Dubrovnik

 

 

When to come

Dubrovnik weather is fairly mild due to its position on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. However certain dates might be more suitable depending on your preferences of number of tourists, weather and etc.

 

The Dubrovnik Summer Festival

Dubrovnik Summer Festival is an annual summer festival that started in 1950 shortly after completion of World War II. It usually lasts from 10 July to 25 August. It consists of dozens of artists who stage open air performances of classical music, theatre, opera, dance, circus and etc. In addition to native residents Dubrovnik also hosts guests from all over Europe and beyond.

 

Description of Dubrovnik

Dubrovnik or Ragusa is a coastal city located in the Dalmatian region of the Republic of Croatia, near the national border with Bosnia and Herzegovina. It has a population of 42,615 inhabitants (2011 census) and is one of the most important tourist centers of the Adriatic Sea. It is known as "the pearl of the Adriatic", "the Dalmatian Athens", since its ancient inhabitants distinguished it as unique, where great exponents of humanity, arts and sciences proliferated. Capital of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. Dubrovnik is a city surrounded by walls and fortifications, at the foot of the mountain of San Sergio, which falls to peak over the waters of the Adriatic Sea. In 1979, the ancient city of Ragusa (the walled enclosure) was declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco; the declaration was expanded in 1994.

 

Dubrovnik Destinations

Dubrovnik Fortress

 

Current walls
The city walls have been preserved to the present day, not only because of the technical ability of the construction workers and the constant care provided by the city dwellers who maintained and rebuilt the structures when necessary, but also because of the brilliant Dubrovnik diplomacy, which on many occasions managed to prevent the enemies of the Republic of Ragusa from taking dangerous measures against them.

The current appearance of the walls was defined in the 14th century, after the city gained its full independence from the sovereignty of the Republic of Venice, but its construction boom lasted from the beginning of the 15th century until the second half of the century XVI. That they were built very solidly was a great benefit, as the walls, for the most part, were undamaged in the catastrophic earthquake of 1667. The biggest stimulus for continued development, emergency repairs and construction of the Dubrovnik fortresses, It was the result of fear of a surprise attack by the Turkish military forces, especially after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453. The city was also in constant danger from attacks by the Venetians. For centuries the people of Dubrovnik were able to preserve its city-republic thanks to skillful maneuvers between East and West. A strategic treaty with Turkey prolonged the freedom of Dubrovnik and maintained the opportunity for an important commercial role between the Ottoman Empire and Europe.

The walls form an imaginary irregular polygon, although with not straight sides, four sides with the four corners protected by a total of five fortresses, three of them embedded in the walls. In the north is the circular fort Torre Minčeta, on the east side of the city's port is the isolated Revelin Fortress, the western entrance and side of the city are protected by the isolated Fort Bokar and Fort San Lawrence, and the large and complex Fort of Saint John located on the southeast side of the city that closes the mouth of the port.

 

Tower Minčeta (Dubrovnik)

Pile Gate (Vrata od Pila) (Dubrovnik)

 

Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary (Dubrovnik)

Stradun Street (Dubrovnik)

Church of Saint Blaise (Dubrovnik)

Home of the poet and play writer Marina Drzicha (Dom Marina Drzica) (Dubrovnik)

Dubrovnik City Museum (Dubrovnik)

Ethnographic Museum or the Museum of Rupe (Dubrovnik)

Rector's Palace or Prince's Palace (Dubrovnik)

Sponza Palace (Dubrovnik)

Dominican Convent (Dominikanski samostan i crkva sv. Dominika) (Dubrovnik)

Saint Savior Church (Dubrovnik)

Onuphrius' or Onofrio's Fountain (Dubrovnik)

Franciscan Monastery (Dubrovnik)

 

History of Dubrovnik

Establishment of the city
The eastern Adriatic was inhabited as early as the Neolithic, and the immediate vicinity of Dubrovnik, including the cliffs of Ragusa itself, were inhabited during the Bronze and Iron Ages. During the ancient century, the center of the region was located in today's Cavtat, which bore the Latinized Illyrian name Epidaurus ("behind the forest"). The city is first mentioned under this name in the year 47 AD.

