Đakovo is a town in eastern Croatia, which administratively belongs to Osijek-Baranja County. The city bears the title "Heart of Slavonia".



Numerous archeological sites are located in and around the city. They wrote the rich history of this city. Excavations from 1997 confirm life in the wider area of ​​the city as early as the Neolithic, around 5500 BC, which through a long and turbulent history lasts to the present day.

In Roman times, there was a settlement here Certissa, and the beauty of this area was delighted by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus, who had vineyards planted here in 277.

In 1239, due to the turbulent situation in Bosnia caused by conflicts with the Bogumils, the brother of the Croatian-Hungarian Bela IV, Prince Koloman, who ruled the Drava region, donated the town of Đakovo to the Bosnian bishop Ponsi and the whole area as the seat of the diocese. . In this way, the bishop retained all spiritual authority over Bosnia. This grant mentions the name of the town of Đakovo for the first time. This grant was confirmed in 1244 by King Bela IV himself. Since then, the history of the diocese in Đakovo has begun. Đakovo is still an episcopal city - the seat of the Đakovo-Osijek Archdiocese. The city itself is mentioned in certain periods of its history under similar names: Dyaco, Diaco, Dyacow ... Documents from 1355 first mention the existence of a Gothic cathedral and a bishop's palace surrounded by walls. Part of that wall has been preserved to this day.

In 1536, Đakovo was occupied by the Turks and ruled for almost 150 years - the town was then named Jakov. Almost all Catholic churches were demolished and mosques were built. The most famous is the Ibrahim Pasha Mosque, which was converted into a Catholic church after the departure of the Turks. In 1690, the bishop returned to the city and then the construction of the city began. The population grew rapidly, and in 1751 the first school was opened.

After the departure of the Turks, a new, more modest cathedral and episcopal court were built in Đakovo. It was the second of three in a row built in Đakovo so far. It was built by Bishops Đuro Patačić and Bakić.

Today's cathedral, the basilica of St. Petra, was built in the neo-Gothic-Romanesque style. Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer began building it in 1866 at the age of 52 and the 16th year of episcopal service. The construction lasted a full 16 years (until 1882), of which 4 years were external construction works, and 12 years were the interior decoration of the cathedral. 7,000,000 pieces of brick baked in Đakovo were used for the construction of the cathedral. The stone was delivered from Istria, Hungary, Austria, Italy and France. The designers of the cathedral were architects from Vienna Karlo Rösner and Fridrich Schmidt. The interior design was entrusted to German painters who lived in Rome, father and son Alexander-Maximilian and Ludwig Seitz. The cathedral has 7 altars, and it is decorated with 43 frescoes, 31 statues and 32 reliefs, and an organ with 73 registers, three manuals and 5,486 flutes.

Throughout its 760-year history, the Diocese of Đakovo has had 62 bishops. There is still a lot of evidence of their work in the city today. In 1706, Bishop Patačić restored the stable.

In 1773, Đakovo became the center of the united dioceses of Bosnia-Đakovo and Srijem, which included all northeastern Croatian regions.

Bishop Antun Mandić opens, today the oldest higher education institution in Slavonia and Baranja, the Theological Seminary. He also undertakes large economic interventions on the estate, especially in the cultivation of vineyards. His name is preserved in the well-known vineyards of Mandić.

With the appointment of Josip Juraj Strossmayer as bishop in 1849, the city was on a new rise. The episcopal manor becomes an exemplary economy with considerable income, which enables the great bishop unprecedented patronage in Croatia (HAZU), and gives Đakovo a new face with a new cathedral and numerous church and economic buildings.

The history of the Đakovo Stud Farm begins with the founding of the diocese with a gift of ten Arabian horses and one stallion, although the year of its foundation is 1506. According to Bishop Bakić, horse breeding on the estate dates back to 1374. increased to 130 breeding mares in 1524. However, most of these horses perished together with Bishop Đuro in 1526 in the battle of the Mohács field.

During the Turkish rule, the stud farm was owned by the Požega pashas. But after one hundred and fifty years of rule over the city, the Turks were forced to leave the city, taking the horses off the stable.

