Slavonski Brod

 

 

Slavonski Brod is a city in Croatia, the industrial, cultural, administrative, judicial and financial center of Brod-Posavina County, the second largest city in Slavonia in size, population and importance, and the sixth largest in the Republic of Croatia, after Zagreb, Split, Rijeka, Osijek , and Zadar. It was declared the most beautiful city in Croatia, chosen by the "Croatian Tourist Board" for 2009.

Name
During the Roman Empire, the city was called Marsonia, and from 1244 to 1934 Brod na Savi. Traces from Roman times show that there has always been a crossing over the river here, which is why Brod is sometimes called the "northern gate of Bosnia". This fact is indicated by the very name of the city, which once bore the name "Brood on the Sava" ("Brood" - corrupted by "passage", "crossing" ...). Other names of the place were given the same name: Brodarevo on the river Lim, Danjski Brod on the Drim, formerly Brod Zrinjski on the Una, Brod Moravice near Kupa, Brod na Kupi, Brodjani and Stari Brod na Kupi, Brodarica near Morinj Bay, Brod and Stari Brod on the Drina, Kokin Brod on the river Uvac, Brodac Gornji and Brodac Donji by the river Sava ... Towards Slovenia and Slovenia there are similar names: Bregana and Obrežje (in Srijem there is a place Obrež on the Sava), Breg pri Litiji, Breg, Brege , Dolnje Brezovo, Breg ob Savi, Brezje.

 

History

Settlements in this part of Croatia have existed since prehistoric times, which is due to the favorable geographical position, pleasant continental climate, fertile soil and proximity to the river. The city was given the name "Brod", which at first symbolized the place where the river was allowed to be crossed, and later the means for its realization.

In the northeastern part of the town, at the Galovo site, a rich site of the Starčevo culture from the early Stone Age was discovered relatively recently. Apart from the fact that this is the largest site from the Stone Age in the area of ​​Northern Croatia, it is extremely important to emphasize that the found material remains confirm the 8000-year-old settlement of Brod.

Scientists estimate that this is not only the oldest evidence of settlement of the city, but, in general, traces of the oldest settlement in the whole of Croatia. The site is characterized by several features, which attract the attention of experts. One of them is the first burial pit found in Europe, specially built. It is surrounded by a wooden fence with an altar and over 20 stone axes. Also interesting are the remains of skeletons found here, where one is buried without a head, while the other lacks a face on the skull, which leads scientists to the existence of a "skull cult" and sacrificial rites. According to the findings from some other localities, experts believe that there was probably a rather large prehistoric settlement in the city area.

Throughout history, the location of the town of Slavonski Brod has been well inhabited, and the first historical settlement in that place dates back to Roman times, as evidenced by archaeological finds from that time, called Marsonia. To this day, it has not been determined whether Marsonia was just a post office and lodging, or an entire settlement.

On the famous Peutinger board, Marsonia is marked as Marsonie, and in the work Notitia dignitatum it is written as Auxilia Ascaria Tauruno gray Marsonia.

The issue of the location of Marsonia was already dealt with by the publishers of Ptolemy's Geography in the 16th century. There were different opinions in that regard. The first 16th-century geographer to determine the position of Marsonia at the Brod site was Abraham Ortelius, who published a map in his atlas "Theatrum orbis terrarum" (Antwerp 1590) on which he tried to reconstruct and locate all the ancient names of Pannonian and Illyrian settlements. He placed Marsonia on the Sava exactly where Brod is today.

On the already mentioned Peutinger's board, it is best seen that Marsonia lay directly next to the river Sava, at the place where the Roman road crossed the mentioned river. Matija Petar Katančić was the first of our experts to determine that Marsonia (originally MARSVNNIA) was at the location of Brod. After that, this fact is generally accepted in science.

After Marsonia, Slavs settled on the site of the city in the 6th century AD. The name of the town itself is first mentioned in the charter of the Hungarian-Croatian King Bela IV. 1224. Throughout the late Middle Ages and the bulk of the New Age, Slavonski Brod was an important fortress in the Military Border, a series of fortifications on the border of Austria with the Turkish Empire. The influence of the Turks in this area was dominant until the end of the 17th century when the situation changed with the conquest of territories by the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. In addition to the defensive role, small crafts and trade also developed in the city at that time, and from the earliest times the spiritual service was performed by the Franciscans, under whose influence education and culture developed. In the 20th century, Slavonski Brod experienced several periods of rapid growth, as a traffic and industrial center. Due to the rapid economic development of the 20th century, they are called the "golden age of Brod". During the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the town changed its name from Brod na Savi to Slavonski Brod.

World War II
Slavonski Brod was badly damaged in the Second World War. Some citizens did not support the Ustasha government, but joined the anti-fascist partisan movement. The city was badly damaged in the relentless Allied devastation of 1945, which can be compared to the devastation of Dresden. Slavonski Brod (for the NDH it was called "Brod na Savi") was very important as a strategic and traffic place for the NDH and the Axis Powers. Of the Croatian cities, only Zadar suffered so much in the final actions of the Allies. More than 80% of the buildings were destroyed in the Allied bombing, and buildings from the time of Austro-Hungary of exceptional cultural, historical and urban value were also destroyed.