An old tradition, mentioned by the Byzantine emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus in the middle of the 10th century, says that Dubrovnik was founded by refugees from the Roman city of Epidaurus after it was destroyed by Slavs and Avars at the beginning of the 7th century.

 

"In the language of the Romans, the city was not called Ragusa, there was mention of what was located on top of the hills, in the Roman language it is called Lau, "La roca", so that the inhabitants are called "Lausaioi", which means "those who live on the rock, that name is corrupted until it reaches "Rausaioi".

 

But the vulgar appellative and, with time, the name of the city was written in several ways, all derived from this root: Lausa, Labusa, Raugia, Rausa, Rachusa and finally Ragusa. The Slavic name Dubrovnik appeared during the Middle Ages and comes from the Slavic word Dubrava, "oak forest", with which it was called a village outside the Ragusa of the Dalmatians: in fact, these trees covered the mountains of St. Sergius (in Slavic Brgat).

It is said that Roland himself, the famous knight, came to the aid of the besieged city and freed it from the invaders.

 

After the destruction of Epidaurus (by the Slavs and the Avars) at the beginning of the 7th century, Roman refugees arrived at the foot of the already existing Roman fortress and founded a new city, and in their hinterland the Serbian tribes Zahumljani, Travunjani and Konavljani settled. In time, these Serbian tribes inhabited the coast, and along with that refugee city, they founded their own settlement, which they call Dubrava after the deep oak forest. On the other hand, the Roman population named their settlement after the cliff (Latin: Laus), which would later receive the Italian name Ragusium / Ragusa (Ragusium / Ragusa), which was first mentioned by an anonymous cosmographer from Ravenna around 667. The narrow swamp canal that separated the cliff from the mainland and at the same time these two settlements, was filled in during the 10th and 11th centuries, and the entire inhabited area was surrounded by walls. This united the city.

 

Byzantine and Venetian rule
From its founding until the 12th century, Dubrovnik became part of the Byzantine Empire. However, regardless of the Roman nobility, the Serbian majority assimilated the small Roman community, so the Serbian name Dubrovnik prevailed for the city (as opposed to the Romanian Ragusa). During that time, the city expanded and gained a certain autonomy (of its bishop).

At the beginning of the 11th century, Dubrovnik ships were recognizable throughout the Mediterranean, and the people of Dubrovnik were known as skilled sailors and merchants, who concluded trade agreements with many cities and principalities. In 1186, Dubrovnik made peace with Stefan Nemanja and his brother Prince Miroslav of Hum, and a little later with the famous trade agreement with the Bosnian ban Kulin. Dubrovnik ships often have to defend the city from various invaders: Samuel (992), Arabs (1028-1034), Normans. But also to fight for other people's interests (Normans from 1081 to 1085).

After the fall of Constantinople in 1204, into the hands of the Crusaders, the people of Dubrovnik were forced to recognize the supreme authority of Venice from 1205, under whose rule they remained until 1358. During this time, the people of Dubrovnik raised three unsuccessful revolts, but the Venetian authorities failed to free themselves. In 1295, a great fire broke out in Dubrovnik, which destroyed the entire suburb of Dubrava and a large part of the city of Ragusium. Due to that, both settlements merged into one and wooden houses were not allowed to be built anymore.

Thanks to the strengthening of the Serbian kingdom, and later the empire, Dubrovnik territorially expanded to Lastovo, Peljesac with Ston, Mljet and the whole of Konavle. On April 10, 1357, the Serbian Tsar Dušan donated the island of Mljet with the Orthodox monastery of the Most Holy Mother of God. The Republic reached its peak during the 14th and 15th centuries thanks to trade privileges within the Serbian Empire, and later its successors, where the people of Dubrovnik leased squares, mines and customs from local rulers, which further increased their income. At the time of its greatest scope, the republic covered the area from Pelješac to Prevlaka with parts of Konavle and Popovo polje.

In general, Dubrovnik had a lot of trouble with its neighbors due to its borders and trade. When Tsar Dusan came to power, the city enjoyed privileges in the empire, but it also paid an annual "Serbian tax" of 2,000 perpers.

