Description of Croatia
Croatia, officially the Republic of Croatia, is a
parliamentary democratic republic, a member of the European Union,
located between Central Europe, southern Europe and the
Mediterranean Sea, borders on the northeast with Hungary, on the
east with Serbia, on the southeast with Bosnia-Herzegovina and
Montenegro, to the northwest with Slovenia and to the southwest with
the Adriatic Sea, where it shares a maritime border with Italy.
Its capital and most populous city is Zagreb. It has 56 594 km²
of territorial extension - this figure includes the more than a
thousand islands that are located off the coast of the Adriatic Sea
- and has a varied climate, mostly continental and Mediterranean. As
for the political administration, the country is divided into twenty
counties and the city of Zagreb. Its population amounts to more than
4.29 million inhabitants, most of them are Croats of Catholic
At the beginning of the 7th century the Croats
arrived in the area and two centuries later they were organized into
two duchies. In 925 Tomislav became the first king, elevating the
status of the state to a kingdom. The Kingdom of Croatia maintained
its sovereignty for almost two centuries, and reached its peak
during the reign of Peter Krešimir IV and Demetrio Zvonimir. Croatia
formed a personal union with Hungary in 1102. In 1527, threatened by
Ottoman expansion, the Croatian parliament elected Ferdinand I of
Habsburg as successor of the Croatian throne. In 1918, after the
First World War, it was part of the ephemeral Kingdom of the Serbs,
Croats and Slovenes, which had been separated from Austria-Hungary,
and which later became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During the Second
World War a puppet state of Nazi Germany was founded. After the war,
Croatia was a founding member and federal element of the Second
Yugoslavia, a socialist state. In June 1991, Croatia declared its
independence, which was recognized on October 8 of that year. The
Croatian War of Independence took place in the four years following
In 2012 Croatia maintained a very high Human
Development Index. The International Monetary Fund classified it as
an emerging and developing economy, while the World Bank identified
it as a high-income economy. Croatia is a member of the UN, the
Council of Europe, NATO, the World Trade Organization and is a
founding member of the Union for the Mediterranean. In addition, in
July 2013 Croatia acceded to the European Union. As an active member
of the United Nations peacekeeping force, he has contributed troops
to the NATO security mission in Afghanistan and from 2008 to 2009 he
held a seat on the UN Security Council.
The Croatian economy
is dominated by the services sector, followed by industry and
agriculture. Tourism is a major source of income during the summer,
as the country is among the twenty most visited tourist destinations
in the world. The state controls a part of the economy, with
important government spending and its main trading partner is the
European Union. Since 2000 the country has invested in
infrastructure, especially roads and means of transport, as well as
Pan-European corridors. The Croatian State provides a universal
health system and free primary and secondary education, at the same
time that supports the culture through various public institutions
and investments in the media and literature.
Travel Destinations in Croatia
Cetina Valley Nature Park
Cetina Valley Nature Park is a protected area
in the Dalmatia region.
Dubrovnik is one of the most beautiful town in Croatia under
protection of UNESCO due to its historical significance.
Medieval walls and towers of the Klis Fortress are
constructed on the ruins of the ancient citadel.
Korcula Island is situated in the South
Croatia in central Dalmatian archipelago. Largest settlement
on the island is Korcula town that is allegedly a birth
place for famous Italian traveller and explorer Marco Polo.
Kornati Islands National Park
Majestic Kornati Islands National Park lie in
the south Croatia in the Adriatic sea.
Krka National Park
Krka National Park
located in Šibenik-Knin County is famous for its marvellous
Marvellous Mljet Island is located in the
south Adriatic Sea.
Orebic is a port town
on the Adriatic coast in Dubrovnik-Neretva county of Croatia.
The most famous tourist attraction in the city is the
Franciscan monastery of Our Lady of Angels.
Paklenica National Park is a nature preserve
with several beatiful valleys in the Zadar County.
Lakes National Park
Colorful waters of Plitvice Lakes National
Park is one best known destinations in Croatia.
Ancient ruins of Salona are some of the
largest and well preserved sites of the Roman Empire.
Sibenik is a coastal Croatian town in northern
Dalmatia region of Croatia.
Sibenik is most famous for its
Cathedral of Saint James as well as other notable churches and military
fortifications from different time periods.
Split is a historic town in Croatia most
famous for its former site of a Deocletian's palace.
Trogir is a historic Croatian city located in
Split-Dalmatia County on the shores of the Adriatic Sea. It
was initially found by the Greek colonists who liked the
this well defended and well suitable harbor.
Zadar is a historic town located in the Zadar
county of Croatia. This ancient city was first mentioned in
the 4th century BC.
North- West Croatia (Istria and Kvarner Area) (Croatia)
Brijuni National Park is located on an island
that since the ancient Roman times was chosen as a fancy
getaway for rich and powerful.
Dvigrad is one of the few genuine castle from
the medieval age that were kept in its original appearance.
Well preserved medieval ruins of Medvedgrad
fort is perched on top of the picturesque mountain.
Nehaj Castle is a massive square
fortification constructed by Ivan Lenkovic, a leader of
Croatian Uskoks or partisans.
is a small charming ancient city on the shores of the
Adriatic Sea. It was found over 2000 years ago many of the streets in the
city still keep original orientation of the narrow ancient
Pula located on the very south tip of Istra
peninsula contains some of the best preserved Roman
structures harmoneosly included in the narrow streets.
Risnjak National Park is a nature preserve in
mountainous region of Gorski kotar.
is a small town 30 km north of
and is situated on the shore of the
Although technically a Croatian town for most of its history
this was an Italian city.
