Flag of Bangladesh

Language: Bengali

Currency: Taka (BDT)

Calling Code: 880


Bangladesh is a country located in South Asia. Its territory is surrounded almost entirely by India, except for a small strip to the southeast where it borders Burma. Geographically, the country is located in the fertile land of the Ganges delta, which is subject to annual floods caused by monsoons and cyclones. Together with the Indian province of West Bengal, it constitutes the ethno-linguistic region of Bengal. In fact, in Bengali, the name "Bangladesh" means "country of Bengal".

Its current borders were established with the second partition of Bengal in 1947, when the region became the eastern part of newly formed Pakistan. However, it was separated from the western part by 1,600 km of Indian territory. In 1971, political and linguistic discrimination, as well as economic abandonment, brought with it a series of conflicts with Pakistan, which led to the war of independence and the establishment of Bangladesh as an autonomous nation. After independence, the new state suffered from famines, natural disasters and widespread poverty, as well as political turmoil and military coups. The restoration of democracy in 1991 was followed by relative calm and slow economic progress.


Travel Destination in Bangladesh

Bhawal National Park is situated 40km north of Dhaka city near Gazipur in the Dhaka Division of Bangladesh. Natural reserve covers an area of  5022 hectares.

Kantajew Temple at Kantanagar is a magnificent Hindu temple in Dinajpur District, Rangpur Division of Bangladesh. It was erected between 1702- 52 under orders of Maharaja Pran Nath.



The name "Bangladesh" (Beng. বাংলাদেশ) means "country of Bengalis" (in Bengali bánglá - "Bengali", déš - "country"), since Bengalis make up about 98% of the country's population. In Russian, the word has a feminine gender and is not declined.



Civilization in the Bengal region arose about four thousand years ago, when the Dravidian, Tibeto-Burmese and Austroasiatic populations settled in the region. The exact origin of the word "Bangla" or "Bengal" remains unknown, but there is an assumption that it comes from the word "Bang", inherited from the Dravidian tribes that appeared in the region around 1000 BC.

The kingdom of Gangaridai was formed at least in the 7th century. BC e., later replaced by the Empire of Bihar and the Empires of Magadha, Nanda, Mauryan and Shunga. Bengal later became part of the Gupta and Harsha Empires between the 3rd and 7th centuries CE, and then - the Buddhist empire of Pala.

Immediately after the collapse of the latter, the ruler of Shashanka created a kingdom that lasted about twenty-five years. Shashanka is considered the first independent king in the history of Bangladesh. After a period of anarchy, the region was ruled by the Buddhist Pala dynasty for four centuries, with a short period of domination by the Hindu Sena dynasty.

Islam entered the Bengal region in the 12th century with Arab traders and Sufi missionaries, and subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam widely. The Afghan commander Bakhtiyar Khalji defeated the troops of the Sena ruler Lakshman and conquered large areas of the Bengal region in 1204. The region has since been ruled by dynasties of local sultans and feudal lords for several hundred years. By the 16th century, the Bengal region was controlled by the Mughal Empire and Dhaka had become an important administrative center for the Empire.

European traders began to enter the region at the end of the 15th century. By the beginning of the 18th century, the influence of Europeans had increased so much that Bengal came under the control of the British East India Company as a result of the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The massacre of 1857, known as the Sepoy Rebellion, led to the transfer of power to the British Crown, led by the Viceroy. During the period of colonial rule, the Hindustan peninsula was subjected to famine several times, including the Great Bengal Famine of 1943, which killed about three million people.

From 1905 to 1911, attempts were made to divide the Bengal region into two regions, with the city of Dhaka as the capital of the eastern zone. During the Partition of India in 1947, the Bengal region was divided along religious lines. The western part of Bengal was ceded to India, while the eastern part was annexed to Pakistan as the province of East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan) with Dhaka as its capital.