Life in medieval Dubrovnik
The population of Dubrovnik in this period was diverse both ethnically and economically. The basic division was into: a rich Romanized nobleman - patricians and a large urbanized Slovene population: craftsmen, merchants, soldiers, ship's crew and scribes - the common people. The process of Slavization of the Dubrovnik Romans proceeded gradually. The nobles resisted the Slavization and the influence of the people for a long time, but over time they gave in, so mixed marriages were allowed during the 13th and 14th centuries, and from the 15th and 16th centuries the language was replaced by Serbian, calling it "linga seruiana". the old men ”spoke the old Dubrovnik language.

Limited in natural resources, Dubrovnik has found its existence in shipping and trade. The port of Dubrovnik has become the main export and import point of Balkan trade and the "gate of the Balkans". The Dubrovnik navy experienced the greatest degree of development in the 15th and 16th centuries, when the Dubrovnik navy numbered about 200 ships. At that time, the people of Dubrovnik transported and traded throughout the Mediterranean, from the coasts of Asia Minor and Africa to the Atlantic coast.

Through traffic connections and trade relations, Dubrovnik was in constant contact with European countries, and especially with Italian ports and cities. In that way, he follows cultural life and achievements in science and art and quickly accepts them. Classes were organized in primary schools, and higher education was at a significant level.

Dubrovnik literature reaches the highest levels of humanism and renaissance literature among the South Slavs. Many of the citizens of Dubrovnik were written in Latin, but the most significant literature is the one written in the Serbian vernacular, which began in the 15th century and continued until the fall of the Republic, and whose representatives are Marin Držić and Ivan Gundulić.

Republic of Dubrovnik

After the war between the Hungarians and the Venetians over Zadar, the Venetians ceded Dubrovnik to Hungary in 1358. It was the duty of Dubrovnik to pay an annual tax (500 ducats) to Hungary and to display its flag on solemn days, but the King of Hungary did not interfere in their internal affairs, which gave the city complete independence. At that time, Dubrovnik experienced the greatest economic development, but with its neighbors it waged numerous wars against: the rulers of Trebinje, Stefan Vojislav and Nikola Altomanović, and the Bosnian dukes Radoslav Pavlović and Duke Stefan Vukčić Kosač. These were the last wars that Dubrovnik fought at all. The Turks conquered Herzegovina in 1466, but stopped in front of the Dubrovnik borders, because the people of Dubrovnik had already secured the protection of the Turkish sultans.

After the Battle of Kosovo, Dubrovnik entered into relations with the Turks, and in 1397 it received a decree from Sultan Bajazit that we should trade freely throughout the Turkish Empire. After the fall of Serbia in 1459, Dubrovnik undertook to pay the sultan an annual tribute for the freedom of trade in Turkey. This tribute initially amounted to 1,500 gold ducats, but was eventually increased to 12,500, and remained so until the Serbian uprising in 1804.

In everything else, Dubrovnik was independent, but as the Ottomans gave the Dubrovnik Republic special rights in trade, it tied Dubrovnik trade even more to the Ottoman Empire. The people of Dubrovnik had the privilege of supplying the Ottoman colonies, and they themselves had their colonies in numerous cities in the Balkans, Italy and the Middle East. Dubrovnik merchant ships could sail freely into the Black Sea, which was forbidden to all non-Ottoman ships. They paid some obligations less than other merchants, and at the same time Dubrovnik enjoyed Ottoman diplomatic support in trade with the Venetians.

For almost 300 years of Turkish vassalship, Dubrovnik developed best during peace, skillfully maintaining neutrality in wars between Turks and Christians. But he was again in great danger during the wars of the Venetian Republic with Turkey, because it was Dubrovnik's biggest competitor and enemy. That is why Dubrovnik returned in 1684 under the auspices of the German emperor and the Hungarian king. However, the discovery of America and the new trade routes around Africa, took precedence in trade from the Mediterranean to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean. The political and economic decline of Turkey during the 17th century also brought about a decline in Dubrovnik's trade, and the turning point was the earthquake, which occurred on April 6, 1667 and destroyed half of the city and from which Dubrovnik never recovered.

