Sibenik

Šibenik

 

 

Location: Dalmatia  Map

www.sibenik.hr

 

Description of Sibenik

Šibenik is a city in Croatia. It is located in the central area of Dalmatia, in modern Croatia, next to the mouth of the Krka river on the Adriatic coast. It has a population of 51 553 inhabitants (2001); Šibenik is the political, educational, transportation, industrial and tourist center of the region called Šibenik-Knin. The predominant ethnic group is Croatian, which constitutes 94% of the population (2001 census). In Sibenik there are 2 national parks: Krka and Kornati. Sibenik is a coastal Croatian town in northern Dalmatia region of Croatia. Sibenik is most famous for its Cathedral of Saint James as well as other notable churches and military fortifications from different time periods.

 

Etymology
There are several interpretations of the origin of the name Šibenik, but none is accepted as completely certain and accurate. In one of his works, Juraj Šižgorić says that the city was named so because it was surrounded by bushes. Other researchers, Venetian and local, think similarly and believe that the original Šibenik was a place surrounded by bushes, made of it and fenced. Another interpretation connects the name of the city with the forest through the toponym "Sibinicum", which covered the narrower micro-region of Šibenik. Modern historians state that it is characteristic that some other heads and tops of hills are called Šibenik, and several settlements on the hills have a bush at the root, so it is considered to be an Old Slavic word for hills. Some associate it with the Czech word šibenice, which means gallows and execution site, so it is assumed that in the old language the word could have had the same meaning and denote a hill where convicts were brought to flogging and execution. There are also more poetic explanations, such as that "Šibenik is constantly whipped by wind and sea".

 

Travel Destinations in Sibenik

 

Cathedral of Saint James (Sibenik)

 

Fort of St. Michael (Sibenik)

 

Fort of St. Nicholas (Sibenik)

 

City Hall in Šibenik

 

Rector's Palace in Šibenik

 

Šibenik City Museum

 

A small loggia in Šibenik

 

Bishop's Palace in Šibenik

 

Croatian National Shrine of St. Nikola Tavelić

Benedictine monastery of St. Luce in Šibenik

 

Church of St. Spirit in Šibenik

 

Church of St. Nikola in Šibenik

 

Church of St. Gregory in Šibenik

 

Church of St. Barbara in Šibenik

 

Church of St. Krševana in Šibenik

 

Šubićevac (fortress)

 

Monument to Petar Krešimir IV in Šibenik

 

Šubićevac Memorial Park

 

 

Church of St. Francis

Trg Nikole Tomaszea 1

Tel. (022) 212 075

Fort of St. John

Tel. (022) 214 448

Subicevac Fort

(022) 214 448

Old Loggia

Trg Republike Hrvatske

Foscolo Palace

Andrihe Kacice

 

 

History of Šibenik

Croatian and Hungarian rulers
Not much is known about the oldest history of Šibenik. It is assumed that it was founded in the time of Prince Domagoj in IX. At first it developed as a fortress (castrum) with an older suburb (suburbium) in the area of ​​Dolac and a younger one on the east side of the castle, where in the XII. century built the church of St. Krševana, around which the core of the medieval town later developed. Šibenik belonged to the group of so-called Croatian cities, and emerged on a hill 70 m above sea level on the site of today's fortress of St. Michael first mentioned 998. Sibeniquo is mentioned 25.12.1066. in the grant of King Petar Krešimir IV, who was in Šibenik at the time and advised on state affairs, which is why Šibenik is often called Krešimir's city. We find a few more mentions of Šibenik from the time of the people's rulers. The Supetar cartulary contains records of the first known inhabitant of Šibenik, Vsemir Šibenčanin, and of his sale of Rakonja goods, as well as a record confirming that King Zvonimir ruled in Šibenik in 1078. There is also a document confirming that in 1089 King Stephen II held a meeting of the nobility, clergy and people in the field near the Šibenik castrum. After the battle of Petrova gora in 1097 and the death of the Croatian ruler Petar, Šibenik in 1107. recognized the rule of the Croatian-Hungarian King Koloman. In 1116 it was captured by the Venetians and destroyed "to the ground". Around 1124, it returned under Croatian-Hungarian rule, and after the Venetians razed Biograd na Moru the following year, it received refugees from that city and its population increased sharply. The city was founded in 1167. gained autonomy, and has since freely chosen a prince and a judge. From 1168 to 1180 the city was in Byzantine hands. From the end of XII. century he recognized the rule of Croatian princes, first Prince Domald (1200-26), and then the princes of Bribir (until 1322). During the reign of the latter, after a century-long fierce struggle with the Trogir diocese, Šibenik became the episcopal seat in 1298 and acquired a civit. As he lagged behind economically due to large levies and obligations, a rebellion broke out against Mladen II Bribirski with the support of the Venetian Republic. Although formally from 1322 to 1357 it was under the Croatian-Hungarian king, Venice had power through its princes. During that time, the city expanded its territory to Žirje and Murter. After the defeat of the Venetians in the war with Louis I of Anjou in 1358, the city came under Anjouan rule. From 1378 to 1381, our coastal cities were also involved in the war between Genoa and Venice, so on October 28, 1878. Šibenik was badly damaged in the Venetian attack when, after the heroic resistance of the citizens, almost the entire city was destroyed and set on fire, and all the inhabitants who did not escape by fleeing to the fortress were killed. From 1390, he recognized the rule of the Bosnian king Tvrtko I. Kotromanić, at the beginning of the XV. century of the Bosnian duke Hrvoje Vukčić Hrvatinić and king Ladislav of Naples.