In 1950, a land reform took place in East Bengal, as a result of which the feudal zamindar system was abolished. However, despite the economic and demographic power of the east of the country, people from the western part dominated the government and law enforcement agencies of Pakistan. The emergence of the Bengali Language Status Movement in 1952 was the first major signal of friction between the two regions of Pakistan. Growing dissatisfaction with the efforts of the central government in the areas of economic and cultural coexistence continued over the next decade, during which the political party Awami League emerged as a representative of the Banglo-speaking population. For calls for autonomy in 1966, the leader of the Awami League party, Sheikh Majibur Rahman, was arrested and imprisoned and released only in 1969 under the influence of public opinion.

In 1970, powerful cyclones hit the coast of East Pakistan and killed over half a million people. The central government of Pakistan showed a mediocre response in the aftermath of the disaster. The annoyance of the Bengali population, in addition to the incompetent actions of the government after the devastating cyclones, caused the inability to take office of Sheikh Majibur Rahman, whose Awami League party won the majority of seats in Parliament in the 1970 elections. After the failure of negotiations, during which the President of Pakistan, Yahya Khan, tried to find a compromise with Majibur Rahman, on March 26, 1971, an order was given for the arrest of the latter, and Operation Searchlight began to militarily seize the territory of East Pakistan. The methods of warfare by the West Pakistan Army were bloody and resulted in great loss of life. The main targets were the intelligentsia and Hindus of East Pakistan and about ten million refugees who tried to find refuge in India. The numbers of those who died during the war are estimated from three hundred thousand to three million people.


On the eve of his arrest, Sheikh Majibur Rahman formally declared the independence of Bangladesh and called on everyone to fight until the last Pakistani soldier left Bangladesh. Leaders of the Awami League formed a "government in exile" in the Indian city of Calcutta. The newly formed government formally took the oath in the city of Mujib Nagar in the Kustia district of East Pakistan on April 14, 1971, with Tajuddin Ahmad as the first Prime Minister.

The War of Independence lasted nine months. The Mukti Bahini guerrillas and the regular armed forces of Bangladesh received support from the armed forces of India in December 1971 during the fighting. An alliance of Indian and Bangladeshi Mitro-Bahini forces defeated the Pakistani army on December 16, 1971, during which over 90,000 soldiers and officers were taken prisoner.

After gaining independence from Pakistan, Bangladesh becomes a parliamentary republic, and the post of prime minister is occupied by Mujibur Rahman. He put forward four fundamental principles that the state had to adhere to: nationalism, socialism, secularism and democracy. He set about disarming the fighting insurgent detachments and invited foreign economists to develop a program for the development of the country along the socialist path. In 1972, many industrial enterprises were nationalized, including jute and cotton factories and sugar factories, as well as banks, insurance companies and tea plantations. At the end of 1972, a parliament was established. The general elections held in March 1973 brought victory to the Awami League, which received 73% of the vote (the split into two parts of the National Awami League - 8% and 5%, the Socialist Party - 7%, the Communist Party - 4%).

This path of development was significantly complicated by the famine that broke out in 1974-1975, caused by a catastrophic flood in the summer of 1974. During the monsoon-induced flooding that erupted after the worst rains in 20 years in July-August 1974, over 2,000 people died, a million were injured and millions were displaced. By mid-August, 3/4 of the country is covered by disaster. At the same time, 80% of the summer crop died, as did the crops of the main winter crop. According to official figures, 40% of the annual food production has been destroyed. Food shortages, coupled with a sharp increase in oil prices, led to a significant increase in inflation. The prestige of the country's leadership has fallen, which, combined with accusations of the regime of nepotism and corruption, has undermined the authority of the prime minister. In December 1974, the government introduced martial law. In accordance with the constitutional amendments adopted on January 25, 1975, the democratic parliamentary system was replaced by presidential rule and the transition to a one-party system led by the newly formed BAKSAL political alliance, which included all parties that supported the course of the government, including the Awami League, socialist, communist and popular. M. Rahman became president and announced the need for a "second revolution", which should put an end to corruption and terrorism. The desire of the prime minister to establish an authoritarian regime exacerbated the dissatisfaction of part of the officers, which led to a bloody military coup.

