Flag of Croatia

Language: Croatian

Currency: Kuna (HRK)

Currency: 385


Description of Croatia

Croatia (official name: Republic of Croatia) is a European country, in a geopolitical sense a central European and Mediterranean country. To the Northwest it borders Slovenia, Hungary to the Northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and to the west it has a sea border with Italy. The land area is 56,594 km2, and the coastal sea area is 31,067 km2, which ranks Croatia among the medium-sized European countries. The capital city of Zagreb is the political, cultural, scientific and economic centre of the Republic of Croatia. Throughout Croatian history, the most significant cultural influences came from the Central European and Mediterranean cultural circles.

The foundations of the Croatian state are found in the early Middle Ages when Croats founded their two principalities: Pannonian and coastal Croatia. Then under the ruling dynasty Trpimirović Croatia became a single principality, and 7. June 879. during the reign of Prince Branimir for the first time an independent state. In the year 925. under the leadership of King Tomislav, Croatia became a kingdom. The last Croatian King was Petar Snačić, and after him Croatia entered into a personal union with Hungary under a treaty known as the Pacta conventa, concluded in 1102. year. With this treaty, Croatia retained all the features of the state, only the King was in common. In 1527., due to the Ottoman attack on Croatia, the Habsburg dynasty comes to the Croatian throne. During the Habsburg rule, Croatia also retained all state legal features, which is most reflected in the Pragmatic Sanction of 1712. the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement of 1868. year.

At the end of the First World War, 1918. in 1999, Croatia broke ties with Austria-Hungary and participated in the establishment of the state of SHS. Not long after, Croatia (within the state of SHS) was incorporated into the kingdom of SHS (later Kingdom of Yugoslavia), although the Croatian parliament never ratified this decision. It regains a certain level of statehood as the Banovina of Croatia. During World War II, in the territory of present-day Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and part of Serbia, there was an independent state of Croatia. At the end of World War II, 1945. Croatia became a Socialist Republic and as a federal unit formed the SFR Yugoslavia. In 1990. the first democratic multi-party elections were held after 45 years of the one-party system, and 30. in May of the same year, a democratically elected multi-party Croatian parliament was constituted. Day 25. June 1991. the Republic of Croatia by the constitutional decision of the state parliament became an independent and independent state.

The Croatian language and Latin script are officially used in Croatia.

According to the 2021 census. in the, Croatia had a population of 3,871,833. Croats make up more than 90% of the population, with the largest minority being Serbs. The majority of the population is Christian, while the majority of Christians are Catholic.

According to the political structure, Croatia is a parliamentary democracy, and in economic terms it is oriented towards the market economy. It is a member of the United Nations of 22. May 1992. year. Croatia is a member of the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for security and cooperation in Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the European Union and the Schengen area.




Dalmatia is a relatively narrow strip of land bounded from the southwest by the sea, and from the northeast by Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as numerous islands in the Adriatic Sea. There are any landscapes here — islands, beaches, high mountains right by the shore, waterfalls in the Krka National Park, and karst plateaus. In addition, Dalmatia is a region with an interesting history, which has changed its nationality many times, and this is clearly visible in the cities. The centers of Dubrovnik, Split and Trogir are included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. In summer, they are so popular with tourists that it is difficult to walk along the central streets, so if you are mainly interested in cities, avoid the high season.











Other destinations

Cetina Valley Nature Park

Klis Fortress

Korčula Island

Kornati Islands National Park

Krka National Park

Mljet Island


Paklenica National Park

Plitvice Lakes National Park


North- West Croatia (Istria and Kvarner Area)

Istria (also Istra) is a peninsula in the north-west of the country, jutting into the Adriatic Sea and bordering Slovenia in the north. History has a reputation as a classic place for a beach holiday, but it is far from being limited to beaches. Chalk cliffs with karst caves stretch along the entire coast, and the group of islands of Briuna are united in a national park. The cities on the Istrian coast have been under the control of Italian states for most of their history, and therefore resemble Italy more than the interior of Croatia. There are extensive monuments from the Roman period in Pula, and the ensemble of the historical center of Porec is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Kvarner and Mountainous Croatia is a region lying between Istria, Dalmatia and Central Croatia. If you are traveling from Zagreb to the coast, you will definitely pass through it. Kvarner includes the coast — Kvarner Bay — with islands, the largest of which are Krk and Cres, and the mountain ranges of Lika and Gorski Kotar. There are national parks Risnjak with chalk mountains, Northern Velebit with karst caves, and Plitvice Lakes with waterfalls, often mentioned as the most beautiful place in Croatia.













Other destinations

Brijuni National Park



Nehaj Castle

Risnjak National Park

Sjeverni Velebit National Park


Central Croatia

Despite the fact that the capital of the state is located in the region, Central Croatia is far from the most popular part of the country among travelers. There are no high mountains or national parks, and the typical landscape consists of low hills covered with broad-leaved forests. Nevertheless, Central Croatia should not be neglected. In Zagreb, you will always find something to do, both for half a day on the way from Hungary or Slovenia to the coast, and for a couple of days of a separate trip. Varazdin is close to the historical center, and there are also enough activities for lovers of nature walks.






Slavonski Brod



Krapinske Toplice


Other destinations

Ozalj Castle


Emergency numbers

Police 92

Ambulance 94

Fire 93


Getting here

Visa and rules of stay
Croatia is a member of the Schengen area. Citizens of Russia and most CIS countries need a visa.

Registration is required within 24 hours of arrival for all except EU citizens and their family members. In fact, this rule applies to those who come to the country for a long time, and an ordinary tourist can safely live without registration, but hotels and apartment owners still do it, so when you settle in, they will almost always ask you for a passport and take a copy of it, but in return they will not give anything: registration is simply marked somewhere in the system. One overnight stay is quite enough, as registration is done upon arrival. If you stay at friends' houses or at the reception all the time, you must come to the police yourself and fill out a simple registration form. In practice, registration (and documents in general) in Croatia are very rarely checked. There are no serious penalties for her absence, and all known precedents ended well, since travelers managed to prove their trustworthiness to police officers.

By plane
Most international flights arrive in Zagreb, and in summer, in addition, to Dubrovnik and Split, where it takes quite a long time to travel by land from Zagreb, so if you are heading to Dalmatia, it is better to fly there directly. In addition to Dubrovnik and Split, the national airline Croatian Airlines offers connections via Zagreb to several other airports — Osijek, Zadar, Rijeka and Pula, where there are also occasional direct flights from other European countries, but this rarely happens.

There are direct flights from Moscow to Zagreb, and in summer also to Split.

By train
International trains come to Zagreb from Vienna via Maribor, from Munich via Ljubljana, as well as from Budapest and Belgrade. Usually these trains run 1-2 times a day and travel extremely slowly, the trip between the countries will take a whole day. The exception is Ljubljana, which is only a couple of hours away, and where trains run a little more often. In all directions, except Serbian, you can count on air-conditioned seating cars, and if you're lucky, even with sockets, but there will be no other benefits of civilization like Wi-Fi and a dining car. There is also a night train from Zagreb to Munich.

German and Austrian railways sell tickets to Zagreb, including discounted ones, and these tickets are noticeably cheaper than at the ticket office before departure. When traveling between Eastern European countries, the price does not depend or almost does not depend on the time and place of purchase, and demand is minimal, so tickets can be taken at the last moment, and these tickets are not sold online.

Regional trains connect at several points on the Hungarian and Slovenian borders, but finding these connections becomes a non-trivial task, since the sites of the national railways do not know anything about each other. The most complete information is provided by the Deutsche Bahn website, although it is not always accurate in these parts. Commuter trains can travel from the Hungarian city of Pec to the Croatian Osijek, as well as from the Slovenian city of Ptuj to the Croatian Varazdin. In addition, commuter service has been preserved on the lines connecting Slovenian railways with Karlovac and Pula, although here it will only interest railway fans: other travelers will choose a bus or, more likely, will not get involved with a trip in these parts without having a car.

There is no railway connection with Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as Montenegro. In the direction of Bosnia, you can take a bus from Zagreb to Banja Luka and from there by domestic train to Sarajevo, or by Croatian train to Slavonski Brod on the Bosnian border.


Flixbus runs directly to Zagreb from many German cities. Due to the ban on cabotage, these buses pass through Austria without stopping.

The journey with your own car is actually worthwhile because of the flexibility. However, it should be borne in mind that in the summer months there is a relatively high volume of traffic on the coast and near the coast. In addition, relatively high temperatures are to be expected (up to 40 degrees in the shade is not uncommon). A journey with a car with air conditioning is therefore recommended. Cars with German and Austrian license plates do not have to attach the national sign sticker, provided that it is a Euro license plate. On the other hand, for cars with Swiss or Liechtenstein license plates, the application of the adhesive is mandatory.

The most important route from Germany is via Salzburg, Villach and Ljubljana. In addition to the Croatian toll, a vignette is required for each of the two transit countries Austria and Slovenia, and special tolls have to be paid for the three Austrian tunnels Tauerntunnel, Katschbergtunnel and Karawankentunnel. An alternative route leads via Linz, Graz and Maribor; here, too, a special toll is due for the two tunnels Bosrucktunnel and Gleinalmtunnel.

From Switzerland and South Tyrol it is possible to get there via Milan and Trieste, but it should be noted that the Slovenian section has not yet been developed and you have to drive longer distances over country roads. However, since there is no motorway on this route on the Slovenian side, there is no Slovenian toll either.

Hitchhiking or a car stop to Croatia is quite possible. If you are coming from the north, you should rather choose the "detour" via Ljubljana than the short corner over Italy. In Croatia itself, however, hitchhiking is illegal and therefore a little more difficult and time-consuming, much better in the hinterland than on the coast. As everywhere, women should never hitchhike alone.