 

Venetian Republic
In 1409, Ladislav of Naples sold Šibenik, as well as the whole of Dalmatia, to the Venetians for 100,000 ducats. As soon as the people of Šibenik heard about the sale of Dalmatia, they began preparations for the defense by renovating the city walls. In the same year, the Venetians arrived in front of Šibenik and demanded surrender. The city refused the ultimatum and resisted the Venetian attacks for 3 years, so the Venetians encamped on the Mandalina peninsula. In the meantime, a conflict took place within the city between the commoners and the proletarian nobles who were expelled from the city. They occupied the towers at the entrance to the harbor, between which a chain was stretched to prevent the entry of Venetian ships, and they crossed over to their side. They were also financially rewarded by the Venetians for this betrayal. In 1412, the people's captains took full power. But King Sigismund, who was also at war with Venice, then sent his vicar to execute the people's captains and return the nobility to power. After that, the popular side, which until then had been with the Austro-Hungarian king, lost the will for further war, and on October 30, 1412, exhausted by siege, famine and disease, the city ceased resistance and recognized the rule of Venice for the next 4 centuries. . King Sigismund renounced Dalmatia with an agreement from 1433, and in 1463, after the Turks conquered Bosnia and began to invade and devastate the immediate vicinity of Šibenik, all hopes of returning to the Croatian-Hungarian crown disappeared. Venice narrows communal autonomy and prevents the free economic development of Šibenik. The most important person in the political life of the city, the prince, was no longer elected by the Grand Council but had to be a Venetian nobleman elected by Venice. All imports and exports had to take place via Venice and be transported by Venetian ships, and the salt trade, which was crucial for Šibenik, was placed under strict control. In addition, the Šibenik commune was attacked by Prince Ivaniš Nelipić of Cetinje until 1434, Croatian Ban Petar Talovac and his successors, and in 1496 detachments of Ivaniš Korvin and Prince Bernardin Frankopan. The Turks first appeared on the territory of Šibenik in 1414, plundered Srima in 1432 and inflicted the greatest damage on it in 1468. Juraj Šižgorić sang an elegy about the biggest Turkish massacre so far. In one of its reports, the Venetian providur estimates that in the second half of the 15th century, 70,000 people were taken into slavery from the Šibenik area. So then the settlement of small islands along the coast of Šibenik began, and the following were created: Krapanj, Primošten, Tribunj ... From 1499 to 1502, in the new war between Venice and the Ottomans, the district of Šibenik was devastated again. After the fall of the towns in the hinterland, Knin and Skradin, under Ottoman rule in 1522, frequent Ottoman invasions and devastation began. After that, the Ottoman companies rushed to the city walls and their ships in 1523 demanded passage to Skradin, which the Venetian Council allowed, but the people of Šibenik refused. New Turkish attacks on the city began with the war that lasted 1537-1540, the Turks attacked the salt pans in Zablaće, and the Venetians demolished the mills on the Krka and everything outside the city walls in order not to serve the invaders.

 

Then followed a period of 30 years of peace in which the city rose economically and became the most populous city in Dalmatia, although its district was drastically reduced from 300 to 15 inhabited villages and occupied 25 miles wide and only 2 to 5 miles wide, i.e. only narrow coastal belt. The city benefited the most from trade with its hinterland. The Morlacs brought meat, cheese, grain and wool and brought wine, oil, dried fish and fine goods from Šibenik. But the most important was the production and sale of salt in Šibenik salt pans, which became the basis for the development of intensive trade with the hinterland. The Venetian union records that 600 Zagorje people could come to the city at once to buy salt, and that this trade brought the city a profit of 50,000 ducats a year. The same Venetian trade union reports that during the 150 years of Venetian rule in Šibenik, its ethnic character has not changed: "the clothes, speech and behavior of these Šibenik citizens are all Croatian. Croatian and almost no one can speak Italian ". It can also be learned that despite the imminent Turkish danger of the Venetian state army there were less than 100 men but that there were 1210 citizens ready for arms.

Work on the Šibenik Cathedral began in 1431, ten years later the construction was taken over by master Juraj Dalmatinac and in 1477 the construction was continued by his student Nikola Firentinac. The works were not completed until 1536. In the meantime (1447-53), a huge public cistern with a capacity of 1900 m3 was built "Four Wells". After finishing the cathedral, the people of Šibenik erected a beautiful public building opposite it - the City Hall, built from 1533 to 1546. In order to better defend themselves from the sea, at the entrance to the canal, the fortress of St. Nicholas (1540–47). The construction of the cathedral turned Šibenik into the center of construction activity in the whole of Dalmatia, Juraj Dalmatinac created a construction school, so the city became a meeting place for many domestic and foreign masters. Before that, the city still consisted largely of wooden houses, but then in 1485 the Grand Council passed a decision encouraging the construction of stone houses and regulating urbanism, which made great progress and built many palaces.

