Lastovo is an island in the Croatian part of the Adriatic Sea. It
is located 14 km south of the island of Korcula (divided by the
Lastovo Channel), southwest of the Peljesac peninsula and the island
of Mljet, east of the island of Susac and southeast of the island of
Vis. It covers 40.82 km² with 791 inhabitants (2011). It stretches
in the east-west direction, is 9.8 km long, up to 5.8 km wide and
417 m high (Hum). The coast is 49.0 km long. The divorce rate is
2.2. The most indented part of Lastovo is its western and
northwestern coast. The island is surrounded by 46 islets and
Administratively, it belongs to the Dubrovnik-Neretva County. The largest place on Lastovo is the eponymous settlement of Lastovo.
The island is famous for its Venetian architecture from the 15th and 16th centuries. A large number of churches are relatively small in size, which testifies to the long-standing Roman Catholic tradition of the island. The main cultural event is the Carnival, or carnival. The island relies heavily on its natural environment to attract tourists every season. In 2006, the Croatian government made the island and its archipelago a nature park.
Lastovo belongs to the group of South Dalmatian
islands, and the archipelago consists of the largest home island
Lastovo, and a number of islands, islets and reefs. The island is 99
km from Dubrovnik, 57 km from Vis, 31 km from Mljet, and is
separated from the nearest island of Korcula by the Lastovo Channel,
13 to 20 km wide.
The island is about 10 km long and 5.8 km wide. The area of the island is 41 km2.
There are 46 islets and cliffs around the island of Lastovo. The island of Lastovo itself is the largest island in the Lastovo archipelago, which branches to the northeast towards the islets of Lastovnjaci and Vrhovnjaci. The western islands are Prežba, Mrčara, Maslovnjak Veli, Maslovnjak Mali, Makarac, Vlašnik, Bratin, Pod Mrčaru, Rutvenjak Veli, Rutvenjak Mali, Crnac, Kopište, Pod Kopište, Bijelac; northeastern and eastern islands: Tajan Velji, Lastovnjaci or Donji školji archipelago (Aršenjak Veli, Arženak Mali, Soplun, Česvinica, Štomarina, Golubinjak Veli, Golubinjak Mali, Kručica, Petrovac, Za Barje, Lukovnjaci archipelago) and Vrhovnjaci archipelago (Sestrica Vela, Sestrica, Mala, Smokvica, Mukjenta or Pod Smokvicu, Vlasnik Gornji, Vlasnik Srednji and Glavat). Along the north coast lies the island of Zaklopatica, and along the south there are no islands.
The northwest and west coasts have the highest indentation. The indentation of the coast is large, so the total length of the coasts of islands, islets and reefs is 115.9 km (island of Lastovo 46.4 km, archipelago Donji Školji and Vrhovnjaci 22.3 km, islands Prežba 12.9 km, Mrčara and surrounding islands 12 , 9 km, Kopište and surrounding islands 7.7 km, and the island of Sušac 13.7 km).
Along with Mljet, Lastovo is the most forested Croatian island with more than 70% of forested area. In 2007, Lastovo was declared a Nature Park.
It was built of Lower Cretaceous limestone, dolomite, Pleistocene conglomerates and breccias. There is a cave on the island (Rača et al.). Numerous fields (Prgovo, Vinopolje, etc.) were formed by tectonic-karst processes. They are filled with soil formed by the decomposition of carbonate rocks and the deposition of Pleistocene Aeolian sediments.
The highest elevations are Veli Hum (417 m) and Mali Hum in the central part of the island, Prehodišće, Maslina and Prežba in the western part, Veliki Pjevor and Sozanj in the northern part, Glavica, Velji Vrh, Sveti Vid, Stijene and Nori Hum in the eastern part, and a series of hills - hills to the south with heights above 300 m and 400 m that make up the limestone ridge Pleševo and Debelo brdo. Of the forty fields of various sizes, most extend up to 100 m above sea level. In addition to the largest wine field in the west and Prgovo field in the eastern part of the island, Nižno polje, Dubrava, Hrastove, Ždrijelo, Pržina and others also stand out with their size.