In 1765, the Consulate of the Republic of Dubrovnik for the whole of Croatia was established in Zagreb.

After the collapse of the Venetian Republic in 1797, the Dalmatian coastal belt came under the jurisdiction of the Habsburg Monarchy. When Austria handed over Dalmatia and Boka Napoleon in 1806, Dubrovnik also fell under French rule. French rule in Dubrovnik lasted from May 27, 1806 to February 15, 1814. In 1808, the French abolished the Republic and annexed the city to French Illyria.

Dubrovnik in the Austrian Empire
After the defeat of Napoleon's France, by the decision of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the territory of the former Republic of Dubrovnik was annexed to the Austrian Empire. Dubrovnik and its surroundings remained part of this empire until its disintegration in 1918.

In 1838, Dubrovnik was a city, the former capital of the Republic of Dubrovnik. It consists of a town and two partitions, Ploče and Pile. The city with towns has a total of 5,540 inhabitants, and there is the government, court and other institutions, with the building of the former Republic being the landmark. The port is narrow, so the majority of traffic takes place in a larger and safer port in Gruž (Gravosa), where large ships dock. In addition to several Catholic and two Orthodox churches, Jews also have a synagogue there.

During this period, Italian was reintroduced as the official language in the city, so as a reaction, support appeared first for the Illyrian and later for the Serbian Catholic movement, led by Medo Pucic, Matija Ban, Ivan Stojanovic, Ivan August Kaznacic and others. After the Revolution of 1848, fearing the growing Serbian nationalism in this area, Austria-Hungary encouraged the Croatian national ideology in Dubrovnik, which would lead to an ethnic recomposition in the city a century later. Dubrovnik is the first Dalmatian city in which the Serbian "people's" party won in 1867 and which ruled with the autonomous parties until the outbreak of the First World War.

 

The city was unlit until the end of the 19th century, so as early as 1895, Frano Gondola (Gundulić), the then mayor, made the decision to introduce electric lighting. On June 1, 1901, the first electric light bulb shone on Stradun.

Before the First World War, Dubrovnik experienced an incomprehensible escalation of hatred and violence. On the occasion of the assassination of Franz Ferdinand and his wife, "manifestations" were organized by Croats in the city. The sad gathering of the so-called "grieving population" became, as the reporter states, "demonstrations against Serbs". Wonderful Dubrovnik has become one stage of shameful events between two fraternal peoples. On July 14, 1914, Hrvatski list from Zagreb recorded a photo report of that hysteria, as a drama in several acts. The chauvinist mob focused on the premises of the "Serbian Gymnastics Association 'Dusan Silni'", in order to deal with everything that reminds them of Serbs. Each shot was a destructive act: a mob surrounded the building and demolished it; the inscription is removed from it; throws gymnastic equipment into the sea; sinks a social boat. All this is accompanied by shouts and cries of hatred and anger.

Dubrovnik in Yugoslavia
Before the end of the First World War, the first detachments of the Serbian army arrived in the city, after which Dubrovnik would be annexed to the newly formed Yugoslav state, in which it would remain until its disintegration in 1991-1992. years. During all this time, Dubrovnik was considered the most famous tourist destination in Yugoslavia.

During the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Dubrovnik belonged to the Zeta Banovina, and many inhabitants from Dalmatia, Herzegovina and the Bay of Kotor immigrated to the city, as well as Russian emigrants. There are also nationalist conflicts between Catholic Serbs and Croats, and after the Cvetković-Maček Agreement, which established a new unit, the Banovina of Croatia, and Dubrovnik joined it, Croatian nationalists prevailed.

World War II
In Dubrovnik and its surroundings, Serbian blood was shed only on July 1, 1941. On that day, the Ustashas took 9 Serbs from the Dubrovnik prison, among whom were the priest Vasil Kovačina, the parish priest from Metković and Marko Popović, a teacher. Among them were a Croat and a Muslim. The next day, July 2, they were all killed in Rudine near Ston. Previously, they tied them to each other with wire and "killed them with picks, shovels, hammers." They broke their arms, legs, ribs, jaws and other body parts. That is how they ended their lives by martyrdom. " It was said that the tools with which they killed were taken from the local Roman Catholic priest of the Duma, Ivo Dragićević.