Popular movements against the nobles in Šibenik can be traced back to 1358 when the nobles were expelled from the city and a "council of citizens and regiments" was formed which lasted until 1359. But the peak of many conflicts occurred in the period 1510-1512. when the nobles were again expelled from the city and when the commoners in 1511 sent a delegation to the doge with demands that would resolve their socio-political demands. The doge repulsed them and bloodily ended the revolt in 1512 when the leaders of the regiment were hanged. Another bloody revolt took place in 1589, when the rebels demanded that the prince release the imprisoned peasants.

The Turkish-Venetian Cypriot War lasted from 1570 to 1573, and as early as 1569, Turkish troops attacked Šibenik, which was defended by women until the men who were then out of town arrived. In this war, Zablaće and salt pans were destroyed, fierce battles were fought around Vrpoljec, Rogoznica, Donje polje, Zlosel, Zaton and Vodice. In the summer of 1572, 12 Turkish ships ravaged Žirje and carried out a massacre. Venetian forces burned Skradin in a counterattack. Fearing that the poorly fortified towers at the entrance from the city side to the canal would fall into the hands of the Turks, they were demolished to their foundations and the defense on the sea side was entrusted to the fortress of St. Nikola, which was built at the open entrance to the canal. The Šibenik galley "St. Juraj" also took part in the naval battle near Lepanto.

The first Šibenik statute was written around 1260, but this document failed during the Venetian burning of the city in 1378. In 1608, Šibenik printed its statute, which began to be created in 1379, when the oldest reformation began.

 

Before the Candian War in 1646, the rapid construction of the fortress of St. Ivana and Šubićevac in order to defend the city from Turkish attacks from the mainland. The Turks arrived in the siege in October of the same year and the battles lasted for a month, in which the new fortress of St. Ivan from which the artillery fired at the military positions of the Turks. The biggest and most dangerous attack of the Turks on Šibenik happened in 1647, when Hussein-pasha Takelija set out across Drniš with 23,000 men to conquer the city. The city was defended by Baron Christoph Martin Degenefeld who had 5,000 men ready for defense. 8/17/1647 The Turks arrived in Konjevrate and went on patrols and concluded that it was necessary to conquer the surrounding fortresses in order to conquer Šibenik. The Turkish pasha failed to occupy the southeastern shore of the canal thanks to the strong cannon fire of the fortress of St. Nikola but managed to conquer part of the fortress of St. Ivana called "tanaja" i.e. pliers. 8.9. at 9 o'clock in the evening the Turks launched a decisive attack from tanaje on st. Ivan, but after the most terrible night in the history of Šibenik, the defenders managed to defend the fortress. The battles lasted a few more days but on 11.9. Venetian warships with new military reinforcements sailed into the port, so after a month of bloody fighting on September 16, 1647. Pasha Tekelija and his remaining army withdrew.

In 1553, it was recorded that Šibenik had 8200 inhabitants and on its territory from Rogoznica to Zlosel another 8000 inhabitants, which made it the most populous city in Dalmatia at that time. But the exhausting wars and even the 18th plague epidemic through the XV. and the sixteenth century ravaged the city. In 1649, the largest plague epidemic appeared, which killed over 10,000 inhabitants of the city and its surroundings, and in the city itself three quarters of the population, leaving it at only 1,500 inhabitants, after which it took two centuries to recover.

The second half of the 17th century is extremely gloomy for Šibenik and its surroundings. The salt pans were destroyed, the experts who led them disappeared in wars and epidemics, and there was not enough manpower, which meant that there was no more trade with the hinterland, which was taken over by Split. The newly arrived population had a hard time getting used to city life, and out of 150 noble families before the plague, only 10 remained in the city. It was only visited by the Turks in 1654 and the remaining population from the surrounding area was taken into slavery. 1659 15,000 Turks attack the city walls again and destroy the suburbs of Crnica. In addition, in 1663, Šibenik suffered another accident when lightning struck the castle of St. Mihovil, penetrated the ammunition magazine, after which the western part of the fort flew into the air together with the wooden church of St. Mihovila after which the fortress was named until then. The stones, which flew in all directions, fell on the houses at the foot of the fortress and did a lot of damage. The Turks attacked it once again in 1664 in large numbers but the well-groomed system of fortresses and their artillery was ready. After 25 years of the Candian war, the demarcation with the Turks in the hinterland of Šibenik remained almost the same, except that Skradin belonged to him, so it was possible to start rebuilding the mills on the Krka. The Seventh Turkish-Venetian War (1684-1699) did not devastate the Šibenik region as it had before, in this war the people of Šibenik mostly fought on the border with the Turks and as rowers in Venetian galleys. And after the conquest of Knin in 1688. the 250-year danger from the Turks to Šibenik finally ceased.

After the peace in Požarevac in 1718. and the withdrawal of the border by the Mocenigo line in 1723, which moved along the Dinara and has remained to this day, began a period of peace that lasted until the fall of the Republic in 1797. But unfortunately in that period there was stagnation and even setback. The city walls no longer had a purpose, so the importance of the city was lost. Venice treated Dalmatia as a colony and did not invest in it anymore. In Šibenik, almost all the people in the detachment were Vlachs (Italian: Morlaki), as they were called, all who came from Zagora, regardless of ethnicity, and who were accustomed to a heroic life in numerous wars. The city with its suburbs where these new people live has 4000 people and throughout the XVIII century it does not go beyond that. Many houses inside the city remain neglected and decay because newcomers do not want to respect the city statutes and they need space for livestock and a garden, so they settle outside the city walls. In this small provincial environment that only lives, a special Dalmatian mentality is created, that of small towns, known as campanilism.

