Currency: Kwanza (AOA)
Calling code: +244
Angola, officially Republic of Angola (Portuguese:
Republic of Angola, Kikongo, Kimbundu and Umbundu: Repubilika and
Ngola), is a country located in southern Africa that has borders
with Namibia in the south, with the Democratic Republic of the Congo
and the Republic of the Congo by the north and with Zambia by the
east, whereas towards the west it has coast bathed by the Atlantic
Ocean. Its capital is Luanda and in the north of the country is the
exclave of Cabinda, which has borders with the Republic of the Congo
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Portuguese were present in various parts of the coast that today belongs to Angola since the sixteenth century and interacted in various ways with the natives. The Portuguese presence was strengthened in the nineteenth century with its penetration into the territory and its effective occupation to consider it a colony of Europeans, as stipulated in the Berlin conference of 1884, did not occur until the 1920s, after the submission of the Mbunda people and the abduction of their king, Mwene Mbandu Kapova I.
Angola achieved its independence from Portugal in 1975, after a long war. However, once emancipated the new country was immersed in an intense and lasting civil war that lasted from 1975 to 2002. The country has abundant mineral and oil deposits and its economy has grown at a very high rate since the 1990s , especially since the end of the civil war. Despite this, the standard of living of most Angolans is very low and their life expectancy and infant mortality rates are among the worst in the world. It is a country with great economic inequalities, since most of the wealth is in the hands of a very small percentage of its inhabitants.
Its system of government is multiparty democracy, with a presidential regime. He is a member of the African Union, of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries, of the Latin Union and of the Southern African Development Community.
Cangandala National Park that is located in Malanje Province and covers 600 square km is the smallest national park in the country. Yet it is fairly well developed comparing to the rest of the country.
Iona National Park in Angola is a favorite destination for an african safari. It protects an area of 9,960 km² and it is by far the largest national park in Angola.
Luanda is the largest city in Angola as well as its capital. It is situated on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean in the Sao Paulo Province. Although it does have one of the highest crime rates in the country, it is the most civilized part of the country.
Quicama National Park is about 70 km from country's capital of Luanda and covers approximately 9,960 km² in North- west Angola. It protects an area of wetlands along with grasslands that is full of large animals.
At the beginning of the VI century BC. e. Bantu
tribes came to the territory inhabited by the Bushmen, with skills
in metal processing, ceramics, and agriculture.
In the XIII-XVI centuries. part of modern Angola was part of the Kingdom of Congo with the capital Mbansa-Congo. In the XVI — XIX centuries. part of the territory occupied the kingdom of Lund. In the north of Angola in the XVI-XVII centuries. was the state of Ndongo.
1482 - The Portuguese expedition of the navigator Diogu Cana opened the coast of Angola.
1576 - Portuguese establish Fort São Paulo di Luanda, which subsequently becomes the capital of Angola. Until the mid-19th century, the main occupation of the Portuguese in Angola was the slave trade; according to rough estimates, over 300 million people were exported from the country (mainly to Brazil) over 300 years. Angola as a whole was more associated with Brazil than with the mother country. After the proclamation of the Brazilian Empire, Angolan colonists have repeatedly expressed their desire to join it.
1641 - the capture of Luanda by the Dutch. Dutch occupation of Angola.
1648 - The Portuguese regain Luanda under their control. Dutch troops leave the territory of Angola.
1885-1894 - Portugal, Belgium, Germany and England conclude agreements defining the modern borders of Angola.
1951 - Angola receives the status of "overseas province" of Portugal.
1958 - An oil refinery was built in Luanda.
1950s - the first rebel groups emerge - MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Labor Party), UPA.
1961 - An anti-Portuguese uprising led by Holden Roberto (leader of the UPA and then the FNLA). The rebel camps are located in neighboring Congo (Kinshasa). The outbreak of the war of independence, which lasted 14 years. At the same time, the confrontation between MPLA and FNLA begins.
1962 - the provisional government of the Angolan Republic in exile was formed, led by Holden Roberto. An Angola National Liberation Army was established under the command of Roberto.
1966 - the creation of UNITA led by Jonasch Savimbi, a left-wing radical nationalist of the Ovimbundu, a former associate of Holden Roberto in the FNLA. The military operations of the military wing of UNITA - the Armed Forces of the Liberation of Angola (FALA) begin.
1974 - The “Carnation Revolution" in Portugal. Portugal provides freedom to all its colonies.
1975 - MPLA uses the help of the regular Cuban army, UNITA - the help of South Africa, FNLA - neighboring Zaire. The offensive of the FNLA and UNITA on Luanda, supported by Zaire and South Africa, was foiled at the Battle of Kifangondo. MPLA troops launch a successful counterattack.
1975, November 11 - the independence of Angola is proclaimed. The first president of Angola is the leader of the pro-Soviet MPLA group Agostinho Neto, whose troops occupy Luanda - the administrative center of Angola. However, independence does not bring Angola peace. A long-standing civil war began for power in the country, between the pro-Soviet MPLA and the pro-American UNITA and FNLA. This war is complicated by interethnic contradictions. Streams of weapons are pouring into the country. Government troops are trained by Soviet and Cuban instructors.