A group of young people - mostly high school students from Dubrovnik and the surrounding area, went to Trebinje and killed a large number of prominent Serbs in and around the town on July 1.

"On the first of July, at six o'clock in the morning," says Father Popović, "the first shots rang out and hot bullets killed Vaso Babić, Vlada N., on his doorstep." Popovic, Milos Brkovic, Vlastimir Palikuca, Gavril Kovacevic, Radovan Lecic, Scep Djuric, Dusan Nogulic, and Ilija Babic.

During the Second World War, the city of Dubrovnik with Peljesac was under the control of the Independent State of Croatia, and the Ustasha units were commanded by Ivo Rojnica. In the wider area around Dubrovnik, the Dubrovnik Brigade of the Yugoslav Army in the Homeland, composed largely of Serb Catholics, is active. At the end of 1944, partisan forces seized the opportunity and occupied Dubrovnik and its surroundings. Upon entering the city, they retaliate against all "suspicious elements" by shooting several hundred citizens of Dubrovnik.

In socialist Yugoslavia, this city became part of the People's / Socialist Republic of Croatia, and after 1945 the new authorities immigrated several thousand colonists from rural parts of western Herzegovina in order to "proletarianize the city", because Dubrovnik was considered a "bourgeois litter". After the Croatian Spring, this immigration becomes more organized and massive, which significantly changes the demographic picture of the municipality. This provoked a conflict between the natives and the colonists, which became much more visible in the early 1990s. In 1979, the territory of the Old Town was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List as a museum city and the most important tourist attraction in Yugoslavia.

In 1990, the Republic of Croatia was declared the successor of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, and the following year it declared independence from Yugoslavia. The federal authorities do not recognize this decision and retain units of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) in part of its territory, including part of the Dubrovnik municipality.

Dubrovnik in the last war

With the arrival of the new authorities at the head of the FR of Croatia, they changed the constitution, name and symbols of the state by December 1990, and by May 1991 they formed an illegal army of 90,000 armed members called the National Guard Corps. As Dubrovnik did not have military facilities before the war, members of the ZNG were accommodated in some hotels.

In mid-September 1991, Croatian paramilitaries launched organized attacks on all JNA barracks, followed by a blockade of the Yugoslav Navy's ports. The JNA left Korčula and Vis, but due to the combat provocations of the Croatian forces on the territory of BiH from the direction of Dubrovnik, it returned in October and quickly occupied the territory from Prevlaka to Dubrovnik, including Kupare.

Some Western European media report on the barbaric destruction of the city by the JNA, for which their governments accuse Serbia and Montenegro of war. In November, the Yugoslav side stopped the offensive and withdrew its army north of Dubrovnik to the Trebinje municipality.

In November, the Movement for the Autonomy of Dubrovnik gathers in Cavtat and renews the Republic of Dubrovnik. Provisional authorities are also being established at the gathering, and they are led by Alexander Aco Apollonio. The goal of the Movement was the separation of the Municipality from Croatia, international protection and international recognition of the future state, and later, its entry into a new, future Yugoslav federation. On December 5, JNA Vice Admiral Miodrag Jokic agreed to a ceasefire in Dubrovnik, as well as to ease the naval blockade of the city, and on December 6, the Old Town was shelled.

At the beginning of April, the JNA withdrew its units from the Dubrovnik battlefield, and with this withdrawal, the self-proclaimed Republic was dissolved, and over 15,000 civilians withdrew into exile together with the army. Croatian forces used this withdrawal, and later carried out numerous offensives from the direction of Dubrovnik on Serb villages in eastern Herzegovina.

In the entire area of ​​the former municipality of Dubrovnik, from Prevlaka to Peljesac, out of a total of 27,633 houses and apartments, 13,900 were damaged. Of that number, 2,071 residential buildings were included in the most severe category of damage, which was burned or completely destroyed. The facilities of "Dubrovnik Cellars", Airports in Čilipi, Luka Gruž, ACI marinas in Komolac, hotels in Plat, Mlini and Srebreno, hotel "Libertas", "Belveder", "Imperial", hotels of HTC "Dubrava" were completely looted, burned and destroyed.

