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Saint-Germain-en-Laye

 

Saint-Germain-en-Laye is a French commune located 19 km west of Paris in the Yvelines department in the Île-de-France region.

Since January 1, 2019, it has had the status of a new municipality following the absorption on that date of the municipality of Fourqueux.

The history of the city of Saint-Germain-en-Laye has long been linked to the presence of the castle, which was a regular residence of the kings of France whose importance nevertheless diminished following the installation of Louis XIV in Versailles. , and in the forest, a former royal hunting area. At the start of the 21st century, it was the seat of a sub-prefecture of Yvelines and had become a sought-after residential town with a marked international character.

Its inhabitants are called the Saint-Germanois or Saint-Germanoise. It is the 150th most populous city in mainland France.

Saint-Germain-en-Laye is famous for its castles (Château-Vieux, remains of Château-Neuf, Château d'Hennemont), its terrace, its forest, its schools, its shops and its museums (National Archeology Museum, Priory museum, Claude-Debussy museum).

 

Geography

The commune of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, located in the western suburbs of Paris and in the northeast of the Yvelines department, is, with its national forest which gives it more than 4,800 hectares, the largest in the department ( the third in Île-de-France after Fontainebleau and Paris). It occupies the major part of a loop of the Seine largely covered by the national forest of the same name. The historic site of the city is located in the south-eastern part of this territory, on the edge of a limestone plateau dominating the Seine of about 60 meters and from which the view extends over a large part of the west. Parisian.

The neighboring municipalities are Maisons-Laffitte to the north-east, Le Mesnil-le-Roi to the east, Le Pecq to the south-east, Mareil-Marly to the south, Chambourcy to the south-west, Poissy to the west and Achères in a crown from north-west to north-north-east.

The municipal territory extends over a plateau bounded sharply to the east, culminating at 90 meters at the site of the castle. The edge of the plateau, partially materialized by the Terrace, corresponds to the inter-municipal boundary separating Saint-Germain from Pecq, located below on the banks of the Seine. The plateau gradually descends to the west to 50 to 60 meters at the edge of Poissy and to the north to about 25 meters in the agricultural plain of Achères. Towards the south, it is deeply cut by the valley of the Ru de Buzot, partially taken by the RN 13 and crossed by viaduct by the line of the great belt, and climbs sharply to the limit of Mareil-Marly and Fourqueux up to an altitude of About 100 meters to Hennemont hill.

 

Transport and communication routes

Public transport
Communications with Paris are provided by the RER A line, of which Saint-Germain-en-Laye station is the western terminus. It crosses Paris via Le Vésinet, the University of Nanterre, the business center of La Défense, the Place de l'Étoile, the department stores, the Halles district, the Gare de Lyon, the Place de la Nation , then continue towards Torcy and Marne-la-Vallée - Chessy where Disneyland Paris is located. Thanks to an interconnection, the other branch of the RER can reach Boissy-Saint-Léger (94).

The town is also crossed from east to west, in the middle of the forest, by the Paris - Rouen - Le Havre line which serves the Achères - Grand Cormier passenger station as well as the Achères depot and the beams of the old yard of Achères. This line has two branches, one to the north in the direction of Pontoise and Cergy, the other to the south in the direction of Poissy-Grande-Ceinture station, disused since 1936.

Among these various land infrastructures, several are classified with regard to noise pollution from land transport infrastructures. This is particularly the case of the A14 motorway (classified in category 1, the highest, but the real impact is relatively limited for residents, this motorway being underground for most of its route in the town), the N184 and N13 national roads (category 2) as well as the Paris-Rouen rail line (category 1) 7.8. The RN13 is isolated by continuous noise barriers in the valley of the Ru de Buzot.

RER
The line from Paris to Saint-Germain-en-Laye, inaugurated in 1837, is the oldest railway line open to travelers in France.

Until 1838, the city was served by stagecoaches ("pataches") which took charge of travelers arriving at the Pecq station (at the foot of the Pecq bridge on the right bank), terminus of the Saint-Lazare-Le line. Pecq, because trains cannot cross the height difference between Le Pecq and the Terrasse de Saint-Germain.

In 1838, the construction of a second track with a railway bridge and the creation of a so-called "atmospheric" train (abandoned in 1858) allowed the line to be extended to Saint-Germain-en-Laye.

