Angola, officially Republic of Angola (Portuguese:
Republic of Angola, Kikongo, Kimbundu and Umbundu: Repubilika and
Ngola), is a country located in southern Africa that has borders
with Namibia in the south, with the Democratic Republic of the Congo
and the Republic of the Congo by the north and with Zambia by the
east, whereas towards the west it has coast bathed by the Atlantic
Ocean. Its capital is Luanda and in the north of the country is the
exclave of Cabinda, which has borders with the Republic of the Congo
and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Portuguese were
present in various parts of the coast that today belongs to Angola
since the sixteenth century and interacted in various ways with the
natives. The Portuguese presence was strengthened in the nineteenth
century with its penetration into the territory and its effective
occupation to consider it a colony of Europeans, as stipulated in
the Berlin conference of 1884, did not occur until the 1920s, after
the submission of the Mbunda people and the abduction of their king,
Mwene Mbandu Kapova I.
Angola achieved its independence from
Portugal in 1975, after a long war. However, once emancipated the
new country was immersed in an intense and lasting civil war that
lasted from 1975 to 2002. The country has abundant mineral and oil
deposits and its economy has grown at a very high rate since the
1990s , especially since the end of the civil war. Despite this, the
standard of living of most Angolans is very low and their life
expectancy and infant mortality rates are among the worst in the
world. It is a country with great economic inequalities, since most
of the wealth is in the hands of a very small percentage of its
Its system of government is multiparty
democracy, with a presidential regime. He is a member of the African
Union, of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries, of the
Latin Union and of the Southern African Development Community.
Travel Destinations in Angola
Cangandala National Park that is located in
Malanje Province and covers 600 square km is the smallest
national park in the country. Yet it is fairly well developed
comparing to the rest of the country.
Iona National Park
Iona National Park in Angola is a favorite
destination for an african safari. It protects an area of 9,960
km² and it is by far the largest national park in Angola.
Luanda is the largest city in Angola as well as
its capital. It is situated on the shores of the Atlantic Ocean
in the Sao Paulo Province. Although it does have one of the
highest crime rates in the country, it is the most civilized
part of the country.
National Park is about 70 km from country's capital of Luanda
and covers approximately 9,960 km² in North- west Angola. It
protects an area of wetlands along with grasslands that is full
of large animals.
History of Angola
At the beginning of the VI century BC. e. Bantu
tribes came to the territory inhabited by the Bushmen, with skills
in metal processing, ceramics, and agriculture.
In the XIII-XVI
centuries. part of modern Angola was part of the Kingdom of Congo
with the capital Mbansa-Congo. In the XVI — XIX centuries. part of
the territory occupied the kingdom of Lund. In the north of Angola
in the XVI-XVII centuries. was the state of Ndongo.
1482 - The
Portuguese expedition of the navigator Diogu Cana opened the coast
1576 - Portuguese establish Fort São Paulo di Luanda,
which subsequently becomes the capital of Angola. Until the mid-19th
century, the main occupation of the Portuguese in Angola was the
slave trade; according to rough estimates, over 300 million people
were exported from the country (mainly to Brazil) over 300 years.
Angola as a whole was more associated with Brazil than with the
mother country. After the proclamation of the Brazilian Empire,
Angolan colonists have repeatedly expressed their desire to join it.
1641 - the capture of Luanda by the Dutch. Dutch occupation of
1648 - The Portuguese regain Luanda under their control.
Dutch troops leave the territory of Angola.
1885-1894 - Portugal,
Belgium, Germany and England conclude agreements defining the modern
borders of Angola.
1951 - Angola receives the status of "overseas
province" of Portugal.
1958 - An oil refinery was built in
1950s - the first rebel groups emerge - MPLA (Popular
Movement for the Liberation of Angola - Labor Party), UPA.
An anti-Portuguese uprising led by Holden Roberto (leader of the UPA
and then the FNLA). The rebel camps are located in neighboring Congo
(Kinshasa). The outbreak of the war of independence, which lasted 14
years. At the same time, the confrontation between MPLA and FNLA
1962 - the provisional government of the Angolan Republic
in exile was formed, led by Holden Roberto. An Angola National
Liberation Army was established under the command of Roberto.
1966 - the creation of UNITA led by Jonasch Savimbi, a left-wing
radical nationalist of the Ovimbundu, a former associate of Holden
Roberto in the FNLA. The military operations of the military wing of
UNITA - the Armed Forces of the Liberation of Angola (FALA) begin.
1974 - The “Carnation Revolution" in Portugal. Portugal provides
freedom to all its colonies.
1975 - MPLA uses the help of the
regular Cuban army, UNITA - the help of South Africa, FNLA -
neighboring Zaire. The offensive of the FNLA and UNITA on Luanda,
supported by Zaire and South Africa, was foiled at the Battle of
Kifangondo. MPLA troops launch a successful counterattack.
November 11 - the independence of Angola is proclaimed. The first
president of Angola is the leader of the pro-Soviet MPLA group
Agostinho Neto, whose troops occupy Luanda - the administrative
center of Angola. However, independence does not bring Angola peace.