 

Monuments of Dubrovnik development

Already on the first step in front of Dubrovnik, the view stops in front of the monumental walls, which outline the physiognomy of the city in the length of two kilometers. They surpass it and round it off on all sides. These walls are one of the most beautiful walls in Europe. Their embryo dates back to the founding of the city. Stone walls in limestone date back to the 8th century. The fortress of Sveti Ivan was destroyed and in the 14th century it was renovated, it also houses a maritime museum as well as an ethnographic and aquarium. At the same time as this fortress was renovated, the port built by Paskoje Miličević was also protected. The first walls to the west were built in the 10th century and their expansion and completion in its current form lasted until the 16th century when the Bokar tower got a circular appearance.

There are various legends about the Lovrijenac fortress and one of them says that the people of Dubrovnik prevented Venice from building its fortress that would endanger Dubrovnik. We have reliable sources about the existence of this fortress only in the 14th century, when it is known that it was armed with a large number of cannons and was built until the 16th century. Today, the play Hamlet is performed in it, and its performance at this place is a special experience due to the natural and built environment.

In the elevated corner of the northwest side of the city, on the land of the Naštetić family, a tower was built in the 14th century, which was later replaced by a new fortress, which is the most beautiful. It started in the 15th century and the whole city took part in the construction. The foundation was built by the Florentine master and Renaissance architect Mikeloco Mikeloci, who also worked on strengthening the western walls for the Republic. Minčeta was completed by Jurij Dalmatinac, who also took part in the construction of the walls and fortresses in Ston. A deep ditch was dug in front of the walls towards the mainland.

At the same time as the walls were completed, the construction of the Revelin Fortress, which was facing northeast, was started, and this fortress was built as a defense against the Turks in the first half of the 16th century. Its interior is being renovated for cultural purposes, and in 1954 a monument to the fallen fighters in the national liberation war, the work of Frane Kršinić, was erected in it.

A monument to Saint Blaise, who is the patron saint of the city, is carved on all fortresses. These are all old statues, except for the one at the door of Pila, which was made in 1922 by the sculptor Ivan Meštrović, when the reconstruction of this area was carried out.

When you come to the square through the gate of Pila there are several monuments. On the right side is Onofrio's fountain built by Onofrio de la Cava in 1438 when the aqueduct in Dubrovnik was built and on the left side is a small church of the Holy Savior built in Romanesque style after the earthquake in 1520 and it is the work of local master Petar Andrijic and his brothers who act very effectively.

In the background of the fountain is the old monastery of St. Clare, built in 1290, which was destroyed in a great earthquake and then rebuilt. Here once (1432) was one of the oldest sites in Europe.

Along with the Church of the Holy Savior at the beginning of the Square, the church and monastery of the Franciscans (Little Brothers) with its church and bell tower of 44 m stand out with its monumentality. This building was built in the 14th century in the Gothic style, and its portal from 1458 is the work of local classists Leonard and Petar Petrović. The bell tower was completed in the 15th century. A large earthquake significantly damaged this church, and during the renovation, Baroque spaces were installed instead of Gothic ones. In the background of the church there is a large monastery with a cloister built by Miha Brajkov from Bar. It was the oldest pharmacy in Europe.

At the place where the Square turns to the south, there is a city bell tower built in 1443 by the Dubrovnik builders Radončić, Grubešević and Utišenović. Due to the sagging of the embankment on which it was built, it began to lean, so in 1929 it was demolished and built in the old form.

On the small square next to the bell tower there is one of the most picturesque palaces in Dubrovnik, which has been called Sponza since ancient times, the meaning of this name has not been clarified. The building has significant artistic and historical value. Because of the styles in which it was built, it was considered to have been built over many years. Recent research has established that this Gothic-Renaissance building was built in 1516-1521. year on the model of the local master Paskoj Miličević, who was known for his work in the city port. The building has a porch on the ground floor with five pillars and six arches and in the courtyard there are eight side arches. The cluster works were performed by the Andrijić brothers (Builders of the Church of the Holy Savior). The building was intended for a customs house and later was a mint of state money. In the 17th century, it was the seat of "academic academies". During the 19th century, this monument was mutilated and neglected, but it was restored in several phases.