Mujibur Rahman was killed with almost his entire family during a military coup on August 15, 1975. After his assassination, in the next three months, a wave of political assassinations, terror, bloody coups and counter-coups swept through the country, culminating in the coming to power of General Ziaur Rahman, who restored the multi-party political system in the country and formed the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. General Zia's reign ended in 1981 when he was assassinated by those associated with the military.

The next head of state was General Hussein Mohammad Ershad, who came to power after a bloodless coup on March 24, 1982 and remained in power until 1990, when, under pressure from Western circles and due to powerful changes in world politics, as a result of which anti-communist dictators ceased to play an important role in the region, forced to retire. Bangladesh has since re-established a parliamentary republic. General Zia's widow, Khaleda Zia, led the Bangladesh Nationalist Party to victory in the 1991 general parliamentary elections and became the country's first female prime minister. However, the Awami League, led by Sheikh Hasina, one of Mujibur Rahman's surviving daughters, came to power in the next election in 1996, but again lost to the Bangladesh Nationalist Party in 2001. In 2001, there was an armed conflict between India and Bangladesh.


To stop the wave of political instability and violence in society, and given that the country was suffering from widespread corruption and unrest, general elections were scheduled for 11 January 2007 under the supervision of a transitional government. The transitional government has prioritized the fight against corruption at all levels of government, with the result that many prominent politicians and officials of various calibers have been arrested on charges of corruption. General free elections under the transitional government were held on 29 December 2008, in which the Awami League, led by Sheikh Hasina, won by a landslide. Sheikh Hasina took her official oath of office on 6 January 2009 as prime minister.

Having won the parliamentary elections in 2014, Sheikh Hasina Wazed remained in power for a new 5-year term. On December 30, 2018, regular elections were held, the Awami League received 259 seats out of 300, and Sheikh Hasina retained the post of prime minister.


Government and political system

Bangladesh is a unitary state and a parliamentary republic. All residents of the country, upon reaching the age of 18, have the right to participate in direct parliamentary elections. Elections to the unicameral Jatiya Sangsad Parliament are held every five years. The Parliament Building, known as "Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban", was designed by architect Louis Kahn. There are 345 seats in Parliament, including 45 specially reserved seats for women deputies, elections for which are held in single-member constituencies. The prime minister, as head of government, forms the cabinet and administers the state. Although the Prime Minister is formally appointed by the President of Bangladesh, he or she must represent a parliamentary majority. The presidency is more ceremonial, and the country's president is elected by parliament.

However, presidential power expands significantly at the time of the formation of a transitional government, which is responsible for holding elections and transferring power. Officers of the transitional government are required to be non-partisan and are appointed to the post for a period of three months to perform their duties. This method of transferring power was first used in the world by Bangladesh in 1991 during the elections and enshrined in the 13th Amendment to the Constitution in 1996.

The Constitution of Bangladesh was originally adopted in 1972, and 14 amendments have been made to it so far. The country's highest judicial body is the Supreme Court, whose judges are appointed by the country's president. Judicial and law enforcement agencies are underdeveloped. The separation of the judiciary and executive power was completed by October 1, 2007. It was expected that as a result of this separation, the judiciary could become impartial and strong. The legislative system is based on English case law, with the exception of laws relating to family, marriage and inheritance, which are borrowed from the religious traditions of different groups of the population.

The main parties in Bangladesh are the Awami League and the Bangladesh Nationalist Party. The leader of the NPB is Khaleda Zia and her main political allies are Islamist parties of various persuasions, such as Jamaat Islam Bangladesh and Islami Oykya Jot, while the political allies of the leader of the Awami League party, Sheikh Hasin, are leftist and anti-clerical parties. Sheikh Hasina and Khaleda Zia are bitter enemies and have dominated the political arena for 15 years. Another important player in the political field of Bangladesh is the Jatya Party, led by the former military dictator Ershad. The confrontation between the Awami League parties and the PNB is very powerful and was marked by protests, violence and killings. The political activity of the youth is extremely high and originates from the time of the struggle for independence. Almost all parties have youth movements in their composition, the leaders of which were even elected to Parliament.

