston Consulting Group. Angola has invested in improving critical infrastructure, an investment made possible by development funds from oil. According to the same report, just 10 years after the Civil War, living standards in Angola have surprisingly improved. Average life expectancy increased from 46 years in 2002 to 51 in 2011. Infant mortality rates have decreased from 25% in 2001 to 19% in 2010 and the number of pupils in primary schools has tripled since 2001. However, the economic and social inequalities that have been a characteristic of the country have not diminished, but in many respects even accentuated.

The IMF forecasts that real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth will reach 3.9% in 2014. The fund thus excludes the possibility of granting new loans to the Angolan economy in the short term, as this reflects “significant improvements” in the macroeconomic environment and in the management and transparency of national accounts. In August 2014, the financial rating agency Moody's released a note to the markets in which it predicted a growth of the Angolan economy of 7.8% in 2014. On December 19, 2014, the Angolan capital market operator, the Angolan debt and Securities Exchange (BODIVA), was launched. The operator initially received the secondary public debt market, with the start of the corporate debt market in 2018 and the stock market in 2022.




Research in 2007 concluded that having a small or deficient amount of niacin was common in Angola. Angola is located in the yellow fever endemic zone. As of 2004, the ratio of physicians to population was estimated at 7.7 per 100,000 people. In 2005, life expectancy was estimated at only 38.43 years, one of the lowest in the world.

Infant mortality in 2005 was estimated at 187.49 per 1,000 live births, the highest in the world. The incidence of tuberculosis in 1999 was 271 per 100 000 people. Immunization rates of one-year-old children in 1999 were estimated at 22% for tetanus, diphtheria and whooping cough and 46% for measles. Malnutrition has affected about 53% of children under five years of age since 1999. Between 1975 and 1992, there were 300,000 deaths related to the civil War. The overall death rate was estimated at 24 per 1000 in 2002. Although it remains among the countries with the lowest life expectancy and highest infant mortality rates in the world, since 2002 life expectancy in Angola has gone from 47 to 51 years and infant mortality has decreased from 250 to 195 in a thousand.

The prevalence of HIV / AIDS was 3.90 per 100 adults in 2003. In 2004, there were approximately 240,000 people living with HIV/AIDS in the country. There were an estimated 21,000 AIDS deaths in 2003. In 2000, 38% of the population had access to Safe Drinking Water and 44% had adequate sanitation.

In September 2014, the Angolan Institute for Cancer Control (IACC) was created by presidential decree, which will be part of the Angolan National Health Service. An oncological institute that will assume itself as a reference institution in the central and southern regions of Africa. The purpose of this new center is to ensure medical and Drug care in oncology, the implementation of national prevention policies, programs and plans, as well as specialized treatment.

In 2014, Angola launched a national measles vaccination campaign, extended to all children under the age of 10 and which aims to cover all 18 provinces of the country. The measure is part of the Strategic Plan for the elimination of measles 2014-2020 prepared by the Angolan Ministry of Health and provides for the reinforcement of routine vaccination and correct handling of measles cases, national campaigns, the introduction of the second dose of vaccination against the disease in the National routine vaccination calendar and active epidemiological surveillance of measles. This campaign ran in parallel with a polio vaccination campaign and the administration of vitamin A.



Soon after the independence of the country, one of the priorities was to expand the teaching and to instill in it a new spirit. In this sense, not only the existing human and material resources in Angola were mobilized, but an agreement was concluded with Cuba that provided for an intense collaboration of this country in the education sector (as, by the way, also in health). This collaboration, of remarkable effectiveness, lasted 15 years, and enabled significant advances in terms of not only covering the territory but also improving the quality of teachers and their teaching.