 

Habsburg monarchy
With the collapse of the Venetian state, Šibenik has been under Austrian rule since 1797. This was preceded by popular unrest led by the pro-Austrian clergy, which was in fear of secularists and the bourgeois revolution brought with it by the French occupation of the Venetian Republic, so they saw enemies in all previous Venetian officials. In these riots in Šibenik, the whole family of the honorary French consul paid with their heads and most of the other nobles fled to the neighboring islands. At the beginning of 1806, the French army entered the city and Šibenik became part of the French Empire, and from 1810 the autonomous Illyrian province, when after many centuries "Illyrian" briefly became the official language. At the beginning of the century, the construction of the road to Knin via Konjevrat and Drniš began, which was completed in 1802, and after the arrival of the French, the road network to Split and Zadar was improved. The French providors were appalled by the backwardness of Venetian Dalmatia, so they tried to modernize agriculture in it, establish a school system, build the first hospital, orphanage, implement anti-epidemiological protection of the population and modernize the administration and judiciary. After Napoleon 's defeat, the Austrian army conquered Dalmatia and entered Šibenik at the end of 1813.

 

Šibenik remained part of the Habsburg Monarchy until 1918, as was the rest of the Kingdom of Dalmatia. The beginning of the second part of the Austrian absolutist rule represents a period of stagnation in all fields of life. Austria raises strong border control towards Bosnia and defends caravan trade, maritime trade also declines due to the loss of sailing ships and due to Austria's lack of maritime strategy, due to the check Šibenik is stagnant again. In 1839, the first signs of national awakening of the Illyrian movement appeared, by two Serbs from Šibenik, Božidar Petranović and Špiro Popović, who created a joint Croatian-Serbian front against the Italianization of Dalmatia. They were visited twice in 1941 by Gaj and Mažuranić. At the same time, the autonomous and Italian current was even stronger and more widespread among educated citizens, seeing its idol in Nikola Tommase from Šibenik, who also became a minister in the government of the briefly renewed Venetian Republic. Only 1848/49. The political activity of Šibenik under Austrian rule became more pronounced in the year 2000, when the people's municipal representation was briefly elected after the overwhelming victory over the autonomists. The town was strengthened by the Croatian national revival, so in 1851 it was visited by Ban Jelačić, in whom the people hoped to unite Dalmatia, Croatia and Slavonia, so the town gave him a welcome bigger than it was when Emperor Francis visited it in 1818. but on the eve of Bach's absolutism, Jelačić did not mention unification in a single speech. During the dictatorship, all political life died out for a whole decade and all Slavic ideas were banned, which enabled the re-strengthening of the autonomists who won the first subsequent elections in 1865. A particularly significant event for the further development of folk resale took place in 1866. when the National Slavic Reading Room was founded, and unlike other cities, the people of Šibenik built the theater themselves in 1870 without the help of the Government and the Municipality. The turning point came in the elections for the Dalmatian Parliament in 1870. when in Šibenik and its surroundings the People's Party wins the overwhelming victory. In 1872, the Narodniks won the municipal elections and the following year established the first Croatian municipal administration with Ante Šupuk as mayor, who greatly contributed to the economic and communal progress of the city, which until then had been the largest peasant town on the Adriatic. During his tenure, the Croatian language was introduced into the municipal administration as the official language, in 1877 Šibenik was connected to the Siverić-Split railway, in 1879 a water supply system was installed, in 1883 a large and modern hospital was built and in 1896 the court palace was completed. His company built the first Krka hydroelectric power plant on the Krka River in 1895, making Šibenik the third city in the world to receive AC public lighting. In 1904, his company built a new hydroelectric power plant Jaruga II, which still operates today. Of particular importance for the development of the city was the beginning of the Calcium Carbide Factory "SUFID" in 1903. Already in 1903, the "Alliance among Workers" was founded in Šibenik, which organized the first strike for Labor Day in 1905 due to the working day that lasted 10 and more hours. In 1907, Šibenik was the third port of Austro-Hungary after Trieste and Rijeka. That year, the first newspapers appeared in Šibenik - Hrvatska Rieč, the newspaper of the Party of Rights, in 1908 the first workers' newspaper "Glas Mali Puka" and in 1912 "Crveni barjak" the newspaper of the Social Democratic Party in Dalmatia. Political life was very turbulent at the beginning of the century, initially it was a struggle between the populists and the rightists, who after the people's movement in 1903 united in the Croatian Party to work together on South Slavic unification. At that time, progressives appeared who spread Masaryk's advanced democratic ideas and pan-Slavism, and in 1899 they founded the Croatian Musical Society "Kolo", which still operates today. As much as the views of right-wingers and progressives differed on some national issues, especially on the unity of the Serbian and Croatian people, the introduction of the dictatorship of the commissariat in 1912 and the beginning of the Balkan wars completely united all parties in anti-Austrian sentiment.