Two radical terrorist organizations, the Jagrata Muslim Janata of Bangladesh (JMJB) and the Jamaatul Mujahideen of Bangladesh (JMB), were banned from the country in February 2005. As a result of a series of terrorist attacks that have taken place since 1999, suspected members and leaders of the JMJB and JMB organizations were detained in 2006. Leaders were sentenced to death and carried out. The conduct of anti-terrorist operations by the government of Bangladesh evoked a positive response from the leaders of other states.

As a result of the adoption on January 11, 2007 of an emergency decree on the preparation of a new electoral list, the fight against corruption, supported by the country's military circles, the transitional government led by Fakhruddin Ahmad on January 22, 2007 suspended the elections. The military has supported the transitional government in fighting corruption, which has moved Bangladesh from the bottom to 147th on Transparency International's Corruption Index. The Grand Alliance, led by the Awami League, won a landslide victory in the elections on December 29, 2008, taking 230 out of 300 seats in Parliament.


International relationships

In international relations, Bangladesh adheres to a balanced political course aimed at expanding cooperation with international organizations and, first of all, with the United Nations. Bangladesh joined the British Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations in 1974 and has since been elected twice as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council, in 1978-1979 and 2000-2001. In the 1980s, Bangladesh played a leading role in establishing the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation to expand cooperation with South Asian countries. Bangladesh has chaired twice since the founding of the organization in 1985.

Bangladesh's most important and controversial relationship is with India. Relations between countries have been formed on the basis of cultural and historical ties and are an important part of the discussions within the country. Relations with India began on a positive note with military and economic support during the War of Independence and assistance during the post-war reconstruction. Over time, relations between countries have changed for completely different reasons.

The main "bone of contention" remains the construction and operation of the Farakka dam. India began building a dam on the Ganges River 18 kilometers (11 miles) from the border with Bangladesh in 1975. Bangladeshi officials say the dam is diverting large amounts of water needed by the country's agriculture and increasing the rate of man-made disasters in a country already suffering from natural disasters. The construction of the dam had very adverse environmental consequences. There are calls from India to pay attention to the anti-Indian separatists and Islamic militants who allegedly took refuge in the immediate vicinity of the border, with a total length of 2,500 miles (4,000 km), as well as to the flow of illegal immigrants, to protect against which India even built protective structures from barbed wire. However, at the summit of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation in 2007, both sides agreed on joint efforts to resolve border issues, as well as issues related to ensuring security and economic development.


Armed forces

The armed forces of Bangladesh are completed on a professional basis. The total number of the army is 200,000 people (including reservists), of which the air force - 22,000 people, the navy - 14,950 people. They consist of 7 divisions (which, in turn, have 16 infantry, 1 armored, 3 artillery and 1 engineering brigade). In addition, there are 3 separate armored regiments. Weapons are predominantly imported, mostly made in China. Bangladesh uses about 160 tanks and about 60 light armored vehicles. In addition to the traditional role of national defense, the army is involved in reconstruction work in natural disasters and maintaining order in times of political instability. Currently, Bangladesh is not involved in military conflicts, but provided 2,300 people at the disposal of the coalition during the Gulf War. Bangladesh takes an active part in UN operations around the world. So, for example, by 2007, Bangladesh had representatives in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Liberia, Sudan, East Timor and Côte d'Ivoire. Bangladesh is currently the largest contributor to UN military missions. The Navy includes 5 frigates (3 former British frigates built in the 50s, the Chinese frigate Osman and the brand new South Korean frigate Bongobondhu), 11 missile boats, 11 torpedo boats, 20 patrol ships.

The country also has more than 50,000 paramilitary units (10,000 border guards, 30,000 Bangladesh Riflemen under the Ministry of Internal Affairs, 5,000 paramilitary police forces, 200 coast guards).