From many places ferries depart several times a day to the islands that are off the coast, as well as (less often) between coastal cities (for example, Split and Rijeka) and relatively often between Croatia and Italy (for example, Split - Ancona - Split). The connections have a high density during the holiday season. There are normal ferry connections, speedboat and catamaran connections as well as private taxi boats. The duration of the crossing varies considerably. Thus, a normal passenger and car ferry takes about 10 hours to get from Split to Ancona. The car catamaran SNAV, on the other hand, only takes 6.5 hours. A ferry to Hvar takes 2.5 hours from Split, speedboat or catamaran, depending on the pier, in about 50 minutes. The crossings are relatively cheap, about 1.5 to 10 € per trip. With a vehicle, the price is significantly higher, whereby the vehicles are priced according to type and length.
The most important providers in passenger shipping:

Jadrolinija (Domestic; Croatia-Italy-Croatia)
SNAV (Ancona-Split, April to October only)


Travel around the country

In Croatia, people are especially mobile with cars, buses and boats. The railway is still in the background and is developing more slowly than road traffic.

By train
The railway plays a subordinate role in Croatia, as in many countries of the former Yugoslavia. The network is quite wide-meshed, many major cities such as Dubrovnik are not connected to the railway network, and the trains are very slow, often slower than the parallel bus connections; however, the train connections are quite cheap. However, the country is trying to renew the railway network and speed up the most important connections, so the travel time on the Zagreb-Split route could be reduced from 9 hours to 5.5 hours by the use of tilting trains, which is still much longer than a comparable bus or car trip, but you will be rewarded with a breathtaking view of the mountains.

The operator of the railway network in Croatia is Hrvatske željeznice (HŽ). There are three train categories: Intercity (IC), express (Brzi, B) and Regional (Putnički vlak, Pt). Intercity trains are subject to reservation (reservation fee 1 €). Tickets can be purchased either on site or online, similar to Deutsche Bahn or ÖBB, there are savings prices for early bookers. Tickets for international trains can be purchased exclusively at a special counter in Zagreb Central Station (also not online). Buying a ticket on the train is possible, but costs a penalty surcharge, unless it is proven that you got on at a station without a ticket office.

By bus
Bus traffic in Croatia is usually well developed and has an extensive network despite some closed lines. There are short-distance buses in Croatia, both in the cities and in the countryside, from where you can go to the regional centers. The long-distance buses are usually more comfortable and faster than the train.

Since the construction of the motorway to the south (A1), you can choose for certain routes whether you take the slower connection, e.g. via the coastal road, or the faster one via the motorway. The time difference for the Zadar-Split route, for example, is about 1.5 hours.

The bus stations are usually located in the city center. In the summer months, more traffic has to be expected, possibly even to the bus station itself.

On the street
Speed limits in Croatia: urban 50 km/h, extra-urban 90 km/h, on expressways 110 km/h, on motorways 130 km/h. For young drivers under the age of 25, lower speed limits apply (always subtract 10 km/h).

If you want to see a lot of the country, it makes sense to drive your own car or rent one. The areas are usually very extensive and you are unattached.

The Croatian road network has been constantly expanding for years. Most of the highways, especially in the south, are renewed or completely new, in the villages and in big cities there are still remnants of pothole ramps. Caution is advised when overtaking and in case of rain. Here you can also get into a skid on new roads, often because salty air and soot particles from diesel vehicles form a film.

Highways are subject to tolls in Croatia, unlike in neighboring countries, no vignette is used, but the toll is calculated depending on the route, based on the distance actually traveled. Payment can be made in cash or by credit card at the toll stations, all major credit cards are accepted, the German Girocard with the Maestro logo also works. There is also an electronic toll box, but it is not worth it for the usual tourist (only from 500 km a year the toll box is cheaper than the classic toll). Information on current tariffs can be found on the website of the Croatian Motorway Company (Croatian, English). Croatia is scheduled to switch to an e-vignette by the end of 2024, but more details on this are not yet known.

The rigorous penalties for traffic offenders have contributed to a significant improvement in driving behavior in Croatia. Locals still drive fast to fast here and there, and tourists from all over the world come with very different driving styles. So it is useful to keep your eyes open here and there and let your composure prevail.
In the cities, especially in the south, many are traveling on scooters and motorcycles. Here, too, pay attention to traffic and wetness.

Important regulations:
The lighting obligation in Croatia only applies in winter (during the winter period, i.e. November to March), in summer the light may remain switched off. Unlike in most other European countries, the daytime running lights of modern cars are not enough to meet the lighting requirement, it is mandatory to turn on the low beam.
Snow chains are generally mandatory in the mountainous regions of Gorski kotar and Lika, regardless of the weather conditions; snow chains must also be used in the other parts of the country when the roadway is covered with snow.
The per-mille limit is 0.5 per-mille. There is an absolute ban on alcohol at the wheel for young drivers under the age of 25.
The obligation to carry replacement incandescent lamps was abolished in 2023.

There are also a large number of car rental companies operating in or out of the country. Almost all major global providers such as Avis, Herz, Thrifty, Europcar or Sixt are active in Croatia. In addition, there are also domestic large-scale providers such as Fleet, Last minute Car or Kompas. Portals such as or comparable providers attract with cheap and often good prices (pay attention to your own rating within the portals), but once completed, these can no longer be changed and are organized via agencies. In the case of cancellations (usually only up to 36 hours before the start of the rental period), they often only pay back the amount withheld from the credit card after 14 days.

The prices at almost all car rental companies increase significantly during the summer season and for short-term bookings. For example, a VW Golf-class vehicle can cost 19 euros a day in April and 50 euros a day in August. Timely booking does not always reduce this course, for example, in 2015 the German provider SIXT demanded a seasonal surcharge of 230 euros, after a vehicle was rented for just under 30 euros per day in August. Therefore, it is recommended not only to make timely bookings, but also, if necessary, to book a room in advance. timely negotiations with the landlord, use of complete offers from an organizer, comparison portal or an airline.

In Croatia, it is advisable to exclude the deductible despite higher costs. For trips to Bosnia and Herzegovina, insurance must be taken out, if expressly necessary. Some car rental companies do not require extra insurance for Bosnia-Herzegovina, as long as you drive through the enclave of Neum only on the way to Dubrovnik.

In the event of any accident or damage, always notify the police and have a protocol drawn up.

Other: Ferries, buses, scooters etc.
Otherwise, there are ferries, speedboats, taxi boats, public buses and minibuses that go to airports, cities, major attractions or adventure destinations. It is possible to rent bicycles, scooters, cars and also boats.

Luggage taken on the long-distance bus costs and is collected in cash by the driver. If you are traveling in border regions and do not have suitable change at hand, local currencies, too often converted at very creative rates, are usually accepted.

In principle, caution is advised when it comes to insurance services and when renting bicycles and sometimes even automobiles, especially on islands, as they are not always maintained equally well.



Almost without exception, the young generation speaks pretty good English. The older guard can still often speak German for this. At school, many Croats are still learning German as the third foreign language after English. In hotels with German travel guides you can often get along with German. English is quite common in some areas, but not in all. Especially in smaller places you quickly get language problems. A few chunks of Croatian make sense. With a small tour guide you quickly learn the most important things.


What to do

In addition to the hotel's own program, depending on where you are, you can go water skiing, book sightseeing tours or simply explore nearby islands by ferry. However, this always depends on the location. It is best to inform in advance.

Some of the most popular beaches are:
1 Zlatni Rat, Bol (Island of Brač) . Zlatni Rat beach is one of the most famous beaches in Croatia. It is located on the island of Brač and is known for its unique shape and crystal clear waters.2 Bačvice, Split . Bačvice Beach is the most famous beach in Split. It is famous for its fine sand and clear, shallow water. The beach is also known for its lively nightlife and beach bars.
3 Punta Rata, Brela . Punta Rata is a picturesque beach in the town of Brela on the Makarska Riviera. The beach is characterized by its crystal clear water, white gravel and the surrounding pine trees.
4 Stiniva, Vis . Stiniva is a spectacular beach on the island of Vis. It is surrounded by high rock walls and offers a breathtaking view. The beach can only be reached by a narrow path or by boat.
5 Sakarun, Dugi Otok . Sakarun Beach is located on Dugi Otok Island. It is known for its white sand and turquoise waters. The beach is also popular with families, as the water is shallow and calm.
6 Rajska Plaža (paradise beach), Rab . Rajska Plaža, also known as Paradise Beach, is located on the island of Rab. It is characterized by its fine sand and its shallow, crystal clear water. The beach stretches for several kilometers and has a lot of space for sunbathers.
7 Nugal, Makarska (Plaža Nugal) . Nugal Beach is located near Makarska and is famous for its natural beauty. It is located in a picturesque bay and is surrounded by impressive rocks. The beach is popular with naturists.
8 Saharun, Dugi Otok (Sakarun) . Saharun is another beautiful beach on the island of Dugi Otok. It is known for its white sand and clear, turquoise waters. The beach is surrounded by pine forests and offers a quiet and relaxing atmosphere.
9 Ploče, Dubrovnik . Ploče beach is located near the historic city of Dubrovnik. It offers a breathtaking view of the city walls and the Adriatic Sea. The beach is made of pebbles and has a good infrastructure with restaurants and bars.
10 Makarska Riviera (Makarsko primorje) . The Makarska Riviera is not a single beach, but a coastal region that includes a number of beautiful beaches. Here you will find a variety of beaches, including pebble beaches such as Brela, Tučepi and Podgora, famous for their beauty and tourist infrastructure.

Croatia is extremely popular with naturists. there are several naturist facilities that are popular with naturists and naturist lovers. Here are some of the most famous nudist facilities in Croatia:

1 Valalta Naturist Camp (Rovinj). It is one of the largest and most famous nudist camps in Croatia. It is located near Rovinj and stretches along a picturesque coastline. The camp offers accommodation in the form of bungalows, apartments and campsites, as well as a variety of leisure facilities.
2 Solaris Naturist Resort (Poreč). It is also located in Istria, near Poreč. It offers a naturist campsite, as well as holiday homes and apartments. The resort has its own nudist beach, sports facilities, restaurants and a wellness center.
3 Koversada Naturist Resort (Vrsar). It is considered one of the oldest nudist resorts in Europe. It is located near Vrsar and stretches along the coast of the Adriatic Sea. The resort offers accommodation in the form of bungalows, apartments and campsites. It also has restaurants, bars, sports facilities and its own nudist beach.
4 Camping Baldarin. It is located on the island of Cres and is a popular destination for naturists. The campsite is surrounded by unspoilt nature and offers nudist pitches, bungalows and glamping accommodation. The surrounding area is ideal for hiking, swimming and relaxing.
5 Camping Kovačine (island of Cres). It is also located on the island of Cres and offers a nudist zone. The campsite stretches along a beautiful coastline with crystal clear water. There are various accommodation options, including campsites, bungalows and mobile homes.
6 Punta Križ, Rab (Punta Križa) . Punta Križ is one of the oldest and most famous nudist beaches in Croatia. It is located on the island of Rab and offers crystal clear water and beautiful pebble beaches.
7 Jerolim, Hvar . Jerolim is a small island off the coast of Hvar, known for its nudist beaches. The beach is surrounded by lush vegetation and offers a quiet and relaxed ambience.
8 Kandalora, Rab. Kandalora is another popular nudist beach on the island of Rab. It is surrounded by pine forests and offers sandy beaches and crystal clear water.
9 Jadra, Pag. Sovinje is a secluded nudist beach on the island of Pag. It is known for its unspoiled nature and quiet ambience, ideal for those who want to enjoy a secluded beach.