Homeland war

A difficult fate befell him during the Homeland War for the independence of the Republic of Croatia, when he suffered terrible destruction from neighboring Bosnia and Herzegovina by the JNA. Slavonski Brod was also very important to the Serbian aggressor because of its geopolitical position. According to some experts, Brod is the second worst-hit Croatian city after Vukovar. On average, five people died daily in Slavonski Brod as a result of the Greater Serbia aggression alone. A total of 29 children were killed in the attacks. A Greater Serbia terrorist artillery attack has been known since July 16, 1991, when Bosnian Serbs fired a grenade at a Slavonski Brod refugee center, killing 12 people and wounding about 60.

During the almost daily shelling of Slavonski Brod, 182 people were killed by enemy shells, 28 of them children. [8] From May 1992 to 1995, 969 Croatian children were injured. The main causes of injuries were explosions or gunshots during artillery or air strikes. There are 90 severely disabled children.

It is interesting that the war in Slavonski Brod lasted at a time when there were no JNA military actions in other cities in eastern Croatia. During the post-1990s, the city gradually recovered and rebuilt and tried to connect well, economically and traffic-wise with other parts of Croatia, which was always primary for Brod, and work was done on rebuilding industrial plants, which once employed most of the population.

Slavonski Brod and its surroundings contributed to the defense and liberation of other parts of Croatia. In Operation Maslenica, they bore a heavy burden, defending the newly liberated Kašić, a key place for the defense of Zadar. In just one night (February 1-2), 23 members of the 3rd Cobra Battalion from the 3rd Kuna Guards Brigade were killed in the area of ​​the village of Kašić or its surroundings.

Today
Today, Slavonski Brod is a busy city on the highway that connects Central Europe with Asia Minor. As the administrative center of the County and the industrial center, Slavonski Brod continues to grow and develop, especially in the last ten years. the future lies precisely in this sector and further modernization of shipyards and industry is needed.

 

Rafting Street
Splavarska Street in Slavonski Brod is the only one of its kind in Croatia. It consists of about eighty rafts lined up next to each other on the Sava River, from the city center to the city beach "Poloj".

City swimming pool "Poloj"
City beach "Poloj", a sandy beach located 2.5 km from the city pools on the river Sava. It is one of the most beautiful river beaches in Europe, and every year thousands of people from Brod seek refuge from the summer heat. In addition to the beach, there is also a sports and recreation center that includes basketball, volleyball and football courts, table tennis tables, a chessboard and a badminton court. Every year, numerous events are organized on "Poloj", such as the Motorijada and Pečenkijada.

Promenade along the Sava
The promenade along the Sava River or the popular Brod Quay is one of the longest and most beautiful river promenades in Croatia. Its length is 2.5 km and stretches from the mouth of the river Mrsunja to the Sava to the city pools. During the construction of the new 600 m, numerous archeological remains were found. The promenade that follows Sava along Splavarska Street all the way to "Poloj" continues on the promenade, which gives a 5 km long uninterrupted promenade that is enjoyed by many people from Brod. The promenade is decorated with numerous graffiti, and there is also a statue of Potjeha lika from Ivana's fairy tale "How Potjeha sought the truth".

Church of St. Anthony of Padua in Podvinje
One of the most beautiful churches in Slavonski Brod is certainly the parish church of the parish of St. Antun Padovanski located in the village of Podvinje on the slopes of Dilj gora. Next to the church is a statue of St. Anthony and the park. Every year, many citizens of Brod, but also believers from the surrounding areas visit the parish, on 13.6. to attend the largest Kirwai celebration in the city.

Cultural and historical ensemble of Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod is a city with a rich history. In its center, but also in other parts, there are a handful of numerous historical, cultural and architectural monuments. It is for this reason that the Ministry of Culture has placed the historically urban ensemble of Slavonski Brod under protection. Numerous Baroque, Art Nouveau and Classicist buildings can be seen in the protected area.

Industrial park
It is located in the contact zone of the Brod Fortress, in Hanibala Lucića Street. Vehicles and machinery manufactured in the "Đuro Đaković" factory are installed in the park.

Other sights
The building of the State Archives in Slavonski Brod
The building of the State Archives in Sl. The ship is located in Augusta Cesarca Street and on January 12, 1989, it was declared a cultural monument. The building was built in 1910 in the spirit of Art Nouveau. The artistic treatment of the façade cladding, and the stucco-decorative applications on the façade speak of the high artistic level of the builders. In terms of appearance, it is one of the quality Art Nouveau architecture in Northern Croatia. Due to the above and the presented documentation, a decision was made on the registration and entry of the building in the Register of Cultural Monuments of the IV category.

Vijuš Sports Hall The Vijuš multipurpose sports hall, with a capacity of 2,150 spectators, was opened on November 27, 2009, after 20 years of construction.

Fire climbing tower
It was built from 1903 to 1904 by the Board of the Ship Fire Brigade. Using water from the Sava, it was used for firefighting, watering and cleaning city streets. It was renovated and lit in 2003.

Bunker at the train station
In Brodski Vinogorje, on the slopes of Dilj gora, there is a mountain lodge "Đuro Pilar".

"Djurin" bridge
A pedestrian bridge built above the railway for the needs of workers in the Đuro Đaković factory. During the golden age of Đuro Đaković, when about 20,000 people worked in its plants, the bridge was used daily by tens of thousands of workers and people. Due to the large flow of people in a short period of time (when one shift ends and the second shift begins), this bridge belongs to the group of large engineering solutions. Of particular importance is the fact that it was designed by naval engineers. The author of the conceptual architectural solution is Duško Medaković, B.Sc.