Bangladesh has the warmest relations with the People's Republic of China, which, especially in the last decade, have become the result of economic cooperation between the countries of South Asia. Between 2006 and 2007, trade turnover between the countries grew by 28.5% as a result of signed agreements on duty-free importation into the Chinese market of a number of goods produced in Bangladesh. Cooperation is being strengthened not only in the economic sphere, but also between the Bangladesh Armed Forces and the People's Liberation Army of China on the basis of bilateral agreements on the supply of Chinese-made military equipment to Bangladesh. The signed agreements cover a wide range of military equipment from small arms to large naval vessels such as the Chinese frigate 053H1.


Administrative division

Bangladesh is divided into 8 administrative regions (divisions), each of which bears the name of the largest city in the region: Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Maimansingh and Rangpur.

Administrative regions, in turn, are divided into districts ("zila"). In total, there are 64 districts in the country, each of which is divided into sub-districts (“upazila” or “thana”). The territory with a police station (police station), excluding the territories of large cities, is divided into several communes, each of which may contain several villages. On the territory of large cities, police departments are divided into sections (ward), which, in turn, are divided into quarters (mahalla). There is no formally conducted election procedure at the level of regions, districts and subdistricts, and the leadership of the respective administrative units is appointed. Direct elections exist in each wards, which elect the chairman and members of the cabinet. In 1997, an act of parliament was adopted, according to which, during elections, three seats are mandatory reserved for women candidates at the polling station.

The city of Dhaka is the capital of the state and the largest city of Bangladesh. Other major cities of the country are Chittagong, Khulna, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Barisal, Komilla, Rangpur. In larger cities, there is a procedure for choosing a mayor, while other municipalities elect a chairman. Mayors and chairmen are elected for a term of five years.


Geography and climate

Bangladesh is located in the delta of the Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers. The delta is formed at the confluence of the Ganges (locally called Padma), Brahmaputra (Jamuna) and Meghna and their tributaries. The Ganges merges with the Jamuna (the main channel of the Brahmaputra) and then, merging with the Meghna, flows into the Bay of Bengal. River deposits create the most fertilized plantations in the world in the delta. Bangladesh has 58 transboundary rivers, and issues arising from the use of water resources are very sensitive in discussions with India. Most of the country is located only a few meters above sea level, and it is estimated that 10% of the country will be flooded with a one meter rise in sea level.

In the south-east of the country, since the sixties of the twentieth century, work has been carried out on the construction of dams, which, coupled with sediment sediments, leads to the emergence of new land areas. In the late 1970s, with the assistance of investment funds from the Netherlands, the government of Bangladesh began to develop these newly formed sites. These efforts have led to a booming construction industry in this area, including the construction of roads, water pipes, embankments, barrage plantings, reservoirs, toilets, and the transfer of land to residents. By the fall of 2010, the reclamation program had allocated 27,000 acres (10,927 hectares) for 21,000 families.

The highest point in Bangladesh is Mount Mowdok at 1,052 meters above sea level in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in the southeast of the country. To the south of Chittagong is the second longest beach in the world - Cox's Bazar, which stretches for one hundred and twenty kilometers.

The Northern Tropic (Tropic of Cancer) passes through the country, as a result of which Bangladesh enjoys a tropical climate with mild winters from October to March and hot, humid summers from March to June. The hot and humid monsoon season lasts from June to October, during which there is a large amount of precipitation. The country is constantly exposed to natural disasters such as floods, tropical cyclones, tornadoes and borons, which are exacerbated by deforestation (deforestation), soil erosion and erosion. In 1991, about 140,000 people died from the effects of the cyclone.

In September 1998, Bangladesh was hit by the most devastating flood in recent history. During the flood of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna rivers, about 300,000 houses were flooded, 9,700 kilometers of roads and 2,700 kilometers of embankments, 50 km² were completely destroyed, and 11,000 kilometers of roads were partially damaged or destroyed. As a result of the flood, about 1,000 people died, about 30 million were left homeless. About 137,000 head of cattle died. Two-thirds of the country was under water. Several reasons led to such devastating consequences - unusually heavy monsoon rains, melting glaciers in the Himalayas and cutting down protective plantings and trees for heating, cooking and freeing up territories for animals.