Climbing is very popular in Croatia. In one of the national parks (Paklenica National Park), many local and experienced climbers are always exploring the steep rock faces. The Krka National Park offers fantastic waterfalls and a green nature that can be explored via paths and footbridges.
Rafting: In addition, the clear rivers between the mountains offer adventure holidaymakers the opportunity to go canyoning (e.g. on the Cetina River) or rafting tours.



Since January 1, 2023, the means of payment has been the euro, which replaces the kuna at a rate of € 1 to kuna 7.53. If you still have kuna from a previous visit to Croatia, you can exchange it free of charge at the Croatian National Bank in Zagreb - notes for an unlimited time, coins until 2025.

Souvenirs are inexpensive to purchase.

The prices for most products are approximately on the German level. However, a VAT rate of 25% applies in Croatia (as of Dec 2013), which already results in a slightly higher price for certain products. Many international hypermarkets have established themselves in Croatia, including Billa and Konzum (whose Austrian parent company no longer exists) from Austria or from Germany. Lidl and Kaufland have also opened their chain in Croatia and a major price war is expected. In the larger cities there are smaller specialized shops where you can make one or the other bargain, provided price comparison.

In Croatia, the best place to buy your groceries is at the local markets. There is first-class quality at reasonable prices. Anyone who has eaten tomatoes once in Croatia will never want to eat the retort products in Germany again. The vegetables and fruits are not grown in large crops and are not optimized for yield. There are still many old varieties that are not available in Germany or only for a lot of money.

The selection of food in the supermarkets is not as large as in the German-speaking countries, at least in the smaller places. Products imported from German-speaking countries are available, but accordingly cost more. In the large supermarkets, the choice of products is wider than in Central European countries, because there are both domestic, imported and many other products that are offered less often in Central Europe, for example, sweets from Turkey, Slovenia or Italy. The prices are rather higher than in Germany/ Austria. Due to the high VAT of 25%, it is often cheaper to eat in restaurants, as wages are relatively low.

In general, there are hardly any problems because of the opening hours. In tourist resorts, shops are often open even on Sundays.

Bottle deposit is also levied in Croatia. However, you often only get this back if you can show the shopping receipt or buy new drinks in deposit bottles.



Star hotels, as a rule, also have good cuisine. Cheap hotels save on food.

These are small traditional restaurants with simple Mediterranean (Dalmatian) dishes. Homemade wine is also often offered there. Cevapcicis and Pljeskavicas can be enjoyed cheaply with the local Albanians.

Typical Croatian specialties
Northern Croatia
Purica s Mlincima (baked turkey with mazen)
Krvavice (Fried black pudding)
Bucnica (salty pumpkin pie with cream cheese)
Strukli (salty strudel dough cake with cream cheese)
Pecenice (sausages)
Odojak (suckling pig)

Central Dalmatia
Pasticada (a Mediterranean variant of goulash on noodles or njoki)
Bijeli/Crni Rizot (Dalmatian risottos partly inked with the "ink" from Calamar)
Salata od Hobotnice (octopus salad)
Brudet (The Dalmatian Fish Stew)
Skarpina, Zubatac, Orada pod Pekom (dragon's head, toothed bream, golden bream (sea bream) baked under a clay bell)
Dalmatinski Prsut (Dalmatian ham, which gets a very individual touch when dried due to the dry, cold bora; the ham is comparable to the Italian prosciutto, hence the name, but be careful: unlike the Italians, the Croats only very rarely manage to cut the ham into wafer-thin slices. These are often up to a millimeter thick and then barely edible)
Paski Sir (one of the world's best cheeses, made on the island of Pag (hence the name) from sheep's milk and dried by the Bora)

Kulen (noble almost spherical salami made of pure muscle meat seasoned with paprika)
Fispaprikas (fiery freshwater fish stew)
You can eat out very well. It is plentiful and comparatively inexpensive. In the tourist areas, as a rule, the menus are very diverse, so everyone will find something for their taste. However, vegetarian or even vegan dishes are rarely to be found on the menu. In these cases, it is often a good idea to put together a dish of side dishes (for example, djuvec rice and chard). In addition, products made from soy or oats are usually available in supermarkets.


Dining options

Gastronomy prices are relatively high in Croatia, which is surprising considering the reasonable prices in the markets. Especially on the Dalmatian coast restaurants have reached the price level of Italy and it can be quite difficult to find cheap restaurants with good quality food.

You can give a tip, with good service, just as you are used to in Germany, Austria or Switzerland. As a rule of thumb, 10% of the invoice price has been established. As is customary in southern and Western Europe, the tip is left on the table.



There are many ways to go out in Croatia. In the summer there are numerous cultural events, from concerts to knight's games to plays on open stages, for which international artists are also invited. There are a variety of cafés and bars everywhere, which can also mutate into a small club in the evening. However, the big DJs are usually booked only in the larger tourist centers and in Zagreb. Regular guests in Croatian clubs are Sven Väth, Carl Cox, Steve Bug, John Aquaviva, Jeff Mills and other world-famous DJs. The most famous clubs are: The Best (Zagreb), Papaya (Zrce), Noa Beach Club (Zrce), Aquarius (Zagreb or Zrce Novalja Pag), Kalypso (Zrce), Aurora (Primosten), La Hacienda (Vodice).

Two locations in Croatia are very attractive for young people. The "Croatian Ibiza" (Zrce near Novalja on the island of Pag), as well as Hvar on the island of Hvar. But also in countless other places you can have a lot of fun in Croatia.

However, there are also places that prefer quiet tourism and strictly at 1:00 a.m. close the pubs and bars.



The accommodation tax levied in the high season has been 10 kuna since 2019.

Since it is very hot in the southern regions, it cools down very little even at night. Without air conditioning, it becomes a torment for one or the other. There are also many mosquitoes. Protection is also recommended for shorter stays. The beds are generally ok.

Towards evening, housewives often stand in front of the places of the coastal road with cardboard signs in their hands to draw attention to their private pensions. It is recommended to look at the rooms before the appointment.

Wild camping is not permitted and is also difficult to do in the coastal regions. This also includes private land and parked motorhomes. Penalty of 400 €.



Croatia is one of the safest holiday destinations in the world. The crime rate is very low and cannot be compared with (statistical values in) countries such as Spain or Italy. Being mugged or robbed is by no means everyday life. However, minor scams, in which tourists are deceived, can always occur (as in Germany). Personal responsibility is also useful here: for example, checking change and finding out about exchange rates and payment methods in advance. The use of prepaid credit cards and the use of public authorities, which can be found in every official brochure and on the Internet, is also recommended by itself.

With a higher number of tourists, it must be clearly stated that, of course, with the mass there may be a change in everyday conditions.

There is a danger of mines along the former front in Eastern Slavonia, Western Slavonia and in the border area with Bosnia and Herzegovina. Roads and paths should not be left, as mines were often laid densely along the traffic routes. Mined areas are only partially marked (warning signs, barrier tapes), in some cases such marking is also missing. Important tourist regions such as the coast, the islands or the Greater Zagreb area are mine-free.



Vaccinations for a trip to Croatia are not necessary in principle.

The European Health Insurance Card is recognized in Croatia and entitles to treatment by all contract doctors. A complete list of all contract doctors, pharmacies and hospitals in Croatia can be found here (English). Additional payments are to be made, but are very low in comparison (€ 1.32 per doctor's appointment or per issued prescription).

It can be difficult to find a doctor, especially in the evening and at night. Sometimes large distances have to be covered to the nearest hospital in order to receive adequate treatment.


Climate and travel time

Croatia is divided by several climatic zones. In the north and east there is a continental, Central European climate, with few precipitation, cold winters and warm summers. The transitional seasons are quite pronounced. Dalmatia has a mild Mediterranean climate, with very hot summers and mild winters. Prediction of the State Meteorological Service


Rules and respect

Some words are learned quickly. In the tourist areas, however, you can certainly get on with German or English.

If you meet a grumpy waiter in the tourist centers, it doesn't mean anything personal, it could just be a hangover that hasn't slept well.

Holidaymakers are treated with kindness. Of course, the conditions outside the hotels are generally not as high as you are used to in the German-speaking countries, but they can certainly be compared with other southern European countries. The country has been through a lot and there is a positive mood.


Post and Telecommunications

The term of letters can be about 9 calendar days.

The mobile phone network in Croatia is provided by three providers: Hrvatski Telekom (an offshoot of Deutsche Telekom) and A1 Telekom Austria offer an almost nationwide network, the third provider Telemach has very large gaps outside the metropolitan areas. SIM cards are available completely unbureaucratically in many shops such as post offices, kiosks/tobacconists and supermarkets and registration is not required. Since Croatia belongs to the EU, the EU roaming regulation also applies here, so that the domestic tariff from Germany or Austria can be used at no additional cost, however, all three providers sell special SIM cards with unlimited data volume to tourists for 10 days, which can be quickly worthwhile for a classic short vacation in Croatia (ask).