 

World War I
At the beginning of World War I, the Austrian authorities introduced a strict military regime. Most Yugoslav-oriented politicians ended up in prisons and newspapers were banned. Many people from Šibenik go to the front as part of the 23rd Šibenik Dalmatian Home Guard Regiment. First, they fought on the front towards Serbia and Montenegro, where they died en masse on the mountain Zajčica and Milenko's stone on the Drina. They are breaking into the interior of Serbia, all the way to Uzice and Sabac. As more and more defections to the Serbian army were recorded, and since "Dalmatians are reluctant to fight against the people of their language", they were transferred in the middle of 1915 to the Italian front, where they were more motivated. On the Soča battlefield, the Sibenik 23rd repulsed the Italian offensives on Podgora with huge losses. As early as 1917, demonstrations of sailors were recorded in the war ports of Austro-Hungary, as was the case in the port of Šibenik on 4.10. sailors' revolt against torpedo officer no. 11, after mastering the torpedo boat, they fled with her to Italy. After the disintegration of Austro-Hungary and the founding of the still unrecognized State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, the Italians set out to occupy the eastern Adriatic coast, which was to belong to it under a secret London agreement. Šibenik was occupied on November 6, 1918. when four warships sailed into port. The People's Council of the city protests against the landing of the Italian army and decides to recognize only the People's Council of SHS in Zagreb and the Provincial Government of Dalmatia in Split. About 400 carabinieri and Italian sailors on November 20, 1918. he surrounded the seat of the National Council and forcibly expelled them. In January 1919, a plebiscite was successfully held when out of 24,475 inhabitants, as many as 23,675 voted against the Italian occupation and signed that they wanted the Šibenik area to unite with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. On the basis of the Treaty of Rapallo, the Italians left Šibenik, and on June 13, 1921, the people of Šibenik welcomed the Yugoslav army at a large ceremony in Poljana. Then, after a full five centuries of foreign rule in Šibenik, a national administration was established.

kingdom of Yugoslavia
Šibenik was having a hard time recovering after the war, given two and a half years of Italian occupation. In the meantime, the functions of the most important economic, traffic and administrative center for Dalmatia from Zadar, which remains an Italian enclave, were taken over by Split, which then developed rapidly and even took over the function of an important export port from Šibenik. The Lika railway was finally completed in 1925, 52 years after the decision to build was made, giving Šibenik and Dalmatia a quick connection with the rest of Croatia. This gave impetus to the works on the expansion of the port of Šibenik, which were completed in 1928, making it the second port of Yugoslavia in terms of operational area. The global economic crisis of the 1930s hit most of the laid-off workers from the La Dalmatienne factory in Crnica hardest, which halted production at the end of 1931 and at the same time starved farmers in the hinterland after the harvest aborted up to 70%. From 1921 to 1932, 10 municipal administrations and mayors changed in the city government, which further contributed to the crisis. The most important politician from the period after the crisis became Marko Kožul, who from 1935 to 1937 was the Minister of Construction in the government of Milan Stojadinović. Thanks to him, many roads were renovated and regulated, and the most important legacy is the construction of the "State Real Gymnasium of the Knight King Alexander and the Unificator" and the Customs House on the territory of Yugoslavia. Before that, for a full forty years, all the bauxite from the mine in Siveric was exported as unprocessed raw material, and then the potential of the hydroelectric power plant on the Krka above which it was built was finally used.

World War II
Italian occupation

During the Second World War, Šibenik changed its administration several times and suffered greatly. Already in the morning of April 6, 1941. a squadron of Italian planes that took off from Zadar airport bombed Šibenik. This was followed by several consecutive bombings of ships anchored in the port. After the founding of the Independent State of Croatia on April 10, 1941. the Ustashas, ​​despite the opposition of the deputies, set out to seize power and disarm the Yugoslav army and navy, which had a strong foothold in the city but were in total disarray after the invasion of the Axis Powers. But four days later the first Italian divisions entered the city and on April 15, 1941 it was occupied when the Italian command was established, which took over military and civilian power, replaced all flags and symbols with Italian ones and disarmed the Ustashas and "rushed" them by signing the Treaties of Rome on May 18. 1941 Šibenik was officially annexed by the Kingdom of Italy and became part of the Governorate of Dalmatia. After the establishment of the Italian fascist government, many measures were taken to denationalize and Italianize Šibenik to such an extent that they also Italianized personal names to the citizens. There was resistance and an anti-fascist movement in the town and surrounding villages. High school students protest and burn books, smash shop windows with Duce's paintings or throw ink at them for checks, some end up on the gallows and entire classes (female Teachers) are interned. Women demonstrating in the streets due to hunger are arrested and taken to camps in Molat and Italy. The first Sibenik partisan detachment gathered the 31st fighter and set off from the hill of Pisak on August 12, 1941. the way of Bosnia. He had his first clash with the Italians near Drniš, and on his way further he clashed with the Chetniks near Knin and suffered considerable losses. Only one third of the fighters made their way to Bosanski Grahovo, and most of them died in the fighting that followed. In order for the KP in Dalmatia to recover as quickly as possible from the blow inflicted on it by the destruction of the first partisan detachments, Rade Končar was sent from Zagreb to visit partisan organizations in Šibenik and Split to help them intensify activities in the city: sabotage, diversion and attacks on the occupiers and their spies. After a return from Šibenik to Split, the carabinieri broke into his house, Rade fled and was wounded in the leg, and arrested. After the Italians, with the help of the Ustasha police, found out that they had a high-ranking KPH official, the fascist court in Šibenik sentenced him to death by shooting. He was shot in Šubićevac together with 25 friends. And on the same day, 20 peasants from Tribunj were executed. Antonio Šokon, the secretary of the Fascist Party, a native of Šibenik, was especially hated in the city. During the summer of 1941, he sent hundreds of citizens to prison, sent dozens to a camp, sent some to be shot and personally killed them. SKOJ members decide to liquidate Šokon, which they did on October 11th. After that, the fascists randomly arrested 27 young people and shot six on October 13. Anger is growing in the city over the deaths of their children and the NOP is getting stronger. Illegals 27.10. out of revenge they attack the Fascia presidency building itself, after demolishing it, they came across a truck of Italian soldiers on which they dropped bombs. The fascists arrested a large number of citizens again, sent some to camps and shot four. Throughout the year 1942, members of the Primorska Partisan Company were constantly in action in the vicinity of Šibenik, mostly west of the Krka, attacking patrols, disrupting communications, cutting power lines and successfully fighting the Chetnik anti-communist militia. They are sinking the regular supply line for the Italians Šibenik-Zaton-Skradin, and the ship from which it was transporting troops from Šibenik to Skradin. They are so brave that they invade the center of Šibenik and kill and capture black-shirted people in the canteen, disrupting fascist parades on the waterfront by shooting at them with machine gun fire from Martinska. On December 31, 1942, the North Dalmatian Battalion was formed as a part of three smaller companies, namely: Prominsko-bukovačka, Primorska and Šibensko-drniška. Troops attacked columns of enemy troops, patrols and crews in the villages, demolishing transmission line poles and telephones.