 

Opposite Sponzi, there was the church of Saint Blaise, built in the 14th century in the Romanesque style with rich decoration by Giovanni da Sima. This church survived the earthquake in 1667, but it burned to the ground in 1706, and then a baroque building (N. Gropeli) was erected on the same site in 1715. Only the statue of Saint Blaise survived the fire. The church also houses sculptures by the sculptor Lazanić from the 16th century.

Between this church and the Sponza Palace, there is Orlando's Pillar (1418), from when the orders of the Senate were proclaimed, and on which the flag of the Republic was on the solemn moments. Nearby is a small fountain in the Gothic style (1438).

Between the bell tower and the courtyard was the building of the Grand Council, which was built in 1344 and burned down in 1616, so a new municipal political building was erected in its place in 1682, which is still the seat of the People's Committee of the municipality. Under its roof there is also a city theater and on the ground floor there is a large city cafe.

In the group of monuments, the Rector's Palace ranks first in historical value. This work is in the style of Gothic and early Renaissance and was made by Onofrio de la Cava from Naples, Florentine Mikeloco Mikeloci and Yuri Dalmatinac and is the work of local builders and stonemasons from the 15th century. Today, the Rector's Palace has received its worthy purpose again, and a cultural-historical museum has been arranged in it, a scientific library is located on the ground floor, and concerts are held in the acoustic atrium.

The space in front of the courtyard ends with a massive table church with a raised dome. This cathedral, like other buildings, went through various stages of development. Several small churches were built in Dubrovnik, of which only ruins remain in the early 12th century. The construction of the new cathedral stood out significantly in terms of the construction of these churches with its splendor and significance. It was one of the most beautiful churches of its time. The altars and pillars were lined with marble. The old precious church was destroyed in an earthquake in 1667, so a baroque church was built in its place. The interior of this church is not like the old church. On the main altar there is a painting of "Our Lady's Success" by Titian or his disciple, and there are 6 more paintings by Italian masters. The guarded reliquary contains relics and valuables of saints' relics, among which the head of Saint Blaise in the form of a Byzantine crown stands out (12th century). Towards the front of the cathedral overlooks the bishop's palace which was not destroyed in the earthquake and has preserved its appearance.

Behind the palace there are two fields Bunićeva and Gundulićeva where there is a monument to Ivan Gundulić which is the work of Ivan Rendić.

A wide baroque staircase from 1735 leads from Gundulićeva poljana, which leads to the third small field named after Ruđer Bošković. earthquakes in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

Two parallel streets run parallel to the Square: Prijeko on the north side, and Puča Street on the south side.

Adjacent cross streets lead to a 16th century building called "Rupe" which housed a grain warehouse.

Entering from the suburbs of Ploče, you cross a wooden bridge over which is the Revelin Fortress. This way you enter the area of ​​the city port. In this area there is a church and a monastery of the Dominicans (White Friars). Construction began in 1304 and lasted until the 15th century. This church, whose interior is simple, has a picture of great historical value. The courtyard of the monastery is surrounded by arcades and pillars on which the terrace rests. The cloister was built by local master stonemasons Utišenović and Grubač, and according to the designs of the Florentine master Maso di Bartolomeo.

Next to the Dominican church and above the old workshops of Dubrovnik stonemasons is the church of St. Sebastian from 1466, which was turned into a prison and then a warehouse in the 19th century. Near the door from Ploče, the Church of the Annunciation was also built in the Gothic-Renaissance style, which was also built by local masters Andrijići.

A special place in Dubrovnik is occupied by the magical little island of Lokrum. Already in the 11th century, there were Benedictines here and parts of the church that was demolished are still preserved.

There is a well-known legend about the English King Richard the Lionheart, when a storm allegedly hit him on his way back from the Third Crusade and threw him out on this island. According to the vow, he was supposed to build a church on the place where he was saved, so a rich gift for the construction of the cathedral in Dubrovnik is attributed to that.