Inaugurated in 1972, line (A) is operated by RATP. It allows you to reach the center of the capital (Châtelet - Les Halles station) in 30 minutes, from Saint-Germain-en-Laye station, of which it is the terminus, via La Défense (17 min), with a frequency as high as that of a metro line. This line succeeds the Paris - Saint-Germain-en-Laye line, including the Paris - Le Pecq section.

West Express Tram
Partially reopened in 2004, the line of the Great Western Belt is little used because it constitutes an isolated section, the connection to the Saint-Lazare station in Saint-Nom-la Bretèche providing few advantages to travelers. In the coming years, this section will be transformed into a tram-train line, the Tram Express Ouest. This line from suburb to suburb, without passing through intramural Paris, will be extended north through Poissy to Achères-Ville station, in correspondence with RER A and Transilien L, and south to the station of Saint-Cyr, in correspondence with the RER C, the Transilien N and the Transilien U. It is also envisaged that a branch connects the station of Grande Ceinture to the station of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in the center -city.

Bus
Urban network
The town of Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by the Résalys urban bus network operated by Transdev Montesson Les Rabaux.

Since August 30, 2009, it has included 5 bus lines, 2 of which are circular lines. As of August 31, 2015, a sixth line will be added to the off-peak network, line R6.

(BUS) Résalys R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Long distance network
The municipality of Saint-Germain-en-Laye is served by many bus lines allowing to go to many municipalities and important poles of the department such as Cergy, Conflans-Sainte-Honorine, Mantes-la-Jolie, Poissy, Versailles . The N153 bus line of the Noctilien network provides access to Paris-Saint-Lazare station with one departure per hour in each direction of traffic from 12:30 am to 6:30 am.

(BUS) RATP 259
(BUS) Seine bus 7SG
(BUS) Coaches Tourneux 3 26
(BUS) CSO 14 21 23 24 27
(BUS) Transdev Conflans 2 4 Express 27
(BUS) Transdev Ecquevilly 14 511 512
(BUS) TMLB? 1 54
(BUS) TMLR? Express 1 10 15
(BUS) Right Bank 22
(N) N153

 

Road infrastructure
Road access to Saint-Germain-en-Laye and traffic in the city are quite difficult due to congestion, especially on weekdays at rush hour, of the network made up of narrow and very old streets. Car parks have been set up in the city center, in particular the underground park of the castle and that of the Place du Marché-Neuf (commissioned in 2007).

The town is served by two national roads, the RN 13, oriented east-west, taking a four-lane diversion to the south of the city, which connects it to Paris on the one hand and to Mantes-la-Jolie on the other hand. , and the RN 184, oriented north-south, which links Saint-Germain-en-Laye to Conflans-Sainte-Honorine and Cergy-Pontoise by crossing the forest of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. These two axes intersect at an uneven crossroads at Bel-Air.

To relieve congestion on the RN 13, a new interchange on the A14 motorway at Chambourcy was put into service in April 2009. It is accompanied by the upgrading of 2 × 2 lanes of the RN 13 between Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Le Bel -Air) and the new exchanger.

The nearest highways are respectively the A 13 accessible by the Orgeval interchange located approximately eight kilometers west of the city and the A 14 accessible by the Chambourcy interchange located approximately one kilometer away. 'Where is. The A 14 motorway crosses the town entirely by an underground, located under the forest to the north of the town, the interchange initially planned in the forest having been removed by decision of President François Mitterrand.

The route chosen for the looping of the Francilienne west of Paris slightly undermines the municipal territory on its northern edge but avoids crossing the forest.

Several departmental roads connect Saint-Germain-en-Laye to neighboring municipalities. Those are :

the RD 308 which links Maisons-Laffitte to Poissy crossing the forest in an east-west direction and which crosses the RN 184 at the crossroads of the Croix de Noailles;
RD 157 which links it to Mesnil-le-Roi and Maisons-Laffitte to the north-east;
the RD 190, crossing the city center, which links it to Pecq to the west and to Poissy to the east;
the RD 98 which links it to Saint-Nom-la-Bretèche and Les Clayes-sous-Bois to the south.
Some of these departmental roads are exclusively Saint-German: this is the case of the RD 284 which connects the crossroads of Loges (RN 184 to the north) to the interchange with the RN 13 to the south of the town and the RD 99 which connects this interchange with the RN 13 at the entrance to Mareil-Marly.