Prehistory and early history

The oldest evidence of settlement on the territory of present-day Croatia is about 130,000 years old. There are significant paleoanthropological sites: the Hušnjakovo brdo Neanderthal site discovered by Dragutin Gorjanović-Kramberger in 1899 (with the Neanderthal Museum) and the Vindija Cave are located near Krapina. The Neolithic period began with the Starčevo culture in the interior and the Impresso culture on the coast. This was followed by the Danilo culture and the Hvar culture on the coast, and the Sopot/Vinča culture inland. Near the town of Vukovar, the eponymous site of the late Eneolithic Vučedol culture is located in Vučedol-Gradac. Numerous burial mounds (gomila) date from the Bronze and Iron Ages.


Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

The first Greek settlements on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea were established in the 12th and 11th centuries BC in the course of the Ionian and later the great Greek colonization. Thus, the foundation of the settlement of Split dates back to this time (Split of gr. Aspalatos or Spalatos = cave). in 2021, new archaeological finds were discovered that point to a Greek settlement of Dalmatia also in the 8th century BC and 4th century BC. In the 4th century BC, the Greek historian Herodotus mentioned the Illyrians in his work. From the middle of the 2. At the end of the XIX century BC, the political influence of the Romans on the Illyrian tribes between the coast and the Pannonian plain grew. In 34 BC, Octavian, the future emperor Augustus, after a 20-year war at the Battle of Zerek, ceded this territory to Rome. At the beginning of the 1st century, the Roman province of Dalmatia, named after the Delmatae tribe, was formed. In 293, under the reign of Emperor Diocletian, the province was divided along the Drina River. After the division of the Roman Empire into Western and Eastern Strom in 395, the territory of Croatia came to Western Strom.


Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire (550-1270)

After the dissolution of the Roman Empire, most of the territory of present–day Croatia (Dalmatia, Istria and Slavonia) belonged to the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire from 550 to 1270 with several interruptions (temporary Croatian independence - see below). In the 6th century, the Central Asian Avar equestrian people migrated to Pannonia, which was additionally populated by the Lombards. The Croats were summoned by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius to their present settlement area in the 7th century to help him in the fight against the Avars. According to the report of the Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenetos, the Croats came from the territory of present-day Lesser Poland. During this period of belonging to Constantinople, the South Slavic tribes were mostly Christianized by the Byzantines in the course of the Slav mission in the 7th century to the 9th century, northern parts of Croatia and also Slovenia were proselytized from Salzburg. The loss of power of the Byzantines after the Frankish Wars, the temporarily autonomous Croatian kingdom and the subsequent affiliation of a large part of today's Croatia to Western European dominions such as the Frankish Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary mark the gradual distance from the Byzantine Orthodox culture. Croatia came into the sphere of influence of the Roman Catholic Church and thus into the Western European cultural area.

The name of the Croats is first attested in a source from the 9th century. The name "Hrvat" itself has no Slavic roots, but most likely originated as a foreign designation of an Iranian people (Sarmatians?) for Slavs. It is assumed that the people of the "Hrvati" originated from the area of the Persian River (in the Sarmatian language) "Harahvaiti", which is now called "Sarasvati" by the sound shift ("h" to "s").

In 879, Prince Branimir was written to and addressed by Pope John VIII with "dux Croatorum", which at that time was equivalent to a recognition of the medieval Croatian state.


Kingdom of Croatia (925-1102)

Around 925, Tomislav became the first king of Croatia. At the same time, this was also the first royal title in the history of the Southern Slavs. Pope John X recognized this title immediately. In 925, John X addressed him in a letter entitled Rex croatorum (king of the Croats). During his reign there were Hungarian invasions in the Pannonian Basin. Tomislav successfully defended his kingdom, which consisted of central Croatia, Slavonia and parts of Dalmatia and Bosnia, against the Magyars.

The kingdom reached its heyday under the reign of King Petar Krešimir IV. Under his rule, the church was reformed in 1059 in accordance with the Roman Rite. This was significant in terms of the schism of 1054 and loyalty to Rome. The kingdom continued to exist until 1102.


Personal Union with Hungary (1102-1526)

In 1102, the Hungarian king Koloman was crowned as the Croatian king in Biograd near Zadar, and Croatia came to Hungary in personal union. Croatia retained its own administration under a Croatian ban (viceroy or his deputy). The Pacta conventa, which regulates the relations of the Croatian nobility to the king, was also traditionally dated to the year 1102, but there is no evidence of this.

The personal union with the Kingdom of Hungary remained in various forms until 1918, with the exception of the Turkish wars in the 16th, 17th and early 18th centuries, and some other interruptions.


Under the Ottomans (1451-1699) and the Habsburgs (1527-1918)

Since the middle of the 15th century, Hungary and Croatia were subjected to attacks by the Ottoman Empire. After the defeat of the Hungarians and Croats against the Ottomans in the Battle of Mohács (1526), Ferdinand I (HRR) was elected Croatian king by the Croatian nobility at the Assembly of Cetingrad.

The historical Croatian landscapes of Dalmatia and parts of Istria have been under the rule of the Republic of Venice since the Late Middle Ages. The Republic of Dubrovnik was the only one of the territories of present-day Croatia that was able to maintain its state independence from the 14th century until 1808.

For centuries, Croatia was a battle zone against the Ottoman Empire. As a defense, the so-called military border was erected, in which Orthodox Christians also settled in significant numbers. Temporarily, the residents of the military border received privileges in the form of the Statuta Wallachorum.

After the Napoleonic wars, all of Dalmatia and Istria came under Austrian rule in 1815, but for political reasons ("divide et impera") they were not administratively united with the rest of Croatia, but became separate crown lands. From 1867 Dalmatia and Istria were part of the Austrian half of the empire, while the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia belonged to the Hungarian half of the empire.

In the second half of the 19th century, the demand for more rights of self-determination and an end to Hungary's Magyarization policy grew among the Croatian population. In the revolutionary years around 1848, Ban Josip Jelačić commanded the suppression of the Vienna October Uprising. The Croatian national aspirations were hindered by the Austro-Hungarian equalization and the Hungarian-Croatian equalization in 1867. The 19th century was also marked by the so-called Illyrism, a movement that enforced numerous cultural changes. There was a standardization of the Croatian language and at the same time the idea was born to unite all the Southern Slavs in one state.


Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1941)

Croatia broke away from the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918 at the end of the First World War. Italian troops then began to occupy Croatian territories along the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, as Italy had been promised their annexation in the Treaty of London of 1915. In view of this, at the end of November 1918, the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs decided on the immediate unification of Croatia with the Kingdom of Serbia, from which the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was then formed. However, many Croats rejected the monarchist form of government, felt disadvantaged and demanded the establishment of a republic for Croatia. After the Constitution provided for a centralized state organization and the dissolution of the historical provinces, the Serbs, as the largest people in terms of numbers, gained de facto supremacy.

In 1928, several Croatian politicians were shot in the Yugoslav parliament, including Stjepan Radić, the leader of the Croatian faction. After a state crisis, King Aleksandar I dissolved the parliament in 1929, introduced a royal dictatorship and renamed the state the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. His power was based on the military.

At the same time, part of the Croatian political elite fled abroad. Parts of it were formed by the fascist Ustasha movement led by Ante Pavelić and supported by Mussolini, which fought with violence against the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. In 1934, King Alexander was shot by them in an assassination attempt in Marseille.

in 1939, on the eve of the Second World War, a Serbian-Croatian settlement was attempted with the Cvetković-Maček agreement.


Vassal state in World War II (1941-1945)

Four days after the beginning of the Balkan campaign, the Wehrmacht invaded Zagreb on 10 April 1941, on the same day the Independent State of Croatia (NDH) was proclaimed as a vassal state of the Axis Powers. On April 17, 1941, the Kingdom of Yugoslavia surrendered to the Axis powers. As a result, Croatia underwent significant territorial changes until the end of World War II. Thus, on the one hand, the largest part of present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina was assigned to the country. On the other hand, the coastal area (Dalmatia) had to be ceded to Italy and the area north of the Mur to Hungary. In fact, Ante Pavelić, the leader of the Ustasha, was the head of state of the Independent State of Croatia under the title Poglavnik. He established a fascist dictatorship and led the genocide of the Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia, during which, in addition to hundreds of thousands of Serbs, Jews, Roma and Croatian anti-fascists were persecuted and murdered. Jasenovac became the most famous concentration camp in the region, and there were also other camps, such as. in Stara Gradiška or Jadovno. In the summer of 1941, the Yugoslav partisan movement began an armed uprising against the Ustasha regime and was able to take control of a large part of the country in 1942 and 1943. In addition to Tito, Andrija Hebrang was one of the leaders. After the defeat of the Axis powers and their allies, crimes against the war losers occurred on the part of the Yugoslav People's Liberation Army in 1945, especially in the Bleiburg massacre.

In 1942, still under German occupation, the Communists had recognized the active and passive right of women to vote. Full legal, economic and social equality of the sexes was guaranteed for the first time in the Constitution of 1946. A different source mentions August 11, 1945 for the introduction of active and passive suffrage.


Republic of Yugoslavia (1945-1991)

After the end of the war, Croatia became one of six constituent republics (Socialist Republic of Croatia) of the newly founded Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, from 1963 Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), under the government of Tito.

In 1971, the Croatian Spring protest and reform movement was crushed. After Tito's death in 1980, tensions between Croatia and the Serb-dominated Yugoslav government increased. At the end of the 1980s, the demands for independence from Yugoslavia had developed from the efforts for more autonomy. The Croat Franjo Tuđman, who had fought on the side of Tito against the Ustasha regime, gained great popularity among the Croatian population. After the weakened Yugoslav government allowed a multi-party system, Tuđman founded the Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) in 1990, which soon took on the character of a people's Party. His demand for an independent Croatia caused protests among the Serbs, who were the second state people according to the constitution at that time, but the HDZ won 67.5 percent of the parliamentary seats in the elections on April 22-23 and May 6-7, 1990 with 40 percent of the votes cast. Tuđman was subsequently elected president.


Independence (since 1991)

Croatian War (1991-1995)

After 93.2% of the voters voted for sovereignty in a referendum on the independence of Croatia on May 19, 1991, Croatia declared its independence in June 1991 under Franjo Tuđman. The first recognition took place on 26 June 1991 by Slovenia, which had also just declared itself independent. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), which was de facto dominated by Serbia, tried to put down the independence efforts militarily. The military attempt to separate Croatian territories with both a large and a small proportion of the Serbian population from Croatia and to annex them to Serbia in the medium term resulted in the almost four-year Croatian war, which ended only after the military successes of the Croats in 1995 in the military operation "Storm" (Oluja) with the Erdut Agreement of November 12, 1995. The JNA made its withdrawal from Croatia by destroying many military facilities and mining strategically important zones, for example on the island of Vis, farthest from the mainland, or in the Danube swamps on the Croatian-Serbian border.