The island of Lastovo belongs to the Adriatic type of
Mediterranean climate, which is characterized by mild, humid and
rainy winters, and hot and dry summers. Microclimatic conditions in
relation to neighboring areas, in which maritimeness is expressed,
are manifested through:
lower summer temperatures
smaller annual temperature amplitude
partly cloudy and
higher relative humidity.
Due to the distance from the mainland, the southernmost position of all major Adriatic islands and the influence of the sea, Lastovo has mitigated extreme summer heat and winter cold. The average annual air temperature is 15.5 C (22.8 ° C in summer, 9.2 ° C in winter) and the annual temperature amplitude is 15.3 ° C. Compared to the neighboring coastal area, Lastovo has a smaller number of cold, warm and hot days, and the largest number of days with warm nights.
Lastovo belongs to the sunniest areas of the Adriatic coast with 2761 hours of insolation per year (average 7.3 hours per day). The relatively small number of cloudy days (77) is also due to the distance from the coastal belt.
Lastovo is often exposed to summer droughts that characterize this type of climate. Dry and warm summers allow for a long bathing season, however, which sometimes lasts from mid-May to late October. Relatively low relief height and exposure to the open sea cause the island to receive the least amount of precipitation in our coast (622 mm / year). Lack of rain is especially felt in the summer half of the year (spring 149 mm; summer 50 mm) but summer droughts are not so pronounced due to high percentage (70%) of relative humidity. Due to the high relative humidity, the share of the average number of days with fog and frost is higher. Hail rarely falls, and due to the mild climate there is a negligible number of days with snow that almost never stays on the ground.
Due to the protrusion of the island towards the open sea, there is a small share of strong (35 days / year) and stormy (2.5 days / year) winds. Silences occur with an average of about 130 days a year.
Of the local winds, the most common is the jugo (SE). It brings
warm and rainy weather, it occurs throughout the year, but more
often during autumn and winter. In terms of frequency, the bora (NE)
and tramuntana (NW) come behind the south, dry and cold winds that
blow the most in the winter, bringing a relatively cold, dry and
clear type of weather. Levanat (E) brings rainy, cool and gloomy
weather during winter and early spring. Lebic (SW and W) and sharp
(S) occur less frequently, usually after the south, bringing showers
Of the periodic winds, the most pronounced is the mistral, a daily wind that blows in the summer and brings a clear and dry type of weather. Burin, a counterpart to the mistral, blows at night from the land to the sea and comes to the fore only in larger bays.
The island of Lastovo has been permanently inhabited for several thousand years. The first known inhabitants were the Illyrians, and in antiquity it was colonized first by the Greeks, who called it Ladesta, and then by the Romans. Archaeological finds from the ancient Roman period and the early Middle Ages have been found in Ublima Bay (on the southwest coast).
As with the other Adriatic islands, in the case of Lastovo, the power over the island often changed. After the Greeks and the Roman Empire, the island was ruled by the Byzantines. With the arrival of Croats on the Adriatic coast, the island is occasionally located within the Kingdom of Croatia, occasionally within the Venetian Republic. From the 13th century it became part of the Republic of Dubrovnik. In 1310, Lastovo received its first written regulation - the Lastovo Statute, which has all the features of the law. According to the Statute, the island is governed by a Council of 20 members who hold office from election to death. In 1486, the powers of the Council fell under the Parliament of the Republic, so that Lastovo lost much of its autonomy. The constant restriction of Lastovo's autonomy and high dues led to a short-lived uprising on Lastovo during 1602. At the invitation of the islanders, Venice occupied the island in 1603 and returned it to Dubrovnik in 1606. The next attempt at an uprising took place in 1652, but without success. Moreover, after these riots, Lastovo further lost its autonomy.
During the Turkish conquests, Lastovo was often the target of pirates from Ulcinj. In order to protect the island, the people of Lastovo introduced compulsory military service. Military service was abolished in the XVIII. century when pirates from Ulcinj changed their profession and became traders.