After the arrival of the Austrians, the stable was rebuilt due to the need for a permanent guard in that border area. In 1806, the Lipica stud farm moved to Đakovo in front of Napoleon. Since then, Lipizzaner horses have been bred in stables. The almost exclusive breeding of Lipizzaner horses instead of Arabian ones is transferred to the episcopate of Bishop Strossmayer. Breeding continues today in the State Lipizzaner Stud Farm, which is one of the oldest in Europe, as well as with an increasing number of private horse breeders. For many years, the Stud Farm was part of PIK Đakovo, and today it is the State Stud Farm of Lipizzaner horses, in charge of breeding and selection.


Đakovo has always been a town of crafts. In 1813, the CEH Association of Craftsmen was founded. Industrial development began with the construction of mills and brickyards, and many craftsmen of various professions by offering their products have contributed to the fact that Đakovo, especially for its fairs, has become a marketplace known throughout Slavonia.

After the first democratic multi-party elections in 1990, it became increasingly clear that Croatia would have to defend its path to democracy and sovereignty with arms. As early as mid-May 1990, the inhabitants of the Đakovo region were slowly preparing for defense. The boulder revolution and the armed involvement of the JNA MIGs against helicopters with MUP special forces that went to intervene and quell the rebellion, was an undoubted sign of the JNA's alignment with the rebel Greater Serbia side. They were preparing in Đakovo and welcomed the middle of 1991 as one of the strongest defenses in Slavonia. However, Croatia was poorly armed, barely for a short-lived war. In preparation for the declaration of independence of Croatia, it was necessary to think about taking over the barracks in Dračice and Frankopanska and taking over the Nabrđe military range and the Gaj military warehouse according to the Đakovo Hour. After the declaration of independence, it became a task. At first, an attempt was made to negotiate the surrender of the barracks peacefully, but the JNA did not agree, but wanted the preservation of Yugoslavia. Thus, she exceeded her authority, refusing to accept the decision on independence made by the legitimately elected civilian authorities of the republic that became independent. At the end of August 1991, the situation in Đakovo worsened. Provocations by shooting from JNA barracks and the Nabrđe military range and Chetnik strongholds are disturbing the settlements of the Đakovo region. In the September war, when the JNA and Serbian rebels set out to conquer Croatian cities with the help of the JNA barracks from within, it was the turn of Đakovo. Things culminate on September 15th. The general danger was announced at 5:15 p.m., and the apparent peace ceased. From both barracks, the JNA fired on the city. In the two-hour attack, the main target is the industrial zone of PIK Đakovo. After that, the Đakovo defense forces gave an ultimatum to the barracks to stop firing and surrender. The lull lasted until midnight. Then the JNA attacked even harder, and the Croatian Ministry of the Interior and the ZNG retaliated. The declared general danger did not cease and the citizens spent time in shelters. On September 16, JNA officers again rejected surrender ultimatums. The ZNG and the Ministry of the Interior quickly acted in a coordinated manner and liberated the barracks. At 13:25 that strong fort fell. The Gaj military warehouse near Satnica Đakovačka was soon liberated. In the barracks in Dračice, JNA officers remain stubborn. The request to the superiors for surrender, where their wives beg them to surrender the barracks, did not help either. Instead, the JNA responded by firing heavy weapons on the city, damaging numerous facilities. The fighting lasted until September 18 at 12:00, when the last soldier surrendered. On September 18, the Gašinci military range was liberated, which, along with the liberated Gaj warehouse, provided a good basis for the establishment of the 122nd Brigade of the Croatian Army in Đakovo.

In addition to being the episcopal center, it is also the economic and cultural center of the Đakovo region. Today, Đakovo is a city with over 30,000 inhabitants.


Architecture and sights

Tourism has a significant place in the long-term development plans of the city, for the development of which Đakovo and its surroundings have extraordinary conditions. Đakovo offers tourists an abundance of historical, cultural and natural values. Within the old town there are numerous sacral buildings that make this city recognizable in Slavonia.