German occupation

9/8/1943 Italy capitulated, so there was a "huge enthusiasm" among Italian soldiers and citizens, and red flags and Croatian flags with a red five-pointed star were hoisted in the city. The very next day, one of the battalions of the Šibenik-Trogir detachment entered Šibenik, negotiating with the Italians on the surrender of weapons and the organization of a joint defense of the city against the Germans. The Italian command in Šibenik, in order to gain time, delayed the negotiations, because the arrival of the Germans was expected at any moment. After unsuccessful negotiations, they set out to disarm certain Italian troops in order to arm the newly formed units of Šibenik volunteers. As soon as members of the 114th Hunting Division entered the city on 9/11, the Italian command handed over the garrison to them without resistance. From the German occupation until the beginning of 1944, another 8,700 people left the Šibenik area for the partisans. A 10.9. The 8th Šibenik Dalmatian Strike Brigade was also founded. In order to intimidate the people, who joined the National Liberation War en masse, the occupiers are committing unprecedented crimes throughout Dalmatia. Particular atrocities were committed by the Chetniks of Pope Đujić together with the Germans on February 21, 1944. in the villages of Danilo-Biranj and Danilo-Dubrava. While the Germans were holding security guards in the surrounding villages, the Chetniks invaded these villages and slaughtered 31 people with knives, mostly women and children.

With the arrival of the Germans, Šibenik was administratively annexed to the Independent State of Croatia and declared the seat of the parish of Bribir, but this never materialized, nor did the great prefect ever move to Šibenik. Even residents had to have German ID cards without which they could be arrested and the Italian lira and Italian postage stamps were still in circulation due to no communication with the rest of the decaying Queensland creation. An interesting event happened when a ship with 600 people from Šibenik, a detainee from Molat, returned to the city to pick up the ship immediately after the capitulation of Italy. The ship returned decorated with red skirts because the former detainees thought that there were still partisans in Šibenik. However, they were released and some of them later joined the partisans. After the arrival of the Germans in Šibenik, the Chetniks also returned, and members of the Italian fascist militia (black-shirted) were also in the city. At the end of 1943, one Home Guard company from Knin and one Ustasha unit from Drniš were sent to Šibenik, so a whole range of various armies under German control found themselves in the city. At the end of 1943, frequent Allied bombings of Šibenik, its port facilities and warships began, killing and wounding dozens of civilians and German soldiers, and demolishing the City Hall and several residential buildings in the center. Due to that, the majority of the population, together with the mayor appointed by the NDH, left the city. Residents return in early 1944 when the bombing subsides. And the captain of the corvette, Miren Blaž, was appointed the new mayor, who later turned out to be in a relationship with the partisans. The same was true of the head of the police, Mato Mijanović, so the Germans arrested them for cooperating with the partisans in the summer of 1944. The best evidence of the anti-Ustasha atmosphere in the city is the fact local circumstances ”. Ustasha reports also say that partisans come to the city every day and write slogans. They themselves know that the NDH authorities do not have any real power in Šibenik, so one MUP report reads: "Germans are behaving like sovereign masters, not like allies." All this time there is a terrible famine in the city and people are dying every day because of it, about 400 orphans are roaming the city, literally feeding on roots, which are described as "little wild creatures", "barefoot, naked or in rags, desperate".

Liberation
With the liberation of Split and its surroundings, the First and XI units came to the Boraja area. Dalmatian Brigade, from where, together with other forces of the 26th Division, they move in the direction of Šibenik and Drniš. The first Dalmatian and III. the overseas brigade was given the task of attacking the enemy and liberating the city of Šibenik, while the XI. and XII. brigade sent for communication Šibenik — Drniš. As the units of the 19th Division liberated Benkovac and Skradin at that time and occupied the entire area on the right bank of the Krka River, the only communication by which the enemy could get out of Šibenik was the Šibenik-Drniš road. Battalions XI. and XII. brigades were given the task, even before the attack on the town, to break out on the mentioned road and attack the enemy forces, if they try to get out towards Drniš.