Bangladesh is currently considered the most vulnerable country in the world due to climate change. There is an assumption that in the coming decade, rising sea levels will lead to the emergence of 20 million “climate refugees”. The water resources of Bangladesh are often subject to arsenic poisoning due to its high content in the soil. Up to 77 million people are exposed to arsenic poisoning through drinking contaminated water

The climate is hot and humid, characteristic of the equatorial monsoon zone. The coldest month is January, the hottest month is April. Average annual temperatures increase in the direction from the northeast to the southwest. The country occupies one of the first places in the world in terms of rainfall. On average, more than 1900 mm of precipitation falls per year, their amount is especially high in the northeast (more than 3000 mm). It rains mainly from July to October.

Near the northern border is the only exclave of the country since 2015 - Dahagram-Angarpota.


Flora and fauna

The country occupies the eastern outskirts of the Indo-Gangetic lowland, the lower reaches and the delta of the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. The territory is a flat alluvial plain, dissected by a dense network of rivers. The Ganges Delta - Sundarbans - a wide strip of alluvium along the coast of the Bay of Bengal. Low mountain ranges run along the border with Myanmar. The country is located in a seismically dangerous zone.

The climate in Bangladesh is humid tropical and subtropical, monsoonal. During monsoon rains and floods, up to 70% of the territory is covered with water, almost all rice fields are flooded.

Humid tropical and mangrove forests grow in the country; teak, sal, bamboo, banyan tree, orchids. The fauna is rich: Bengal tigers, leopards, Asian elephants, mongooses, crocodiles, pythons, etc. In 1997, a statement was made according to which the mangrove region is in danger of extinction. The widely used "bird" national symbol of the country is the magpie shama-thrush, which is used on banknotes and one of the attractions in Dhaka is called Doyel Chatwar (Magpie Square). The country's national flower symbol is the water lily, known as Shapla, and the fruit symbol is the jackfruit (East Indian breadfruit, known as Kathal in Bengali). In 2010, the government of the country chose the mango tree as the symbol of the tree.



Bangladesh is an underdeveloped agrarian state. One of the poorest countries in Asia, 63% of the working population is employed in agriculture. The humid tropical climate allows for year-round farming, although there are droughts in the west of the country. Residents grow rice, jute, tea (in the northeast), wheat, sugar cane, potatoes, tobacco, legumes, sunflowers, spices, fruits (including mangoes). The population periodically suffers from hunger due to floods that destroy rice crops. The country is engaged in breeding cattle (bulls and buffaloes), poultry. Fish and seafood are caught in the rivers and the Bay of Bengal (the main fishing port is Chittagong). Fish along with rice is the main element of the diet of the inhabitants of the country. The country is producing natural gas. The main industries are cotton, jute, clothing, tea, paper, cement, chemicals (fertilizers), sugar, textile engineering.

Handicrafts: production of jute rugs, muslin and thin cotton fabrics with national ornaments, clothes from colored patches.

Export (2017) is estimated at 39.2 billion dollars, almost 90% of exports are light industry products (clothing and underwear), shoes, seafood, and raw leather are also exported. The main buyers are Germany (16%), the USA (15%) and the UK (9.1%). Import - 44 billion dollars, mainly raw materials for light industry, it accounts for up to 24% (cotton, synthetic fabrics and fibers, etc.), machinery and equipment (20%), petroleum products (6%) and various food products (wheat, sugar, rice, palm oil, beans, etc.). The main suppliers are China (34%) and India (16%).

Despite the country's efforts and external assistance to improve the economic and demographic situation, Bangladesh remains a developing country with an annual per capita income of $520 (as of 2008), while the average world per capita income is $10,200.

One of the main sources of income for the country was the production of jute, which peaked during the Second World War. In the late forties of the twentieth century, Bangladesh formed eighty percent of the budget from jute exports, and even in the early seventies, the share of budget revenues from jute exports reached seventy percent. However, with the development of the use of polymeric materials, jute began to lose the market, which, in turn, led to the stagnation of the industry in the country. Bangladesh produces a significant amount of rice, tea and mustard.