In October 2001, Croatia signed a stabilisation and Association Agreement with the European Union. It ensured Croatia's free access to the European single market, but also demanded extensive economic and social reforms. The change of the economic system from socialism to a social market economy entailed numerous economic policy measures. One of the priorities was the further privatization of enterprises and the creation of investment incentives. Croatia has been an official EU candidate country since 18 June 2004. However, the accession negotiations only began after a decision of the EU foreign ministers of October 3, 2005, since Croatia had until then, in the opinion of the EU Commission, only insufficiently cooperated with the Hague War Crimes Tribunal. Further reforms were necessary in the area of justice and social affairs. Furthermore, the fight against corruption was seen as a basic prerequisite for full EU membership. In November 2008, Croatia was confirmed to be making good progress and the accession negotiations were expected to be concluded in 2009.

However, the accession negotiations were interrupted for several months in 2009 due to a dispute with Slovenia over the border in the Bay of Piran. It was not until September 2009 that an agreement was reached so that the accession negotiations could be continued. The EU Commissioner responsible for Enlargement declared the negotiations "successfully concluded" in June 2011. After that, experts from the member states examined the results negotiated by the EU Commission with Croatia, especially in the areas of justice, competition and budget.

The European Parliament approved the accession in December 2011, after which the outgoing Croatian Head of Government Jadranka Kosor and Croatian President Ivo Josipović signed the EU Accession Treaty for Croatia in a solemn ceremony together with all EU heads of state and government at the EU summit in Brussels on December 9, 2011. In a referendum on January 22, 2012, 67.27 percent of the voters voted to join the EU. The participation in the referendum was only 43.51 percent, but even with this, the result of the referendum was valid in accordance with the Croatian Constitution.

On July 1, 2013, Croatia became the 28th member state of the EU. The twelve Croatian representatives were elected to the EU Parliament on 14 April 2013.



The Croatian territory covers 88,073 square kilometers, of which 56,594 are on land and 31,479 are on sea territory. The land area thus corresponds to about twice the size of Brandenburg. Croatia extends over a continental northern part, which includes a part of the Dinarides and the Pannonian Plain, and a long coastal strip, at the narrow junction of which southwest of Zagreb the territory narrows extremely. The part of Croatia along the Adriatic coast is geographically generally assigned to the Balkan Peninsula or southeastern Europe. In 2005, the Standing Committee on Geographical Names recommended the assignment of Croatia to Central Europe on the basis of a cultural-spatial concept of Central Europe. For some Croats, the assignment to Central Europe is a means of demarcation from the negatively connoted "crisis region" of the Balkans. The Croatian areas along the Adriatic coast are also partly assigned to southern Europe.



Croatia borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the north, Serbia to the northeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the east and Montenegro to the southeast. The southernmost part of the coastal area is spatially separated from the rest of the national territory by the Neum corridor, which belongs to Bosnia and Herzegovina and is about 7.5 kilometers wide. However, this region around Dubrovnik up to the border with Montenegro has been accessible domestically via the Pelješac Bridge since 2022.

The total length of the land borders of Croatia is 2197 kilometers. Of these, the border with Slovenia accounts for 670, the border with Hungary for 329, the border with Bosnia and Herzegovina for 932, the border with Serbia for 241 and the border with Montenegro for 25 kilometers. In the northern Adriatic, the maritime border with Slovenia is controversial (see: International conflicts of the successor states of Yugoslavia). The length of the Adriatic coastline (mainland) is 1778 kilometers (with islands 6176).

The shortest distance between Italy and Croatia is 20 kilometers (separated by a small strip of land of Slovenia), while the southernmost Croatian peninsula of Prevlaka is located 69 kilometers from Albania.



In the interior or northeast of Croatia, the continental climate prevails above all. The average daily maximum temperature in summer in the lowlands is around 28 °C, in winter around 5 °C. The average minimum temperatures in winter are below 0 °C. The annual precipitation is about 750 millimeters.

The climate on the Adriatic coast, on the other hand, is much more humid and the Mediterranean climate prevails. So the summers are mostly sunny and dry with average maximum temperatures around 30 °C, while the winters are rainy and mild (average daily maximum values around 10 °C). In the northern part of the coast, night frosts occur more frequently in winter, while in the southern part this is only the case on a few days. The annual precipitation directly on the coast is slightly higher at around 1000 millimeters than in the interior of the country. The annual precipitation totals in the Croatian part of the Dinaric Mountains amount to values between 1000 and 2000 millimeters.

A special weather phenomenon is the occasionally occurring in the coastal region cold fall winds Bora, which are among the strongest in the world.


Landscape zones

According to relief forms and climatic zones, Croatia can be divided into three landscape zones.

Pannonian Plain
The Pannonian plain consists mainly of lowlands, interrupted by some low mountain ranges, and is drained by the Sava and Drava Rivers and their tributaries to the Danube. In this part of the country there is a temperate continental climate. This landscape zone can be divided into northern Croatia and Slavonia. Northern Croatia covers the east-central European area from the Kupa to the Hungarian border: the lowland along the Sava and Kupa around the cities of Zagreb, Karlovac and Sisak, which today forms the center of the country demographically and economically, the mountainous country of Zagorje (in German also: Zagorien) north of the capital Zagreb and the Međimurje in the northernmost tip of the country between the Drava and the Mur. Slavonia is the lowland along the Sava and Drava rivers to the Danube (Dunav) in the east. This often includes the Baranja (north of the lower reaches of the Drava) and Western Syrmia (Zapadni Srijem) (the eastern tip of Croatia between the Danube and the Lower Sava).

Dinaric mountain region
The Dinaric mountain region (also called Central Croatia or Croatian Hilly Country) is characterized by medium and individual high mountains, which form the watershed between the Danube and the Adriatic, with individual valleys also completely drained. There is a mountain climate here. This landscape zone includes the mountainous area of Gorski kotar between Rijeka and Karlovac, the high valleys of Lika and Krbava between the Velebit mountain range running along the coast and the border area with western Bosnia, as well as part of the hinterland of Dalmatia (Zagora, Biokovo Mountains).

Adriatic coastal region
The Adriatic coastal region consists to a large extent of karstified areas. It is characterized by Mediterranean influences. The width of the coastal strip varies greatly. While it is only a few kilometres wide in some places (below the Velebit and the Biokovo Mountains), it extends further inland in other places. However, the majority of the rivers flowing into the Adriatic in Croatia are relatively short; only the catchment area of the Neretva coming from Bosnia and Herzegovina extends further inland. The Adriatic coastal region can be divided from north to south into the historical regions:

Istria - the peninsula in the north-west of the Croatian coast.
Hrvatsko Primorje (Croatian littoral) around Rijeka and Senj with the islands of the Kvarner Bay
Dalmatia - the rugged Adriatic coast southwards from about Zadar including the offshore islands and the mountainous hinterland with historically important cities such as Dubrovnik (Ragusa) and Split



According to the FAO analysis, Croatia is one of the 30 most water-rich countries in the world and ranks third in Europe with a total of 32,818 cubic meters of renewable water reserves per capita and year. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2005 (World Water Development Report) speaks of 23,890 cubic meters of annually renewable water reserves per capita per year. Croatia is located in the Blue Heart of Europe.

Croatia is one of the few countries with an organized water management policy. As early as 1891, the Sabor adopted a water law of the Kingdom of Croatia and Slavonia, which provides for legal regulations for water bodies, river beds, the coast, water use, regulation of water flows, as well as flood protection, water protection, water protection associations and much more. The Croatian Adriatic was after an ADAC investigation from the year 2006.

The majority of the rivers drain into the Black Sea (Danube, Sava, Drava, Mur, Kupa and Una), the rest into the Adriatic Sea (Zrmanja, Krka, Cetina and Neretva). The rivers in the north are very polluted, the Sava between Zagreb and Sisak being the most polluted.

The longest rivers flowing through Croatia are the Sava (Croatian.: Sava, 562 kilometers) and the Drava (Croatian.: Drava, 505 kilometers). To a large extent, these rivers form the borders with Bosnia-Herzegovina and Hungary, respectively. Both rivers flow to the Danube, the Sava is the most water-rich, the Drava is the fourth most water-rich tributary of the Danube. The Danube separates Croatia from the Serbian province of Vojvodina. The Croatian part of the Danube is 188 kilometers long, and Croatia borders almost exclusively on the right side of the Danube.

The Kupa (Slovenian: Kolpa, 269 kilometers) forms a large part of the border with Slovenia. It flows into the Sava in Sisak, which is navigable from there. Other rivers are the Korana, Krapina, Lonja, Mur and the Vuka.

The rivers from the Dinarides to the Adriatic Sea are relatively short, only the Neretva River, which originates in Herzegovina, is an important river in the Adriatic Sea.


Flora and fauna

In 2004, the Croatian government declared the entire Croatian marine area an ecological protected area and a controlled fishing zone (Croat.: ekološki i ribolovni pojas) in order to protect the existing and sensitive marine fauna and vegetation. The approach has been criticized by Italy, Slovenia and also the rest of the EU, as the law also affects fishing rights. Slovenia considers the Croatian exclusive economic zone, within the framework of the EU accession negotiations, as a unilateral predetermination (prejudice) of the borders with this state.

There are about 4000 plant species and several thousand animal species in Croatia, of which 380 species of fauna and 44 of flora are under nature protection.

See also: "Ecological protected area" in the article International conflicts of the successor states of Yugoslavia



A total of 36.83% of Croatia (2,082,702 hectares) is covered by forests. About 95 percent of the forest stock are largely natural mixed forests. About 81 percent are state forests, 19 percent are privately owned. 85 Percent of the forest area is deciduous forests, 15 percent is coniferous forests.

In the mountainous regions of the Gorski kotar, the Lika, coniferous forests grow predominantly, in the Pannonian plain, deciduous forests predominate.