Despite these advances, the situation remains unsatisfactory to this day. While in law, education in Angola is compulsory and free until the age of eight, the government reports that a significant percentage of children are not enrolled in schools because of the lack of schools and teachers. Students are normally responsible for paying additional school-related expenses, including books and food. The disparities in youth enrolment between rural and urban areas remain significant. In 1995, 71.2% of children between the ages of 7 and 14 were enrolled in school. It is reported that a higher percentage of boys are enrolled in school than girls. During the Angolan Civil War (1975-2002), approximately half of all schools were looted and destroyed, leading the country to its current problems with school shortages. The Minister of Education hired 20,000 new teachers in 2005 and continues to implement teacher training. Teachers tend to be underpaid, inadequately trained, and overworked (sometimes teaching for two or three shifts a day). Teachers also reported bribery directly from their students. Other factors such as the presence of landmines, lack of resources and identity documents and poor health also deter children from attending school regularly. Although resources allocated to education grew in 2004, Angola's education system continues to receive far less than necessary resources. The literacy rate is very low, with 67.4% of the population over the age of 15 able to read and write Portuguese. In 2001, 82.9% of men and 54.2% of women were literate. Since independence from Portugal in 1975, a considerable amount of Angolan students have continued to go every year to Portuguese, Brazilian, Russian and Cuban schools, polytechnics and universities through bilateral agreements.

On the other hand, there has been remarkable growth in higher education. The public Agostinho Neto university, heir to the embryonic" University of Luanda " of colonial times, once had about 40 faculties spread throughout the country; in 2009 it was dismembered, continuing to exist as such only in Luanda and the province of Bengo, while six autonomous universities were constituted, from the existing faculties, each dedicated to cover certain provinces, including by the system of Poles in other cities: in Benguela the Katyavala Bwila University, in Cabinda the 11 de Novembro University, in Huambo the José Eduardo dos Santos University, in Lubango the Mandume ya Ndemufayo University, in Malanje (with Saurimo lueji a'nkonde university. Since independence, the Catholic University of Angola has existed in Luanda. From the 1990s, a whole series of private universities were founded, some linked to Portuguese universities such as the Jean Piaget University of Angola, the Lusophone University of Angola, the Lusíada University of Angola, and the Angola Business School (All in Luanda), others resulting from Angolan initiatives: the Private University of Angola with campuses in Luanda and Lubango, and in Luanda also the Methodist University of Angola and the Technical University of Angola, The Independent University of Angola, the Metropolitan University of Angola, the Oscar Ribas University, the Gregório Semedo University the University of Belas as well as the Higher Institute of Social Sciences and International Relations. All these establishments struggle, to a greater and lesser degree, with quality problems, and in Luanda some begin to have demand problems.

In September 2014, the Angolan Ministry of Education announced that it would make an investment of 16 million euros in the computerization of more than 300 classrooms across the country. The project also includes the training of teachers at the national level, "aiming at the introduction and use of new information technologies in primary schools, reflecting the improvement of the quality of Education".

The illiteracy rate in Angola is 30%.



Roads deteriorate due to armed conflict. The railway network in Angola consists of three lines in the east-west direction. The main network is that of the center of the country that connects between the Port of Lobito and the border of the Congo, where it connects with the network of this country. The other lines are those of Moçâmedes and Luanda. The country has a railway network of 2 852 km.

Luanda has an international airport, which is the main gateway for international traffic. Angola maintains several links with countries in Africa, America and Europe. The domestic flight network maintains several connections with each other and there are more than 176 airports in Angola, 31 of which have paved runways. Ten airlines operate in the country and carry about 1.2 million people every year.

Angola has three main ports, which are located on the West Coast and are the forehead of the country's three main railway networks: the Port of Luanda, the Port of Lobito and the Port of Moçâmedes. In addition to these there are also the ports of Soyo, Cabinda (in expansion works) and Amboim-Cuanza Sul.



The telecommunications sector is considered one of the strategic areas in Angola. In October 2014, the construction of the first submarine fiber optic cable in the Southern Hemisphere was announced. The project aims to connect the cities of Luanda (Angola) and Fortaleza (Brazil), allowing a more direct connection between the 2 continents. This initiative aims to make Angola a hub of the continent, improving the quality of Internet connections at national and international level.

The first Angolan artificial satellite called AngoSat-1, was launched on December 26, 2017 at around 20h WAT, with the forecast to enter orbit eight hours later, that is, around 4h00 WAT on December 27, 2017, and will ensure telecommunications throughout the national territory and beyond. According to Aristides Safeca, Secretary of State for telecommunications, the satellite will provide telecommunications, television, internet and e-government services, and should remain in orbit “in the best case” for 18 years.