 

The battle for the liberation of Šibenik began on the night before 3.11. Parts of the 19th Division on the right bank of the Krka River opened fierce fire on German positions on the northwestern approaches to the city. During that time, the units of the I. Dalmatian and III. Overseas brigades, for the first time supported by 35 Stuart and 12 Blinds of the First Tank Brigade of the NOVJ and artillery, broke through the first enemy lines near Vrpolje on the Split-Šibenik road and immediately moved forward chasing enemy troops, which retreated towards the city. However, German forces buried on the dominant hill of St. Juraj, along the road itself, offered fierce resistance to the NOV units and stopped their penetration towards the city. Then the artillery of the 26th Division was brought in, which for a long time filled up the German trenches on Sv. George. After that, the units of the 1st Dalmatian launched a new violent attack and, in a bitter hand-to-hand fight, managed to drive the Germans off that hill. Pressed from all sides, German troops are leaving the city and have previously systematically destroyed the entire coast, port facilities and sunk ships in the port. Battalions I. Dalmatian, III. overseas and parts of the 19th North Dalmatian Division entered Šibenik at dawn on November 3, 1944. while the enemy was still in the Šubićevac fortress. Regardless of the fact that the bullets were still whistling from the fortress, the people of Šibenik took to the streets to greet the liberators: The people love them, bring figs, brandy and whatever is better. And at about 9 o'clock the parade begins. Partisans solemnly enter the city from the north. The people sprinkle them with flowers and shout: Long live Comrade Tito. There were more than a thousand well-armed and well-dressed partisans in that parade. During that time on the road Šibenik-Drniš, in the area from Konjevrat to Pokrovnik. a relentless battle ensued, in which the attacked German column exerted all its forces to retreat towards Drniš. However, trapped by units XI. and XII. Dalmatian brigades aided by tanks, exposed to crossfire by all automatic weapons, the enemy column was completely broken and eventually destroyed. Piles of slain soldiers, destroyed weapons and smashed vehicles lay on the road after the fight. Retreating together with the German-Ustasha column, an entire Chetnik corps, numbering about 300 Chetniks, was destroyed in the battle near Konjevrat.

Victims
Before the war, there were slightly more than 37,000 inhabitants in today's Šibenik municipality, but during 1944 that number dropped to about 16,000, and only 6,000 inhabitants remained in the town itself. By the end of 1942, 68,000 inhabitants had actively participated in the National Liberation War, 12% of the population or 8,182 inhabitants. By the end of the war and liberation, that number had risen to 18,814 participants or 21% of the population. When we add to that number 5,362 people who were taken to prisons and camps due to their affiliation with the NOP, then 24,176 people were involved in various forms of anti-fascist struggle, which is as much as 35.5% of the municipality's population. A total of 4,572 people died in the partisans, as victims of fascist terror or victims of war. Of these, 3,023 were killed in fighting throughout the former Yugoslavia, and 1,549 were other victims, of whom 1,123 were victims of fascist terror, of which 729 were shot. 1,194 victims were killed in the settlements, 197 in the camps, and 158 of them are considered victims of the war. The ethnic composition of the dead was: Croats 3,080, Serbs 1,450, Jews 20 and others 22. After the capitulation of Italy and before the terror of the German Nazis, 6,500 women and children fled to El Shatt. In the battle of Sutjeka alone, 1,316 fighters took part. from the municipality of Šibenik and 535 were killed, more than from any other municipality. The following fighters from Šibenik were proclaimed national heroes: Slobodan Macura Bondo, Vladimir Peran, Miro Višić, Mate Staničić, Dinko Šurkalo, Nikola Sekulić Bunko, Ljubo Truta.

Socialist Yugoslavia
1/1/1945 Šibenik became the center of ZAVNOH, then the highest authority in Croatia, so it can be said that until the liberation of Zagreb it was briefly the capital of Croatia. At that time, the following were in Šibenik: the Central Committee of the KPH, the Main Board of the AFŽ, the Main Board of the USAOH (United Alliance of Anti-Fascist Youth of Croatia), the Provincial Committee of the SKOJ, the Central Theater Company of the People's Liberated of Croatia and other organizations. In that short and glorious period, the "Sloboda" cinema was opened in Šibenik, the first post-war literary magazine in Croatia "Književnik" was printed, the Music School, the School for Business Students and the professional National Theater were established.

 

