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Split

Split is a historic town in Croatia most famous for its historic site of a Diocletian's palace.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Description of Split

Split is a city located south of Croatia, a seaport on the Dalmatian coast, on the Adriatic Sea. It has 221 456 inhabitants, according to the 2007 census. It is the main city in the region of Dalmatia, the capital of the county of Split-Dalmatia and the second most populous city in the country, after Zagreb 380 km away. It is an important fishing port and naval base of the Adriatic, as well as an important cultural and tourist center; the old city is an architectural jewel, declared a World Heritage Site in 1979. In its environment there are shipyards, cement and plastic factories, lumber, wine and food industries.

 

 

 

Travel Destinations in Split

Diocletian's Palace (Split)

Cathedral of St. Domnius (Split)

Ethnographic Museum (Split)

Church of Saint John the Baptist Aka Temple of Jupiter (Split)

 

History of Split

Split grew around the palace of the Roman emperor Diocletian, who was born near there in 245 AD. He retired to Split in 305 to the palace he had built near Salona. Here he was also buried there in 313. The fortified palace then became a factory of Roman uniforms and the core of the city. In the early seventh century, after the nearby Roman city of Salona was sacked by the Avars (nomads of Central Asia), the refugees turned the palace into a fortified city and Diocletian's mausoleum in the city's cathedral. Although the city was under Byzantine sovereignty from 812 to 1089, Spalato retained its political autonomy, as a "Comune" city of the Italian Dalmatians.

At the end of the 8th century, the slavicization of the city began, which was partially captured in the architecture of some churches. At the beginning of the 12th century, the Dalmatian towns were ruled by the Hungarians, but Spalato was able to draw up his own municipal laws in 1312, and even made its own currency. In 1420, the Venetians obtained the sovereignty of Dalmatia, and although they respected the Autonomy of the city, including its laws, the municipal government was always directed by a Venetian prince-captain. During all these Venetian governments, the city prospered and extended beyond the walls, with beautiful buildings and a tall bell tower. Some Venetian families moved to Spalato, where they were part of the local aristocracy.

In the 15th century, the Ottoman Turks came to Dalmatia, and although they seized the heart of the region, they did not enter Spalato, which remained under the rule of Venice. By 1718 the Turkish-Venetian wars ended with the presence of the invader in Dalmatia, and Split officially continued under the sovereignty of Venice until 1797, when Napoleon Bonaparte dissolved the Republic of Venice, and Dalmatia remained in possession of Austria, as stipulated in the Treaty of Campo Formio. However, after the Battle of Wagram in 1809, Austria lost Spalato, which was under French control, integrated first into the "Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy" and then into the Illyrian Provinces.

By 1813, the Split was again under Austrian rule.

 

In those years the Croatian population of the interior of Dalmatia began to move to Split, diminishing therefore the Italian percentage of the population of Spalato (until then majority in the urban area), and in 1880 the last Italian ethnic mayor, Bajamonti, was replaced for one Croatian. Still in the Austrian census of 1910 there were 2082 Italians out of a total of 21,670 inhabitants of Split, and the topography of the city was completely Italian in the names of the neighborhoods. After the First World War and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the province of Dalmatia, including Split, became part of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia).

After the annexation of Fiume (Rijeka) and Zara (Zadar) - the other two important cities of the region along with Spalato - through Italy, Spalato was officially renamed "Split" (in Croatian) in 1919 and became the main port of Yugoslavia and in the capital of Banovina Litoral. The railway line of Lika that connected the city with the rest of the country was inaugurated in 1925. With the agreement Cvetković-Maček, Split became part of a new administrative unit, the Banovina of Croatia, fruit of the union of Banovina Litoral , Sava and some surrounding areas populated by Croats.

Almost half of the Italians of Spalato fled to the Kingdom of Italy, as a result of Croatian nationalism in those years, and favored the Italian irredentism towards Spalato. With the invasion of Yugoslavia by the armies of the Axis, the Italians occupied the city in April 1941, and a month later they formally annexed it to the Governorate of Dalmatia of the Kingdom of Italy. The arrival of Italian troops was greeted with enthusiasm by the Italian-speaking minority of Spalato. But the Italian army found moderate resistance among the ethnic Split-Croatians, joining part of them to the partisans of Josip Broz Tito: even the Croatian local soccer teams, the HNK Hajduk Split, and the RNK Split, refused to participate in the Italian league, suspending its activities, to later join also the partisans (later the Hajduk became the official team of the partisan movement).

In September 1943, Italy capitulated and Split was occupied by the communist Tito's brigades, registering a massacre of 300 native Italians, but a week later the pro-Fascist Independent State of Croatia occupied the region. Some areas of the old city and the port were damaged during occupation by the German bombings and allies, causing hundreds of deaths. The Titinian partisans finally entered the city on October 26, 1944. On February 12, 1945, an incursion by the Kriegsmarine attacked the port of Split, damaging the British cruiser Delhi. Until the end of the war Split was the provisional capital of Croatia.

 

Weather in Split

Temperature in Split rise in July and August significantly along with tourist crowds and prices. Precipitation on the other hand decreases. If you travel outside of the city and you see a fire or a smoke, don't ignore it. Summer fires might be quiet deadly and travel much faster than you expect. The best time to visit the city is in May- June or in September. Temperatures are still pretty high, but they are not scorching. 

 

 

 

 

 

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