Sjeverni Velebit National Park
Sjeverni Velebit National Park situated in
Lika-Senj County is famous for its white cliffs.
Central Croatia (Croatia)
Croatian castle of Ozalj was constructed in
1244 on a hill overlooking Kupa River. Ozalj Castle was jointly
owned by two noble families of Zrinksi and
Zagreb is located in the Central Croatia. It
is the capital of Croatia and also the largest city in the
country. It is the centre of political, cultural and
economic life of the country.
Geography of Croatia
The Republic of Croatia is a
state in the Western Balkans. It is one of the former republics
of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that fell apart after the
Balkan War that was fought in the 90's. It shares borders with
Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia- Herzegovina.
The western part of the country is washed by Adriatic Sea.
Eastern part of the country is taken by plains crossed by
valleys of the rivers Sava and Drava. The Western part of the
country that stretches along the sea is very rugged and
mountainous with many picturesque island and numerous bays.
Weather and Climate
Much of Croatia lies on a shores of
the Adriatic Sea, which is part of the Mediterranean Sea. The climate is
mild with hot summers and fairly warm but rainy winters. July and August
are usually largest invasion of foreign tourists. However these are also
the hottest months of the year. Forest fires break out in many parts of
the country. So the best time to visit the country is in the months of
May- June or September. Crowds of tourists usually dwindle, but there is
still plenty of sun and moderately hot days to enjoy your stay.
Temperature in winter rarely go below freezing point, but it rains a
lot. Only eastern parts of the country receiving significant amount of
while you travel to Croatia
US citizens, British, Canadian as
well as European Union don't need visa to travel to Croatia if you
plan to stay less than 90 days there. However they do require
returning plane ticket.
Religion plays an important part
in lives of people. Religious affiliations are usually divide down
ethnic borders. So 87.8% of the country are Roman Catholic Croats,
4.4% are Eastern Orthodox Serbs. There is also some minor presence
of Muslims, Protestants and Jews.
Smoking and drinking on the
streets is a normal thing in Croatia. Although certain restriction
are applied around certain public, government and other localities.
Politics of Croatia
Croatia is a multi- party
parliamentary republic with a presidential form of government.
Its legislature is a two chambered parliament.
History of Croatia
In the pre-Roman period, several important
pre-Indo-European archaeological cultures existed along the Adriatic
coast, the most ancient of which was the “impressiono”. In the
Bronze Age, descendants of the Impresso culture existed on the
Adriatic coast, among which the Butmir culture stood out for its
ceramics, and later the Castellier culture, of which several hundred
fortified settlements remained. To the beginning of n. e. the whole
territory of modern Croatia (the so-called Liburnia) was conquered
by the Romans (for more information on Roman Illyria, see Illyria
and the Illyrian uprising).
The Slavic tribes of the Croats,
who gave rise to the Croatian nation, migrated to the eastern coast
of the Adriatic Sea in the 7th century. Soon, the Kingdom of Croatia
became one of the strongest in the region. In 1102, the ruling
dynasty of Trpimirovich died away, and the Croatian crown was united
in a dynastic union with the Hungarian. In the middle of the 15th
century, Hungarian rule in the north of the country was replaced by
Turkish, while Dalmatia became part of the Venetian Republic. At the
same time, the Dubrovnik Republic largely maintained independence.
Since 1868, the Croatian state entities within Austria-Hungary have
been the crown land of Dalmatia and the lands of Croatia and
Slavonia as part of Hungary.
In 1526, the successful dynastic
marriage of Ferdinand I of Habsburg brought the Hungarian and
Croatian crowns to the house of the Habsburgs, who ruled Croatia
until the beginning of the 20th century. After the fall of the
Republic of Venice (Campo-Formia Peace 1797), Istria, Dalmatia and
Dubrovnik (Illyrian provinces of Napoleonic France) were added to
the lands of the Habsburg monarchy.
After World War I, in
1918, Croatia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and
Slovenes, although the coastal areas of Austrian Primorye (Istria,
Rijeka, and Zadar) went to Italy under the name of Venice-Julia. In
1929, the state was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. On August 26,
1939, on the basis of the Tsvetkovich – Macchek agreement, Croatia
received autonomy status within the kingdom as a separate banovina.
In 1941, the Ustashi, under the leadership of Ante Pavelic,
created the pro-Nazi Independent State of Croatia, which carried out
the genocide of Serbs, Jews and Gypsies. Also on its territory,
Serbian Chetniks committed massacres of Bosnians and Croats. Under
the onslaught of the communist guerrilla units of Josip Broz Tito,
the Pavelic regime in Croatia and Nedic in Serbia fell and the
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or the SFRY was formed,
which included six republics: HP Serbia, HP Croatia, HP Slovenia, HP
Macedonia, HP Montenegro and HP Bosnia and Herzegovina.
1991, against the backdrop of a sharp intra-republican conflict
between Serbs and Croats, Croatia declared independence. Iceland was
the first to recognize the new country on December 19, 1991. After
the declaration of independence, interethnic clashes in the republic
escalated into a war in Croatia (1991-1995), which lasted until the
end of 1995 (Operation Storm). The declaration of independence by
Croatia and Slovenia marked the beginning of the collapse of the
SFRY. Finally, the integrity of Croatia was restored in 1998. The
first president of the new independent Croatia was Franjo Tudjman.
On January 22, 2012, a referendum was held in Croatia, at which
the majority of voters - 66.25% - voted in favor of the country's
accession to the European Union.