With the end of the Republic of Dubrovnik, at the beginning of the 19th century, Lastovo briefly entered the Illyrian province founded by the French. After the defeat of Napoleon, Lastovo, together with other parts of the former Republic of Dubrovnik, became part of the Habsburg Monarchy, from 1867 Austro-Hungary.
During the First World War, the Austro-Hungarian army formed a garrison on Glavica. There were soldiers in the fort who were mostly Manari with a temporary stay on Lastovo. The administration ordered an eclipse and banned church bells during the war. Towards the end of 1917, French planes bombed Lastovo, after which they landed in Lastovo in search of information. Soon Italian troops came to Lastovo and clashed with the captured French and treated them as prisoners of war. Although the French soldiers on Lastovo had the status of prisoners of war, the information about the end of the war was brought to Lastovo by a French plane that on November 4, 1918. threw information leaflets at Lastovo.
One week later, on November 11, 1918, the Italian army occupied Lastovo. Namely, Lastovo, like most of Dalmatia, was recognized as Italian territory in the Secret Treaty of London (1915). Italy based its request for the annexation of most of Dalmatia on the fact that groups of Italians lived in all parts of Dalmatia. But it was actually a reward for participating in the war on the side of the Entente. Yet, under the influence of US President Woodrow Wilson, who supported a national approach to demarcation, the idea of annexing all of Dalmatia to Italy was rejected. Due to the proposal of US President Woodrow Wilson, only Zadar (then called Zara), in which the Italians had a majority, belonged to Italy. However, the Rapallo Agreement of 1920 made an exception and ‘Lagosta’ belonged to Italy for strategic reasons. This exception was supported because Lastovo was inhabited by an Italian minority, and on the other hand, the annexation of Lastovo to Italy acted as a good compromise that would appease Italian passions.
After the beginning of fascism in Italy (1922), the policy of
Italianization of all ‘foreign’ parts began. As a result, Croatian
schools were closed and Italian became the only official language on
Lastovo. These changes were accompanied by a rise in living
standards on the island. Numerous public works have begun, and the
island’s population has reached its maximum of about 2,000
inhabitants. This sudden population growth was also encouraged by
the immigration of Italians from other Dalmatian cities who wanted
to live under Italian leadership.
When the Axis powers penetrated the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1941, it experienced a very rapid collapse. After that, a large part of Dalmatia was annexed to Italy and the rest of Croatia was annexed to the Independent State of Croatia. Shortly after the capitulation of Italy 08.09. In 1943, partisans led by Tito captured Lastovo and annexed it to Yugoslavia. After the war, Lastovo became part of the Socialist Republic of Croatia, one of the 6 republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. By 1953, the majority of Lastovo residents of Italian nationality had left Lastovo, interrupting the long-standing Italian presence on Lastovo. However, this period was also marked by the large emigration of Lastovo residents of Croatian nationality, primarily to Australia and America. In the Second World War, 26 people from Lastovo died in the ranks of partisans, to whom a monument was erected in the town of Lastovo.
During the second half of the 20th century, the then army of the SFRY, the JNA carried out the militarization of Lastovo: numerous military facilities were built on the island, movement on the island and arrival from the island were significantly limited and placed under strict control, a large number of military personnel settled. They were mostly Serbs, which significantly changed the ethnic structure of the sparsely populated island, from which a large number of domicile population emigrated over many decades, mainly due to the economic underdevelopment of Lastovo. In addition, the island was a restricted area for foreigners, so it was not possible to develop tourism, which was the main driver of development for other islands.
After Croatia declared independence in 1991, members of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) remained in Lastovo until 3:30 p.m. on May 31, 1992, when they left military bases in Lastovo. The aggression on Croatia ended in 1995, and Lastovo escaped much of the devastation that engulfed much of Croatia. Nevertheless, the depopulation of Lastovo continued from 1,205 in 1991 to 835 in 2001, and 798 in 2011.
On September 29, 2006, the Croatian Parliament passed the Law on the Proclamation of the Lastovo Islands Nature Park. Thus, the Lastovo archipelago became the eleventh nature park in Croatia. The protection will preserve its inherited landscape and cultural values, as well as biological and landscape diversity, which includes the associated sea and submarine.