The management of the '.ao ' domain, related to Internet pages, passed from Portugal to Angola in 2015, following the approval of new legislation by the Angolan government. The Joint Order of the minister of Telecommunications and Information Technologies, José Carvalho da Rocha, and the minister of Science and Technology, Maria Cândida Pereira Teixeira, states that “within the scope of the massification” of that Angolan domain “the conditions are created for the transfer of the root of the '.ao' domain from Portugal to Angola”.



Angolan culture is on the one hand tributary of the ethnic groups that have been constituted in the country for centuries, mainly the ovimbundos, ambundos, congos, chócues and ovambo. On the other hand, Portugal was present in the Luanda region and later also in Benguela from the sixteenth century, occupying the territory corresponding to today's Angola during the nineteenth century and maintaining control of the region until 1975. This presence resulted in strong cultural influences, starting with the introduction of the Portuguese language and Christianity. This influence is particularly noticeable in cities where more than half of the population now lives. In the slow process of forming a comprehensive and cohesive society in Angola, which continues to this day, there are very diverse cultural "ingredients", in constellations that vary from region to region.



The literature of Angola was born before the independence of Angola in 1975, but the project of a fiction that conferred to the African man the status of sovereignty appears around 1950 generating the movement New intellectuals of Angola.



In the country, dance distinguishes several genres, meanings, forms and contexts, balancing the recreational aspect with its condition as a vehicle for religious communication, healing, ritual and even social intervention. Not restricted to the traditional and popular scope, it is also manifested through academic and contemporary languages. The constant presence of dance in everyday life is the product of an appealing cultural context for the interiorization of rhythmic structures from an early age. Starting with the close contact of the child with the movements of the mother (on whose back she is transported), this connection is strengthened through the participation of young people in the different social celebrations (young people are the ones who are most involved), where dance proves to be decisive as a factor of integration and preservation of identity and community feeling.

After several centuries of Portuguese colonization, Angola also ended up suffering mixtures with other cultures currently present in Brazil, Mozambique and Cape Verde. With this, Angola today stands out for the most diverse musical styles, having as main ones: the Semba, the Kuduro, the kizomba and the Rivita. In 2014, the Casa da Música de Talatona was inaugurated in the province of Luanda, a space for the promotion and dissemination of Angolan music, privileging semba as a way to contribute to its preservation, dissemination and perpetuation.



Basketball is the most popular sport in Angola. His national team has won the Afrobasket 11 times and holds the record for the most titles. As a top team in Africa, it is a regular competitor at the Summer Olympics and the FIBA World Cup.

In football, Angola hosted the 2010 African Cup of Nations. The national team qualified for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in its first appearance at the finals of a World Cup. They were eliminated after one loss and two draws in the group stage. They won three COSAFA Cups and went to the final of the 2011 Africa Cup of Nations.

The country has also appeared at the Summer Olympics for seven years and both compete regularly and once hosted the FIRS Roller Hockey World Cup, where the best result is sixth. Angola is also believed to have historical roots in the martial arts "Capoeira Angola" and "Batuque", practiced by enslaved African Angolans transported as part of the Atlantic slave trade.



Some of the typical festivals of Angola are:
Festas Do Mar: these traditional festivals called Festas Do Mar, take place in the city of Namibe. These festivals come from an ancient tradition with a cultural, recreational and sporting character. They are usually held in the summer season and it is customary to have exhibitions of products related to agriculture, fisheries, construction, oil and agro-livestock;
Carnival: the main parade takes place on Avenida da marginal de Luanda. Several Carnival Corsicans, allegorical Corsicans parade in one of the main avenues of Luanda and Benguela;
Fruit festivals: held between summer and early autumn, they symbolize the joy of a plentiful crop at harvest time. The focus of the festival changes according to the region, e.g. Grape Festival to the northwest, Festa. From Purple Manjuba to the South;
Festivals of Our Lady of Muxima: the sanctuary of Muxima is located in the municipality of Quissama, province of Bengo and throughout the year receives thousands of faithful. It is a very popular festival that takes place every year and that inevitably attracts numerous tourists, due to its religious characteristics.

In 2014, Angola resumed holding the National Festival of Culture (FENACULT), after 25 years of interregnum. The festival took place in all provincial capitals of the country between August 30 and September 20 and had as its theme "Culture as a Factor of peace and development".