Although two-thirds of Bangladesh's population is employed in agriculture, more than three-quarters of the country's income comes from the textile industry, which became attractive to foreign investors due to low labor costs and low overhead costs in the late 1980s. In 2009-2010, industrial exports amounted to 12.6 billion US dollars, while in 2002, industrial exports amounted to 5 billion US dollars. Bangladesh ranks fourth in the World Trade Organization for clothing. The industry employs over three million people, ninety percent of whom are women. A significant item of income in foreign currency is remittances from citizens working abroad.

Barriers to economic growth include frequent cyclones and floods, inefficient state-owned companies, poorly managed ports, rapid population growth, outpacing labor market supply, inefficient use of energy resources (such as natural gas), inefficient energy suppliers, slow economic reforms , political instability and corruption. According to a World Bank report, the main obstacles to development were "poor government and weak public institutions", but despite the obstacles, the country has been able to achieve an annual economic growth of 5% since 1990, during which time a middle class has formed in Bangladesh. During this period, Bangladesh experienced a boom in foreign direct investment in its economy. In December 2005, four years after reporting on the formation of the BRIC bloc of economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China), investment bank Goldman Sachs listed Bangladesh as one of the G11, along with Egypt, Indonesia, Vietnam and the seven other countries.


The use of child labor in enterprises is one of the problems of the country's young generation, exacerbated by violence among students and youth. Problems related to the use of child labor and violence among young people are solved not only by government agencies, but also by non-governmental organizations. For example, the programs of the non-governmental organization BRAC are aimed at young people, the main goal of which is the social adaptation of young people. Approximately 80% of participants in such training programs are women.

Large national companies such as Beximco, Square, Akij Group, Ispahani, Navana Group, Transcom Group, Habib Group, KDS Group, Dragon Group and large transnational corporations Unocal Corporation, Chevron operate in the country. Foreign corporations are the main investors in natural gas production. According to the forecast of the Central Bank, the annual growth of the country's GDP since 2005 is 6.5%.

One of the prominent people who played a big role in the economic development of the country was Muhammad Yunus. He developed in theory and proposed to use in practice a microcredit system, supported by the principle of collective punishment in case of loan default. By the end of the 1990s, Grameen Bank, founded by Yunus to develop microcredit, had 2.3 million customers (2.5 million customers of similar organizations nationwide). Muhammad Yunus was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 for the development of the microcredit system in Bangladesh.

In order to grow the economy and attract foreign investment, the government of the country has created several free economic zones, which are managed through the Bangladesh Export Control Authority.



The population of the country according to the official census of Bangladesh in 2011 was 142,319,000 inhabitants (July 2011), according to the US CIA - 158,570,535 people in July 2011 and 161,083,804 people by July 2012. The population as of July 2020 is 162,650,853. Bangladesh is also a country with a very high population density. In the 1960s and 1970s, there was a sharp increase in the population (from 60 to 90 million people). However, with the development of the birth control system in the 1980s, population growth slowed down.

About 45.04% of the country's population are young people under the age of 24, and only 6.82% are people over 65 years old. The average life expectancy according to the CIA website for 2020 is 74 years. At the same time, life expectancy for women is higher - 76 years, while for men - 72 years.



The main religions of the country are Islam (89.1%), Hinduism (10%). Christians are represented by the Protestant Church of Bangladesh, Catholics, Assemblies of God; Jehovah's Witnesses are also present.



Bangladesh has a rich culture that has absorbed elements of the various traditions of the region. Literary texts are written in Bengali, which are common in Bangladesh and in the Indian state of West Bengal. The first written source in Bengali (Chareapada) dates back to the eighth century AD. Medieval literature was predominantly religious (Chandidas) or borrowed from other languages ​​(Alaol). Bengali literature reached its peak in the nineteenth century and is associated with the names of Rabindranath Tagore and Qazi Nazrul Islam. The folklore of Bangladesh is represented by the works of Gopal Bhand, Thakurmar Juli and Mainmanshing Gitika. In modern literature, notable figures are Aminur Rahman and Tariq Sujat.