In 1947, two very important rebuildings of the war-torn city began. The sacristy of the Cathedral of St. Jakov, which had to be completely dismantled and rebuilt and was completed in 1949. The facsimile reconstruction of the completely demolished City Hall was carried out by the most refined conservation works at the time, and was completed in 1960 with numerous recognitions. In 1948, the badly damaged port was rebuilt and expanded after the German bombing, and the Public Health Center was established and moved into the former building of the Labor Exchange. 1950 Ivo Vitić builds the first primary school of Sime Matavulj. In 1951, work began on the construction of the Ražine-Šibenik Aluminum Factory and Rolling Mill. For the needs of that factory and at the same time for the city, the construction of a new water supply system from the Krka Waterfalls began, which was completed in 1953. In the meantime, the renamed Light Metal Factory "Boris Kidrič" was completed in 1955. the shipping company "Obalna plovidba", the future "Slobodna plovidba", is established. And in 1957, "Komunalna banka" was founded, which in 1965 changed its name to "Jadranska banka Šibenik". From 19 to 25.7.1958. the first Yugoslav Children's Festival was held. From 1958 to 1961, a large complex of recent architecture in the historic center of Šibenik was built according to the project of Ivo Vitić, which includes: the hotel "Jadran", the cinema "Šibenik" and the building of the municipality of Šibenik. And next to Poljana, Marshal Tito Vitić is building the JNA House building, for which the architect received the "Borbina" award for the best architectural achievement in Croatia in 1960. and the "blue skyscraper." And in 1961, the elementary school "Lepa Šarić" ended near them. In 1962, the magnificent "Memorial Park of the Executed" was opened. The year 1966 is marked by the 900th anniversary of the city of Šibenik. President Tito, the patron of the great jubilee, then visited Šibenik again, as he had done before: in 1948, 1953, 1955, 1958 and 1965. And in the same year, the "Šibenik" bridge on the Adriatic Highway was finally opened to traffic and significantly improved. traffic connection of the city, which until then was connected to the west side of the Krka by ferries. Towards the end of the celebratory year, the construction of the tourist resort Solaris began, whose fourth and last hotel Andrija was completed in 1971. In 1971, the elementary school "Mate Bujas" was built in Crnica. The elementary school "Marshal Tito" started in Baldekin and was completed in 1973. The factory of plastic products "Poliplast" was built, and the construction of the bus station in Draga and the Baldekin hall began in 1971. From 1973 to 1975, architect Ante Vulin worked on reconstruction of the Rector's Palace into the "Museum of the City of Šibenik", and its masterful solution received the "Vladimir Nazor Award". In 1979, a part of the competition of the 8th Mediterranean Games was held in Šibenik: volleyball, football and kayaking in Zaton. In 1980, the largest department store in Dalmatia "Šibenka" was opened and the construction of the largest residential area in Šibenik "Vidici" began, completed in 1984. After 8 years of construction, the Polyclinic was completed, the first facility in the city built in a brutalist style. 4/9/1983 basketball club Šibenik with a victory in the championship over K.K. After Drazen Petrovic's free throws, Bosnia becomes the champion of Yugoslavia. After that, the fans organized an unprecedented celebration in the city, so that day is considered the day of the founding of the fan group "Šibenik Funcuti". Within a year, the elementary school "Rade Končar" on Šubićevo was built and handed over for use in 1984. The following year, the construction of the "new post office" was completed, and the building was awarded as the best architectural achievement in Croatia in 1985. the settlement of Krvavice and the new residential complex on Šubićevac, and in 1988 on Meterize. In 1989, the construction of a new high school center was completed. 4/9/1991 "Elemes" basketball players beat "Red Stars" basketball players and become champions of Yugoslavia.

 

From a pre-war peasant town with about 16 thousand inhabitants, Šibenik in this period grew into a significant center of industrial production (non-ferrous metals, ferrous metallurgy, plastic products), maritime economy (large shipping company "Slobodna plovidba", Naval Technical Institute "Velimir Škorpik ") and port-transit traffic for special bulk cargo (phosphate and fertilizer), and production and trade of wine and alcoholic beverages (Vinoplod-Vinarija), etc. with 41 thousand inhabitants in 1991. In the sixties, seventies and especially the eighties suddenly tourism is also developing when large tourist and catering facilities are being built throughout the Riviera. And thanks to the natural potentials within the then municipality of Šibenik, as many as two National Parks were proclaimed, "Kornati" in 1980 and "Krka" in 1985. So in 1990, 400,000 mostly foreign tourists stayed on the Šibenik Riviera, realizing 3.5 million overnight stays. The urban agglomeration has more than doubled. In the fifties, the first "lying" skyscrapers were built on Baldekin, and in the eighties, large residential settlements sprang up in Vidice, Krvavice, Šubićevac and Meterize. Several school buildings were built, of which eight large school buildings, the Polyclinic, the Šubićevac sports stadium, the Baldekin hall, the outdoor pool on Crnica and the indoor pool in Solaris, etc.

In 1988, Šibenik ranked second in the FR of Croatia in terms of the level of development, according to the then main economic indicators.

Civil war
At the beginning of the war in Croatia, the city of Šibenik and its surroundings found themselves under attack by Krajina forces from the Dalmatian hinterland, which over time were increasingly supported by the JNA. When barracks and other JNA facilities were blocked in September 1991, the Knin Corps under General Ratko Mladic launched a major offensive on Sibenik. After several days of fierce fighting, known as the so-called September war, JNA forces were forced to withdraw, and these events were considered one of the first great Croatian victories in the war. Šibenik itself suffered relatively little in these events, but was subjected to constant bombing from Krajina positions, which caused destruction and casualties. The war operations in the vicinity of Šibenik ended with Operation Storm in the summer of 1995.

After the war, heavy industry was destroyed and tourism died out. The destruction of the industry was mostly due to problems with the distribution of electricity and policies. TEF was destroyed instead of relocated to the already prepared Podi business zone. The TLM was rebuilt after the war, but not entirely because of its policy towards BiH. And other production plants, shipping companies, trading companies were destroyed by privatizations. The hotels housed over 18,000 displaced persons and refugees after which tourist resources remained destroyed. The result of all this is that one of the richest cities of the SFRY at the end of the 20th century turned into a "city of chance". And the population is constantly declining and has 9,000 fewer than in 1991.