Mediterranean hard deciduous trees, maquis, pines and pine forests grow mainly along the Croatian coast. Numerous, even rare species of water roses and wet sedge grow in the wetlands.

In the dry and hot summer months, large fires repeatedly occur due to careless behavior of locals and tourists. For example, a devastating fire raged on the island of Brač a few years ago. The Croatian government is therefore investing more and more in fire protection measures every year.



Large predators such as brown bears, wolves, golden jackals and lynxes are found mainly in the mountainous regions of Croatia.

The birds of prey that occur include griffon vultures, as well as stone and snake eagles. Large birds that nest in the floodplains and swamps are the sichler and various heron species. Numerous animal species can be found in the national parks of the North, which are rarely found in Central Europe or even extinct: the white-tailed sea eagle, cormorants, kingfishers, black storks, the little tern or the bee-eater.

The coastal region is home to land turtles, marsh turtles and sea turtles, lizards, geckos and snakes (vipers, otters). Some marine mammals are also native to the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. The Adriatic dolphin and especially the Mediterranean monk seal are among the endangered species. Bluefin tuna stocks are also severely threatened by industrial overfishing throughout the Mediterranean. There are some endemic species in Croatia. An example of this is the Grottenolm, which is found in underground caves in the karst region.




Croatia had 4.0 million inhabitants in 2020. The annual population growth rate was -0.4%. This was influenced by a death surplus. in 2020, a birth rate of 8.9 per 1000 inhabitants was contrasted with a death rate of 14.1 per 1000 inhabitants. The number of births per woman in 2020 was statistically 1.5. The life expectancy of the inhabitants of Croatia from birth in 2020 was 77.7 years (women: 80.9, men: 74.7). The median age of the population in 2020 was 44.3 years.

Of the inhabitants at the time of the 2001 census, 4,399,364 (99.14%) had Croatian nationality, 44,340 (1.00%) of whom also had a second nationality. 17,902 (0.40%) had a foreign nationality, 9,811 (0.22%) were stateless persons. The nationality of 10,383 inhabitants (0.23%) was unknown.

The Croatian diaspora is above average in size. There are numerous Croatian minority associations abroad. The largest association is the Hrvatska bratska zajednica in the USA. The Croatian Parliament has its own members of the Croatian diaspora, who are also elected by them.

In 2017, 13.4% of the population was born abroad. The most common countries of origin were Bosnia and Herzegovina (390,000 people), Serbia (50,000) and Germany (30,000). A large part of these people are ethnic Croats.

According to estimates, more than 300,000 Croats have left the country since joining the EU in 2013, half of them to Germany. The Croatian government has promised financial incentives for returnees.


Ethnic groups

According to the 2001 census, almost 90% of all residents consider themselves Croats. According to the 1991 census, at that time 78.1% of the population still considered themselves Croats, 12.1% Serbs, many of whom fled or were expelled in the course of the consolidation of the Croatian state.

Over the past few years, some of the Serbs who fled or were expelled in the course of the military operation Oluja have returned (118,000 until January 2005), so that the Serbian population is now again higher than at the time of the 2001 census, but still less than half as large as before the Croatian War.

A campaign was launched by the government in 2005 to repatriate Serbian refugees. At a central point, potential returnees can obtain information about the return.

The main settlement area of the Italian minority is the western coast of Istria, in addition there are small Italian language groups in eastern and central Istria, Rijeka, Dalmatia (e.g. Zadar) and Western Slavonia. Magyars (Hungarians) and Slovaks live mainly in the east, Czechs in the west of Slavonia. The Bosniaks, Albanians and Macedonians live scattered all over the country, especially in the larger cities. A small minority are also the old-established Arbanasi, who are descendants of immigrant Albanian refugees from the 18th century and now live exclusively in Zadar.

The once large German-speaking minority, which dates back to the settlement by Danube Swabians in the 18th century, was expelled by the communist Yugoslav regime in the course of the Second World War. The minority, which is only very small today, is recognized by the state and lives mainly around Osijek in the east of the country.

Amnesty International has noted progress in dealing with the Roma minority in recent years, especially in the area of schools and the creation of housing.

In mid-2006, the Simon Wiesenthal Center ranked Croatia in the highest assessment category in terms of efforts to prosecute Nazi crimes and their successful prosecution.


Languages spoken

The official language in Croatia is the standard Croatian language. Croatian or Serbo-Croatian is understood and spoken almost everywhere in the country.

In Istria and to a lesser extent also in Rijeka and on some of the Kvarner Islands, Italian or an Italian dialect, the Venetian, is also spoken. There are small Hungarian language islands near the border with Hungary, especially in north-eastern Slavonia. There are Czech language islands in Western Slavonia and Slovak language islands in eastern Slavonia. The Istro-Romanian in the north-east and the Istrian in the south-west of Istria are threatened with extinction. Albanian and Slovenian native speakers live all over the country.


Religious traditions

The majority of the population belongs to the Roman Catholic Church. To what extent the people who attribute themselves to the respective religion actually pay for it in the form of religious services or the like. there is no practice. A representative survey commissioned by the European Commission within the framework of the Eurobarometer in 2020 showed that religion is important for 53 percent of people in Croatia, for 28 percent it is neither important nor unimportant, and for 18 percent it is unimportant.


Politics and Administration

The Constitution of December 1990 (Ustav Republike Hrvatske) defines the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska) as the state of the Croatian people and national minorities. As structural principles, it specifies the principles of democracy, as well as the rule of law, social and unitary rule of law. The originally presidential-democratic system of government was transformed into a parliamentary democracy in 2000. The fundamental yardstick for the exercise of sovereignty is the human rights provided for in the Constitution. A personal representation of the national minorities is provided for sovereign institutions; their languages and characters are also in official use in individual areas. The state and the Church are separate from each other; there is no state religion.

On October 16, 2007, Croatia was elected to the UN Security Council as a non-permanent member for a two-year term. The state has been a member of NATO since April 2009 and signed the instrument of accession to the EU in Brussels on December 9, 2011. Following the decisions at the EU level and the Croatian parliament, as well as the successful referendum in January 2012, Croatia became an EU member on July 1, 2013.



The Croatian Parliament (Sabor), a unicameral parliament, has 151 members. The second chamber, the House of Counties (Croatian: Županijski dom), was abolished in March 2000. Deputies are determined by proportional representation, in which a five percent clause applies, based on individual constituencies. There is a special constituency for croats abroad, for which three seats are reserved in the Sabor; in addition, eight seats of deputies are reserved for national minorities. All citizens from the age of 18 are eligible to vote. The last parliamentary elections were held in December 2011 and November 2015. in 2011, the social-liberal "Kukuriku coalition" of SDP, HNS, IDS and HSU won a majority in parliament. Including the mandates of the Croats abroad, the previously ruling conservative HDZ with its coalition parties HGS and Demokratische Mitte won 47 seats. On June 20, 2016, the Sabor disbanded. In the new election in September 2016, the HDZ won 61 of the 151 seats under its new chairman Andrej Plenković and agreed on a new coalition with Most (13 seats). Minority representatives and smaller parties should also be part of the coalition.


Head of state

The President of the Republic of Croatia (Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske) is elected directly by the people for a term of five years. He is the head of state and commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. During his term of office, he may not belong to any political party. After parliamentary elections have been held, he issues the order for the formation of a government and, after the approval of the parliament, appoints the prime minister. Under special conditions, he can dissolve the parliament and call new elections. He may not refuse to issue the bills adopted by the Parliament; if he considers a norm to be unconstitutional, he may submit it to the Constitutional Court for consideration. He is also active in shaping foreign policy in cooperation with the government. Ivo Josipović, incumbent since February 2010, lost the runoff election on January 11, 2015 to Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (HDZ), who took office as the first woman in this position in Croatia on February 15, 2015.

In the 2019/20 presidential election, Grabar-Kitarović again reached the run-off election, but lost in it to SDP candidate Zoran Milanović, who was elected the new president. The official handover took place on February 18, 2020.

With the constitutional amendment of March 28, 2001, the strong position of the president was limited.


Government and Administration

The government (Vlada Republike Hrvatske) is the executive state body and the supreme legislative authority. It consists of the Prime Minister (predsjednik Vlade) as well as the deputy prime ministers and ministers. Before taking office, the government must be trusted by the parliament. It can also introduce bills and, if legally authorized, issue ordinances. In the performance of her duties, she is responsible to Parliament. A vote of no confidence can force her to resign from parliament. The parties HDZ and MOST were involved in the last ruling coalition, it was supported by independent deputies. Prime Minister Tihomir Orešković was ousted by a vote of no confidence on June 16, 2016. Andrej Plenković became the new Prime Minister on 19 October 2016.

Internal state administration is carried out under the supervision of the government. The ministries are assigned the position of medium-sized administrative authorities. In addition, there is a lower administrative authority for each county. Special authorities can be created for special areas of responsibility.

Citizens have a legally enforceable right to local self-government. Tasks, the significance of which does not go beyond a certain territory, are performed by municipal self-governing bodies on their own responsibility. The right to self-government is exercised locally in 426 municipalities (općine) and 124 cities (gradovi), as well as regionally in 20 counties (županije) and the city of Zagreb under state supervision. In addition, state tasks can also be assigned to municipalities.


Jurisprudence and courts

The exercise of judicial power is formally independent. However, the court proceedings are extremely lengthy. On average, civil legal proceedings take up to ten years. In the Croatian media and on the part of the EU, the lack of legal certainty and cases of corruption are repeatedly pointed out. The highest specialized court is the Supreme Court (Vrhovni sud Republike Hrvatske). The lower instances are divided into a general, criminal, commercial and administrative judicial legal process.

The Constitutional Court (Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske) exercises judicial power in the field of constitutional law. The constitutional judges are elected by the Parliament for a term of eight years. In the event of unconstitutionality, it may annul laws, official acts and judgments; in addition, it decides in the event of disputes between the other constitutional bodies. With the constitutional complaint, the citizen himself can apply to the Constitutional Court against legal acts of the authorities and courts if the specialized judicial legal recourse has been exhausted. In other cases, only a special civil lawyer (pučki pravobranitelj) can conduct the proceedings. The current President of the Constitutional Court is Miroslav Šeparović.


