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House of the Faun

House of the Faun Pompeii

 

 

Location: Regio VI

Insula 12

 

 

 

Дом Фавна (Помпеи)  Дом Фавна (Помпеи)

House of the Faun (Italian: Casa del Fauno) is a large residence in Pompeii that was constructed on a site of an older dwelling that dated back to the 3rd century BC. The House of the Faun is named after a small bronze statue of a faun, which stands in the center of a small pool in the center of the house. Fauns are spirits of a wild forest, which the literate and Hellenized Romans often associated with Pan and Greek satyrs. Sometimes they were identified with the wild followers of the Greek god of wine and agriculture of Dionysus. This is a purely decorative sculpture of high order, the pose is easy and elegant with the general sense of movement.

 

 In the House of Faun is famous for its mosaic depicting the battle of Issus in 333 BC between the Macedonian forces of Alexander the Great and the Persian army under the command of Darius III of Persia. This mosaic could have been inspired or copied from a Greek painting made at the end of the fourth century BC, probably by the artist Philoxenes of Eretria. Unlike most of the Pompeian mosaic of the end of the second and first centuries, the mosaic in the House of Faun is made of tessera, and not the more common opus of signum or other types of stone chips broken in a mortar.

 

 

 

 

Дом Фавна Помпеи  Дом Фавна Помпеи

House of the Faun is one of the most luxurious aristocratic houses from the Roman Republic and reflects this period better than most archaeological evidence found even in Rome itself. The house itself, as it is easy to understand, was built from the connection of two houses. Many details of the architecture are duplicated here as they used to belong to two different houses, built apparently in the second century BC. The new owner only broke the walls, creating a single mansion. Presumably, the house of Faun was built for Publius Sulla, the nephew of the conqueror of the city, put at the head of Pompeii.

Immediately at the entrance you can see the Latin inscription "Have" or Ave, that is, hello. From here you can get to the Etruscan (Tuscan) atrium with central impluvium, a shallow pool for collecting rainwater. The small decorative pool is decorated with rich geometric inlay of multicolored marble and a bronze statuette of the dancing Faun. This statue became the reason for the name of this house. The fauns are the spirits of the untamed forest, which the literate and Hellenized Romans often identified with the Greek god Pan and the Greek satyrs.

House of the Faun is undoubtedly one of the most luxurious houses of its time and perhaps the most beautiful in the whole city of Pompeii. Apparently the earthquake that accompanied the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius severely damaged the building and many walls collapsed. Nevertheless, the lower levels retained beautiful frescoes and mosaics on the floor of the house. Of course, the mosaic that archaeologists found in the triclinium, that is, the office of the owner of the house, deserves special attention.

Alexander's mosaic is complemented by other mosaics on the floor with nilotic scenes and theatrical masks. Other famous works of art from the House of Faun include the erotic figure of Satire, Nymph and fish and more. The original of this mosaic is today kept in the National Archaeological Museum in Naples.

 

Дом Фавна Помпеи  Дом Фавна Помпеи

Archaeological excavations were carried out in the House of Faun in 1830 by the German Institute, although they ended only in the 20th century with a series of archaeological expeditions from all over the world. Archaeologists have discovered an inscription bearing the symbol of the Saturnin family. Also found here is a ring with the symbol of the Cassia family. Apparently someone from the Cassia family was married to a man from the Saturnin family and lived in this luxurious house during the eruption.

 

Дом Фавна Помпеи  Дом Фавна Помпеи