1976 - MPLA troops win the first stage of the civil war. FNLA defeated, the troops of South Africa and Zaire leave the territory of Angola. In Luanda, the trial of a group of mercenaries FNLA. UNITA goes over to a long-term guerrilla war.
1977 - May rebellion of "factionalists" led by orthodox communist Nito Alvish. Suppressed by President Neto and General E. Carreira with the help of Cuban troops. Tens of thousands have been targeted by DISA State Security.
1977, 1978 - units of the pro-Angolan organization FNLC, under the command of General Mbumba, with the sanction of the MPLA government, invade the Zaire province of Shaba. The 1977 invasion was repelled by the Zaire army with the decisive help of the Moroccan troops. The following year, FNLC formations were defeated in Kolwezi by paratroopers of the French Foreign Legion. After two defeats in Shaba, the Angolan government goes to normalize relations with Zaire.
1979 - the death of Agostinho Neto. The president of Angola is the new leader of the MPLA, Jose Eduardo dos Santos. DISA was disbanded a little earlier, functions are divided between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the Ministry of State Security.
1980 - Enrique Carreira, the second member of the party-state hierarchy during the time of Agostinho Neto, is removed from the post of Minister of Defense. Power is concentrated in the hands of President dos Santos. FNLA leader Holden Roberto stops fighting in Angola. UNITA led by Jonas Savimbi activates guerrilla warfare.
1985 - in the city of Jamba, in the territory
controlled by UNITA rebels, an international conference of
anti-communist partisans took place.
1987-1988 - The Battle of Quito Kwanaval, a turning point in the war. South African troops leave the territory of Angola.
1989 - In accordance with international agreements, Cuban and South African troops leave the territory of Angola. Direct military support from outside the Angolan warriors officially ends.
1990 - Under the influence of perestroika in the USSR, the MPLA proclaims a rejection of communist ideology and declares its intention to carry out radical democratic and market reforms.
1991 - Lisbon signed the Biessse Agreement on a political settlement between the ruling MPLA and the opposition UNITA. Holden Roberto returns to Angola.
1992 - having lost Soviet support, the MPLA is reoriented to the United States. In autumn, the first multi-party elections are held in the country's history. Announced the receipt of the MPLA majority in parliament and the first place souls Santos following the results of the first round. UNITA disputes the announced election results. MPLA responds with a Halloween carnage. The civil war resumes with new fierceness.
1993 - 55 days war, the last major military victory of UNITA. Savimbi's troops once again capture Huambo.
1994 - New peace agreements between the MPLA and UNITA are signed in Lusaka. A ceasefire and the creation of a coalition government are supposed. Both parties ignore the agreement, the agreement is broken.
1998 - the aggravation of the political situation, the resumption of clashes between the MPLA and UNITA. Creation of a pro-government party Updated UNITA.
1999 - a massive offensive by government forces in the position of UNITA, on December 24, the city of Jamba was captured.
2002 - February 22, Jonas Savimbi dies in a battle with government forces near the town of Lucousse (eastern province of Moshiko). On March 15, negotiations begin between representatives of the government and the new leadership of UNITA, headed by Paulo Lukmba and Isaias Samakuva. On April 4, a Memorandum of Understanding was signed - a new peace agreement. UNITA basically accepts the terms of the settlement put forward by the ruling MPLA and becomes the legal opposition.
2010 - The African Nations Cup is held in Angola.
2011 - protests by opposition youth led by rapper Iconoclast, influenced by the Arab Spring. The authorities oppose them with mass demonstrations of civil servants with an expression of loyalty to President dos Santos.
2012 - MPLA again receives a large majority of seats in parliament. According to constitutional amendments, Jose Eduardo dos Santos automatically retains his presidency.
2013 - a new wave of protests organized by the KASA party (Wide Convergence for the Salvation of Angola) led by former UNITA activist Abel Shivukuvuku. Authorities respond with stiff suppression using firearms. The killings of opposition activists are noted. The Government declares priority protection for the Angolan “spiritual and cultural heritage”. In Luanda and some other localities, mosques are demolished.
2016 - The MPLA Central Committee approved the list of party candidates in the parliamentary elections coming in August 2017. The first number on the list is the Minister of Defense of Angola, vice-chairman of the MPLA, Juan Lawrence. Thus, Lawrence was declared the successor to President dos Santos.
The elections were held on August 23, 2017, at which the MPLA again received the parliamentary majority, although the opposition - UNITA and KASA - significantly strengthened their positions. On September 26, Juan Lawrence became the new president of Angola (José Eduardo dos Santos remained chairman of the MPLA).
2018 - September 8, President Lorenzo is replaced by the soul of Santos as chairman (president) of the MPLA. Dos Santos leaves Angola. The new president announces major liberal reforms and criticizes his predecessor.