A long-standing civil war began for power in the country, between
the pro-Soviet MPLA and the pro-American UNITA and FNLA. This war is
complicated by interethnic contradictions. Streams of weapons are
pouring into the country. Government troops are trained by Soviet
and Cuban instructors.
1976 - MPLA troops win the first stage of
the civil war. FNLA defeated, the troops of South Africa and Zaire
leave the territory of Angola. In Luanda, the trial of a group of
mercenaries FNLA. UNITA goes over to a long-term guerrilla war.
1977 - May rebellion of "factionalists" led by orthodox communist
Nito Alvish. Suppressed by President Neto and General E. Carreira
with the help of Cuban troops. Tens of thousands have been targeted
by DISA State Security.
1977, 1978 - units of the pro-Angolan
organization FNLC, under the command of General Mbumba, with the
sanction of the MPLA government, invade the Zaire province of Shaba.
The 1977 invasion was repelled by the Zaire army with the decisive
help of the Moroccan troops. The following year, FNLC formations
were defeated in Kolwezi by paratroopers of the French Foreign
Legion. After two defeats in Shaba, the Angolan government goes to
normalize relations with Zaire.
1979 - the death of Agostinho
Neto. The president of Angola is the new leader of the MPLA, Jose
Eduardo dos Santos. DISA was disbanded a little earlier, functions
are divided between the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the
Ministry of State Security.
1980 - Enrique Carreira, the second
member of the party-state hierarchy during the time of Agostinho
Neto, is removed from the post of Minister of Defense. Power is
concentrated in the hands of President dos Santos. FNLA leader
Holden Roberto stops fighting in Angola. UNITA led by Jonas Savimbi
activates guerrilla warfare.
1985 - in the city of Jamba, in the territory
controlled by UNITA rebels, an international conference of
anti-communist partisans took place.
1987-1988 - The Battle of
Quito Kwanaval, a turning point in the war. South African troops
leave the territory of Angola.
1989 - In accordance with
international agreements, Cuban and South African troops leave the
territory of Angola. Direct military support from outside the
Angolan warriors officially ends.
1990 - Under the influence of
perestroika in the USSR, the MPLA proclaims a rejection of communist
ideology and declares its intention to carry out radical democratic
and market reforms.
1991 - Lisbon signed the Biessse Agreement on
a political settlement between the ruling MPLA and the opposition
UNITA. Holden Roberto returns to Angola.
1992 - having lost
Soviet support, the MPLA is reoriented to the United States. In
autumn, the first multi-party elections are held in the country's
history. Announced the receipt of the MPLA majority in parliament
and the first place souls Santos following the results of the first
round. UNITA disputes the announced election results. MPLA responds
with a Halloween carnage. The civil war resumes with new fierceness.
1993 - 55 days war, the last major military victory of UNITA.
Savimbi's troops once again capture Huambo.
1994 - New peace
agreements between the MPLA and UNITA are signed in Lusaka. A
ceasefire and the creation of a coalition government are supposed.
Both parties ignore the agreement, the agreement is broken.
- the aggravation of the political situation, the resumption of
clashes between the MPLA and UNITA. Creation of a pro-government
party Updated UNITA.
1999 - a massive offensive by government
forces in the position of UNITA, on December 24, the city of Jamba
2002 - February 22, Jonas Savimbi dies in a battle
with government forces near the town of Lucousse (eastern province
of Moshiko). On March 15, negotiations begin between representatives
of the government and the new leadership of UNITA, headed by Paulo
Lukmba and Isaias Samakuva. On April 4, a Memorandum of
Understanding was signed - a new peace agreement. UNITA basically
accepts the terms of the settlement put forward by the ruling MPLA
and becomes the legal opposition.
2010 - The African Nations Cup
is held in Angola.
2011 - protests by opposition youth led by
rapper Iconoclast, influenced by the Arab Spring. The authorities
oppose them with mass demonstrations of civil servants with an
expression of loyalty to President dos Santos.
2012 - MPLA again
receives a large majority of seats in parliament. According to
constitutional amendments, Jose Eduardo dos Santos automatically
retains his presidency.
2013 - a new wave of protests organized
by the KASA party (Wide Convergence for the Salvation of Angola) led
by former UNITA activist Abel Shivukuvuku. Authorities respond with
stiff suppression using firearms. The killings of opposition
activists are noted. The Government declares priority protection for
the Angolan “spiritual and cultural heritage”. In Luanda and some
other localities, mosques are demolished.
2016 - The MPLA Central
Committee approved the list of party candidates in the parliamentary
elections coming in August 2017. The first number on the list is the
Minister of Defense of Angola, vice-chairman of the MPLA, Juan
Lawrence. Thus, Lawrence was declared the successor to President dos
The elections were held on August 23, 2017, at which the
MPLA again received the parliamentary majority, although the
opposition - UNITA and KASA - significantly strengthened their
positions. On September 26, Juan Lawrence became the new president
of Angola (José Eduardo dos Santos remained chairman of the MPLA).
2018 - September 8, President Lorenzo is replaced by the soul of
Santos as chairman (president) of the MPLA. Dos Santos leaves
Angola. The new president announces major liberal reforms and
criticizes his predecessor.