Political parties

The largest parties in Croatia are the Christian Democratic Hrvatska demokratska zajednica (HDZ) and the Social Democratic Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske (SDP). Smaller parties are the Social Liberal Party (HSLS), the Peasant Party (HSS), the People's Party (HNS), the Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), the Christian Democratic Union (HKDU), the Slavonian Regional Party, the Party of Law (HSP), the Independent Democrats, as well as Most (Bridge of Independent Lists).


Administrative divisions

Croatia is divided into 20 counties (Croatian: županija, plural: županije) and the capital Zagreb, which itself has the competences of a county. The counties have areas between about 1000 and 5000 km2. Each county has an elected county assembly (Croatian: županijska skupština). At the head of the administration of a county is the Gespan (Croatian: župan), who is elected by the county Assembly and confirmed by the President of the state.

For their part, the counties are divided into Općine (German "municipalities"), part of which has the status of a city (Croatian: grad). In total, the administration is divided into 124 cities and 426 municipalities. 58% of the population lives in cities.



The Croatian army has about 21,500 soldiers in its peacetime strength. The number of reservists is 102,700 soldiers, of which about 32,360 are on standby. A total of 1,612,000 citizens of Croatia are ready for the case of defense.

The defense budget of the Republic of Croatia in 1997 was about 1.1 billion USD (1997), slightly over 5% of the gross national product; in 2017 it was about 0.772 billion USD (1.4% of GDP).

The commander-in-Chief of the Croatian Army is the President of the Republic of Croatia. The Sabor, the Croatian Parliament, is responsible for the political control of the armed Forces as well as the decision-making power over the determination of the military budget and strategic development.

Since the 1990s, Croatia has been striving for NATO membership. In particular, the volatility of the alleged war criminal Ante Gotovina was an obstacle for a long time. The membership came into force on 1 April 2009.

Croatian troops were part of the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan (ISAF) led by NATO from November 2003 (formation of a regional development team for the trade of the city of Kunduz and demilitarization programs); ISAF was replaced by the RS mission on January 1, 2015.

The Croatian Armed Forces are also used for peacekeeping and peacekeeping measures within the framework of the United Nations:

MINURSO in Western Sahara (MINURSO – United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara)
UNAMSIL in Sierra Leone (UNAMSIL – United Nations Assistance Mission to Sierra Leone)
UNMEE in Ethiopia and Eritrea (UNMEE – United Nations mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea)
UNMOGIP in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP – United Nations military observer group in India and Pakistan)


Fire Brigade

In 2019, the fire Brigade in Croatia organized 3,425 professional, 1,070 part-time and 54,219 volunteer firefighters nationwide, who work in 1,923 fire stations and fire houses, where 2,248 fire trucks and 115 turntable ladders or telescopic masts are available. The percentage of women is 12%. 21,927 children and young people are organized in the youth fire brigades. The Croatian fire brigades were alerted to 31,393 operations in the same year, while 14,980 fires were extinguished. Here, 30 dead were recovered by the fire brigades during fires and 166 injured were rescued. The national Fire brigade organization Hrvatska vatrogasna zajednica represents the Croatian fire Brigade in the World Fire Brigade Association CTIF.



The gross domestic product (GDP) of Croatia amounted to 45.8 billion euros in 2016. The gross domestic product per capita in the same year was 10,992 euros. After the outbreak of the financial crisis in 2007, the country was in crisis for years. Croatia lost about a sixth of its economic power by 2014. However, the signs of economic recovery have been increasing since 2015. The economy grew by 1.6 percent in 2015 and by 3 percent in 2016. Nevertheless, Croatia still has a high unemployment rate of 16.3%, youth unemployment is very high at about 43%.

Croatia was a member of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) until joining the EU in July 2013; the European Union is the country's most important trading partner. The euro has been legal tender since 1 January 2023 and has replaced the Croatian kuna.

In the Global Competitiveness Index, which measures the competitiveness of a country, Croatia ranks 74th out of 137 countries (as of 2017-2018). In the Economic Freedom Index, Croatia ranked 95th out of 180 countries in 2017. The EU's funding programmes are intended to help increase competitiveness and open up the economy in the future.

In the "Global Gender Gap Report 2015" of the World Economic Forum, Croatia ranked 59th in the global ranking. This report examines, for example, wage differences between women and men, the participation of women in politics, as well as in crucial economic positions of a state.


Geostrategic position

Croatia is located at the intersection of the two pan–European transport corridors Central Europe–Turkey (Corridor X) and Adriatic–Ukraine and Baltic States (Corridor V), respectively.

Important oil pipelines also run through Croatia, e.g. the Adriatic connection of the Friendship oil pipeline.



Half (53.16%) of the land area is used as agricultural land. In 2007, 7.2% of the economic income was generated by agriculture, with about 2.7% of the population working in this sector. in 2004, the sector accounted for 9% of both exports and imports. The cultivated land areas include, above all, the fertile soils in the Sava-Drava intermediate river country, which are intensively used. The main fruits grown are sugar beet, potatoes, wheat and corn. Some special crops are also grown in climatically favoured locations, especially wine and fruit. In southern Dalmatia, high crop yields are achieved with tobacco and citrus fruits. Cattle, sheep and pig breeding dominate in livestock farming. Fishing is an important source of income in Dalmatia.



Croatia is relatively rich in natural resources. Before the outbreak of the Yugoslav Wars in 1991, the mining industry was one of the most important employers. Natural gas, oil, hard coal, brown coal, bauxite, iron ore and porcelain earth (kaolin) are among the most important raw materials in Croatia. In some regions there are also small deposits of calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica and salt. In addition, graphite and building materials (especially concrete base materials) are mined.



The predominant industrial enterprises in Croatia are oil refineries, iron and steel mills, shipyards, chemical companies and production facilities for food, machinery, cement and concrete, metal goods and textiles. The formerly important mining industry has been experiencing declines in production for several years. Many of Croatia's industrial enterprises were destroyed or damaged in the Croatian War. The reconstruction of the facilities ties up a lot of financial resources and prevents further development in some other production areas. As a result of the war in their own country, industrial production fell by 42.5% in 1991. From 1993, the Croatian economy recorded growth rates, and by 1996, significant productivity increases were again recorded in most industries. Important industrial companies are the mineral oil and gas group Industrija nafte (INA) (about 17,000 employees), the electrical engineering manufacturer Končar Group as well as the food groups Agrokor (about 36,000 employees), Podravka and Kraš.


Banking industry

The banking system has been consolidated and the country's largest banks have merged with or been taken over by major Italian and Austrian banks. Among the largest banks in Croatia are Zagrebačka banka, Privredna banka, Splitska banka, Raiffeisenbank Austria, HVB Croatia banka, OTP banka and Karlovačka banka. The only major bank that has not been bought up by foreign banks is Hrvatska Poštanska Banka – the Croatian Postbank. A private bank is KentBank.



Croatia is known for its coastline with hundreds of offshore islands. The country ranks 18th in the world on the "World Tourism Barometer", which measures, among other things, the awareness of tourist destinations. About 10 million people travel to Croatia every year. In the record year 2008, they generated sales of around EUR 7.5 billion. Revenues from tourism amounted to 6.6 billion euros in 2011 and 7 billion euros in 2012. Thus, the tourism industry contributed about a fifth of the country's GDP (more than in any other EU country; it was and still is an important part of the service sector.



In Croatia, oil, coal and water are primarily used to generate electrical and thermal energy. In addition, the Krško nuclear power plant in Slovenia, which was built in a joint project between Croatia and Slovenia, supplies the north of Croatia, especially Zagreb, with electricity. Hydroelectric power plants are mostly found in the coastal region of Croatia. The largest hydroelectric power station in Croatia is located on the Perućko jezero (Peruća Lake) near Sinj. Since a decision of March 2007, renewable energies have also been subsidized in Croatia.

In 2011, 24.5% of electricity was generated from hydropower, 15.8% from nuclear energy and 27.5% from fossil fuels, 30.9% is purchased on the electricity market. Wind energy accounted for a share of 1.3%, in 2010 it had been 0.8%.

The electricity consumption of Croatia in 2020 was 13.2 TWh. Of these, 32% came from hydropower, 19% from gas, almost 7% from coal, 9.5% from wind energy and 5.5% from biomass. Solar energy, geothermal energy and oil each contributed less than one percent to the electricity mix.



The Pliva company is located in Zagreb, which is known for the antibiotic drug azithromycin.


State budget

According to CIA estimates, the 2012 state budget included expenditures of the equivalent of 23.42 billion US dollars, which were offset by revenues of the equivalent of 21.56 billion US dollars. The deficit is reported as 3.2% of GDP.
According to the CIA, the national debt for 2012 is estimated at 68.2% of GDP.


Infrastructure, transport and telecommunications

Road transport
The Croatian motorway network is one of the youngest in Europe. Many kilometres of motorways have only recently been completed and an end to the busy construction activity is not yet in sight. The main project was the A1 Zagreb–Split motorway, which was completed in the spring of 2005 and provides a continuous motorway connection between the two largest Croatian cities. Some important construction projects should be completed by 2008. These include the extension of the motorway to Ploče in southern Dalmatia, better traffic solutions for Rijeka (further bypass), the motorway connection to Osijek, the motorway extension to Sisak and the motorway connections to Serbia, Slovenia and Austria. Currently, the expansion of numerous rest areas along all Croatian highways is being promoted. Accidents should also be avoided using the latest video surveillance technology. The Croatian motorway tunnels are among the safest in Europe.

The railway transport in Croatia operated by the Hrvatske željeznice, which was privatized in 2006, is underdeveloped with a route network of 2974 kilometers and is not very competitive with the bus network, which usually serves routes cheaper and at shorter intervals. Since 2005, class 7123 tilting trains have been running on the Zagreb–Rijeka railway, as well as further to Knin and Split, allowing for a much more comfortable and shorter travel time than before. In contrast, the outdated railcars are on other routes, especially to the east to Slavonia. In addition to the completed modernization of the Zagreb–Split line, a new railway line is to be built from Botovo on the border with Hungary via Zagreb to Rijeka. This also includes considerations for a new line Zagreb–Rijeka. However, according to information from 2012, completion is not expected before 2025.