Among contemporary artists, Monirul Islam and Maksudul Ahsan occupy an important place.

The musical traditions of Bangladesh are based on the performance of Baniprodhan songs with minimal musical accompaniment, and the tradition of ritual chanting "baul" is considered a hallmark of Bengali folk art. There are also many other musical traditions, including Gombhira, Bhatiali and Bhawaiya, which differ in performance depending on the region of the country. The performance of folklore is often accompanied by a one-stringed ektara instrument. Other common musical instruments are the dotara, dhol, flute, and tabla. With close cultural ties to India, Bangladesh has a shared cultural heritage of which the performance of Indian classical music is a part. Bangladeshi flutist Ustad Azizul Islam has gained worldwide fame. The dance art of Bangladesh is also partly borrowed from the traditions of Indian dance and the dance traditions of local tribes.

Bangladesh independently releases about 80 films a year, although films from neighboring India are also very popular among the population. Bangladesh has about 200 daily newspapers and magazines and about 500 periodicals, but readership remains low at about 15 per cent of the total population.

The culinary traditions of Bangladesh are closely related to India and Central Asian cuisine, although with their own special features. The most common dishes in the country are rice and curry. The inhabitants of the country prepare characteristic sweets from milk and other products - rasgulla, chamcham (chamcham) and kalojam (kalojam).

The most common women's clothing in Bangladesh is the sari. The weaving guild of Dhaka is famous for its exquisite muslin products. Shalvars (harem pants) are also extremely common in the country. In the urban environment, women also wear Western clothing, although Western clothing is more common among the male population. To observe religious traditions, men wear clothes such as "kurta" and lungi.

Eid al-Adha and Eid al-Adha are the main holidays in the Islamic calendar, during the celebration of which various cultural events are held. The main Hindu holidays are Durga Puja, Kali Puja, Vasant Panchami. National holidays include Vesak and Christmas. The main secular holiday of the country is the Bengali New Year. Other significant national holidays are Nabanna, Poush, Memorial Day of the Bengali language movement, Victory Day.


Mass media

Bangladesh's largest television channel is Bangladesh TV, which is state-owned, although private channels have begun to gain popularity in Bangladesh in recent years.

Radio in the country is represented by both local radio companies Radio Foorty, ABC Radio, Radio Today, Radio Aamar, and the international offices of BBC Bangla and Voice of America. The state radio company BB (Bangladesh Betar), includes a radio channel of the same name.



The most popular game sport in Bangladesh is cricket. The national team of the country first took part in the Cricket World Cup in 1999 and for ten years entered the elite list of teams that hold test matches. The Bangladesh team defeated the Zimbabwe team in 2005 and the West Indies team in 2009. In July 2010, Bangladesh won for the first time in its history against the England team, and later beat the New Zealand team with a clean sheet. In 2011, Bangladesh co-hosted the Cricket World Cup with India and Sri Lanka. In the final of the first ever cricket competition in the 2010 Asian Games, the Bangladesh team defeated the Afghanistan team and took first place.

Bangladesh at the Olympics
Bangladesh has competed in every Summer Olympics since 1984. In total, 27 representatives of this country (21 men and 6 women) participated in the Games, who competed in athletics, swimming and shooting. The largest delegations (6 athletes each) represented Bangladesh at the Games in Seoul and Barcelona. Bangladesh did not participate in the Winter Olympics.

Bangladesh is the most populous country that has not won a single medal in the Olympics so far. The country has the opportunity to send its athletes to the Olympic Games, mainly due to the received special invitations to the wild card.


Social problems

Terrorism is one of the problems of Bangladesh, and there are both relatively calm years when there are no victims of terrorist attacks in the country (for example, 2009 and 2011), and years when the number of victims is in the hundreds (for example, in 2013, 353 people died in terrorist attacks , including 215 civilians, 15 intelligence officers and 123 terrorists). In total, in 2005-2013, terrorist attacks claimed the lives of 418 people, including 253 civilians, 150 terrorists and 15 intelligence officers.