The center of Đakovo is Strossmayer Square, bordered by a cathedral, mansions, a promenade, a bishop's court and a seminary. The most prominent monument of the city is the Đakovo Cathedral. Dedicated to St. Petra, was built from 1866-1882. Bishop Josip Juraj Strossmayer is most responsible for its raising. According to Pope John XXIII. Đakovo Cathedral is "the most beautiful church between Venice and Constantinople".

Next to the cathedral is the bishop's palace built in the Baroque style, which houses the Diocesan Museum of the Diocese of Đakovo. The diocese of Đakovo was formed by the bull Universi orbis Ecclesiis of Pope Clement XIV. from (July 9, 1773) when the old dioceses, Bosnia and Srijem, were united. The cathedral square closes on the north side of the building of the Theological Seminary, opened in 1914. It studied a large number of people who made a great contribution to the Croatian Catholic Church and culture. On the same square, there are also Kaptol manors through baroque mansions for the residence of canons.

The pedestrian street in the old town is called Korzo, and stretches from the cathedral to the Church of All Saints. The promenade is a daily gathering place for all ages. The Parish Church of All Saints is a former Turkish mosque with a dome erected at the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, which was only later converted into a church. It got its present appearance in the 19th century. Of the other sacral buildings, the monastery of the Sisters of Mercy of the Holy Cross, with a church, built in the early 19th century.

In the old part of the city there is also a significant Museum of the Đakovo region which preserves several valuable collections: archaeological, cultural-historical, ethnographic, numismatic and artistic.

It can be said that Đakovo is the city of Josip Juraj Strossmayer because the Monument to J. J. Strossmayer is also dedicated to him - a sculpture of the bishop according to a sketch by Rudolf Valdec, made by the academic sculptor Marijan Sušac from Osijek. The Josip Juraj Strossmayer Memorial Museum was opened in 1991. In six rooms is a model of the cathedral, paintings and personal items of the bishop. Behind the cathedral there is a large park called Strossmayer Park, where there is a stage where the widely known Đakovo berths are held every year.

The landmark of Đakovo is also the Đakovo Stud Farm - a stud farm of noble Lipizzaner horses, one of the oldest in Europe, which spread the word about Đakovo far beyond the borders of Croatia.

Outside Đakovo is Jošava. Watercourses and lakes of the Đakovo region that attract many fishermen and swimmers eager for rest and beautiful nature.

The town of Đakovo has many festivals and events: the most important are New Year's Eve, Đakovo embroideries, Đakovo cuts, Đakovo bushars, Half of the New Year, Festival of Old Town Dances and Songs, Ivanjski krijesovi, Festival of Church Folk Singing, Đakovo Meetings of Croatian Literary Critics (June 3) .


Đakovo embroideries are a traditional international folklore festival that lasts 2 weeks and ends on the first Sunday in July. It is a holiday of the whole area, when numerous folklore groups pass through the streets in cars decorated with flowers, dance in the town squares, choose the most beautiful costumes. At the same time, equestrian competitions in hurdle jumping, two-carriage and four-carriage rides, etc. are held at the hippodrome on the stud farm. In addition, meetings of Croatian critics are held there, art exhibitions are opened, various concerts and other entertainment programs are held, and numerous culinary competitions are organized.

The city also has two cultural and artistic societies: KUD "Sklad" (1863) and KUD "Tena" (1985).

KUD "Sklad" is a society that deals exclusively with original dances and songs of the ugly Đakovo and participates in most Đakovo events and travels throughout Croatia. "Sklad" has 6 sections: folklore, tamburitza, majorette, drama, rhythm and information. ( www.kud-sklad.hr ) KUD SKLAD]
KUD "Tena" deals with choreographed Croatian dances. KUD has a number of folklore and tamburitza sections. The company was founded in 1985. So far, they have participated in numerous domestic and international events. ( www.kud-tena.hr ) KUD TENA
There are also two radio stations in Đakovo: Radio Đakovo and Novi radio. The cinema operates within the Đakovo Cultural Center. The city has the City Library and Reading Room and three museums: the Museum of the Đakovo Region, the Diocesan Museum of the Đakovo Diocese and the J.J. Strossmayer.