Telecommunications and Internet

The telecommunications sector is already well developed in Croatia, especially in terms of mobile networks, and has made the most progress in recent years compared to other economic sectors in Croatia. This is also evident from the fact that the telecommunications sector in this country contributes a higher share of GDP than is the case in the old EU countries (over 5%). Legislation in this area is also already at the European level. As a result of the liberalization of the market in 2005, more and more alternative telecommunications operators are entering the Croatian market.

In Croatia, there are currently (as of 2018) the mobile network operators A1 Hrvatska, Hrvatski Telekom and Tele2, with the mobile discounters Bonbon and Tomato also competing with each other. The two largest networks guarantee an area coverage of over 98%. The introduction of new technologies such as WAP, GPRS or MMS was also carried out quickly. UMTS, LTE and 5G are also available. The Croatian telecommunications sector is still credited with quite good growth potential, since full market saturation has not yet been achieved.

Broadband internet access is not available throughout the country. The expansion is to be accelerated by targeted growth incentives. in 2005, frequency licenses for Internet radio networks were already issued in Croatia. In particular, new WiMAX radio networks are to be used to expand the Internet infrastructure throughout Croatia. The planar coverage of entire cities and regions with this technology was decided here.

In 2021, 81.3 percent of Croatia's residents used the Internet.


Culture and Society

From a cultural and architectural point of view, the north and north-east of Croatia were shaped by their long shared history with Hungary and Austria, respectively, in the Baroque architectural style. The south of the country, the coastal region of Istria, the Kvarner Bay, Hrvatsko Primorje and Dalmatia, on the other hand, were architecturally influenced mainly in the Renaissance style by the former maritime power Venice (1409 to about 1815).



The first Croatian literature appeared in the 11th century. The canonical authors of Croatian literature include Marko Marulić, Marin Držić, Ivan Gundulić, Ivan Mažuranić, August Šenoa, Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić, Antun Gustav Matoš, Miroslav Krleža, Marija Jurić Zagorka and others more.



In Croatia, both modern rock and pop music, as well as traditional tamburica (guitar-like musical instrument) and klapa (male choir) music is widespread. Many Croatian artists also celebrate international successes such as 2Cellos, Tomislav Miličević (30 Seconds to Mars), Krist Novoselić (former band member of Nirvana), Sandra Nasić (Guano Apes) and many more.


Cultural and historical

The name of the garment "tie" goes back to the name of a people of the Croats. In the 17th century, Croatian soldiers wore a similar piece of clothing around their necks, a collar with fringes, by which they were quite easy to distinguish. The word cravate is mentioned for the first time in the French encyclopedia in the 17th century, when Croatian soldiers were staying at the court of Louis XIV in Paris. The French word for the Croats is croates, which easily suggests the word cravate or in German "krawatte". (For more details, see: History of the tie).



Croatia has several universities (Croatian sveučilište), including five polytechnic and 14 public and private universities of applied sciences (Croatian veleučilište). The country's seven universities are located in Dubrovnik, Osijek, Pula, Rijeka, Split, Zadar, as well as in the capital Zagreb. In addition, the individual universities maintain numerous institutes in other cities of Croatia, such as in Varaždin. Another 40 or so research institutes or major scientific projects are summarized in an official website.

The oldest genuine Croatian scientific institution is Matica hrvatska, which was established in the Danube Monarchy for cultural and linguistic education.



According to the 2007 regulation, compulsory schooling applies to children aged 7 to 18 years. Compulsory education is completed at primary school for eight years, after which schooling is continued at a technical school for three years up to the 11th grade and at a gymnasium for four years up to the 12th grade.

In Croatia, native-language instruction for ethnic minorities is offered both at primary schools and at secondary schools (gymnasiums) in the following languages: Czech, Hungarian, Italian, Serbian and German. In 2008/09, 459 teachers were employed nationwide to teach the Serbian language to a total of 3,207 Serbian students. In second place was the mother tongue instruction for 2139 Italian students by 374 teachers. German-language lessons are now only offered at a primary school.

About one in four Croats speaks English, one in seven speaks German.

According to the CIA, the illiteracy rate among the over-15s was 1.2% of the total population in 2010.


Media outlets

In March 2016, the government dismissed the general director of public broadcasting HRT. According to Reporters Without Borders, he was replaced by a "pro-government" director.

Print product
The press in Croatia is mostly concentrated on the capital Zagreb. The most important daily newspapers include Večernji list, Jutarnji list, Slobodna Dalmacija and Novi list. The most widely read weekly magazines are Globus, Nacional and Hrvatski list. Since 2005, more and more newspapers have been established in small format. These include 24 sata as well as the free newspapers Metropola and Metro.

Television/Radio Stations
Croatia has a dual television and radio broadcasting system. The state-owned Radio Televizija Zagreb became Hrvatska radiotelevizija (HRT) in 1991, which currently broadcasts five channels. There have been local private TV channels in Croatia since the 1980s. In the course of liberalization, private national broadcasters have also established themselves on the Croatian television market in recent years.

The private channels RTL Televizija and Nova TV as well as RTL 2, RTL Kockica, CMC and Doma TV can be received freely throughout Croatia via DVB-T and DVB-T2 as well as in cable. Many other programs are included in the various Pay TV packages for a fee, which can be received via DVB-T2, DVB-C and DVB-S. HRT1 (only news, reports and films as well as series from Croatia), HRT4 (except for sports broadcasts) and HRT International as well as Z1 from Zagreb can also be received unencrypted by satellite throughout Europe.

In addition to the state radio stations of HRT and the nationally broadcast private stations Otvoreni radio, Narodni radio and Radio Marija, there have been dozens of local private radio stations in Croatia since the early 1990s.

The only major Croatian film production company is Jadran Film, which, among other things, was involved in the Karl May films in the 1960s. Numerous Croatian actors are also known to the international audience, including Goran Višnjić, Ivana Miličević, Mira Furlan, Miroslav Nemec (eng. Tatort), Dunja Rajter, Antonija Šola or Mimi Fiedler. However, the most famous Croatian in the film business is probably the Oscar winner Branko Lustig. Lustig produced, among others, Schindler's List, Gladiator and Hannibal. He has also starred in numerous national and international film productions.



A specific Croatian sport is picigin, a popular beach ball game in shallow water, which was developed in Split at the beginning of the 20th century.

See also: Football in Croatia, handball in Croatia and basketball in Croatia

Sporting achievements
Football: The biggest successes of Croatian national teams include the second place at the 2018 FIFA World Cup and the third place at the 1998 World Cup in France. The Croatia national Football team has qualified for the World Cup final four times since gaining independence in 1991.
Handball: the victory of the handball players at the Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996 and in Athens in 2004 – as well as the victory at the World Men's Handball Championship in Portugal in 2003. In addition, Croatia was vice world champion in 1995, 2005 and 2009 and vice European champion in handball in 2008 and 2010.
Basketball: the silver medal for the basketball players at the Olympic Games in Barcelona in 1992. In 1993 and 1995, the Croats took bronze at the European Championship and bronze at the World Cup in Canada in 1994
Water polo: The silver medal for the national water polo team at the Olympic Games in Atlanta in 1996 and the world title in Melbourne in 2007, as well as the gold medal at the Olympic Games in 2012. In addition, Croatia took gold at the World Water Polo Championship in Budapest in 2017.
Rowing: The silver medal in rowing for the brothers Nikša and Siniša Skelin in Athens 2004 (in the two without helmsman)
Tennis: Goran Ivanišević's Wimbledon victory in tennis in 2001. Iva Majoli won the French Open in 1997. At the end of 2006, there were also two Croatian tennis players among the top 10 in the ATP ranking (Ivan Ljubičić and Mario Ančić). In 1993, Croatia participated in the Davis Cup for the first time as an independent team. In 2005, Croatia became the first unseeded team to win the Davis Cup. In the final match in Bratislava, the team narrowly prevailed with a score of 3:2 against host Slovakia. the second title win followed in 2018. Croatia defeated France 3-1.
Water sports: The silver medal in swimming for Duje Draganja at the 2004 Olympic Games in Athens (50 m freestyle) as well as Sanja Jovanović who set a world record time of 26.50 seconds at the 2007 European Short Course Swimming Championships in Debrecen, Hungary over 50 meters backstroke
Winter sports: Janica Kostelić won triple Olympic gold at the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City (combined, slalom, giant slalom; silver in Super-G). At the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin, she was able to continue her successful career with a gold medal in the combination and another silver medal in the Super-G. At the Winter Olympics in Turin, Janica Kostelić's brother, Ivica Kostelić, also took the silver medal in the combined event. In biathlon, Jakov Fak took bronze at the Winter Olympics in Vancouver in 2010.
Athletics: At the 2007 World Championships in Athletics in Osaka, Blanka Vlašić (Split) became the world champion in the high jump with the jump of 2.05 m, and at the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, Vlašić took silver. She took gold at the 2009 World Championships in Athletics in Berlin. The discus thrower Sandra Perković won the gold medal at the 2012 Olympic Games in London.



Special Olympics Croatia was founded in 1992 and participated in Special Olympics World Games several times. The association has announced its participation in the Special Olympics World Summer Games 2023 in Berlin. The delegation will be supervised by Barth before the games as part of the Host Town Program.

Major sporting events
2003 Women's World Handball Championship 2003
2005 Women's European Volleyball Championship in Zagreb and Pula
2007 World Table Tennis Championships in Singles in Zagreb
2008 European Figure Skating Championships in Zagreb
2008 European Short Course Championships in Rijeka and European Open Water Championships in Dubrovnik
2009 World Men's Handball Championship in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Osijek, Varaždin, Zadar, Pula and Poreč
2010 IAAF World Championships in Athletics in Split
Since 2005, Sljeme has been one of the FIS World Cup venues for the annual tour of the women's and men's slalom. With its number of visitors (up to 15,000 people), Sljeme is one of the largest ski slalom venues in Europe.
2013 European Speedway Championship Final 3 in Gorican.
2013 EUREKA Poker Tour (at that time still part of the EPT) Main Event in Dubrovnik
2018 European Men's Handball Championship in the cities of Zagreb, Split, Varaždin and Porec