so-called Basilica is a large political and possibly commercial
building, which was found 250 years ago. However, to this day, most
of the Basilica is hidden underground, so it is difficult for
archaeologists to identify its purpose. The building is located on
Decumus Maximus Street on the corner of Insula VII, directly
opposite the College of Augustals through Cardo III Street.
Already 250 years after its discovery, the true purpose of the Basilica is still largely unexplained. The first diggers who first examined it were called the "basilica". But historians at different times called this building a “temple,” “a forum,” and even “Palestra.” It may well have been just a building dedicated to the Imperial cult, but if this conjecture is correct, then it really was a significant religious building. Although the building of the Basilica is still almost completely buried under the layers of the eruption. The lack of money does not allow the excavation of the Basilica of Herculaneum and a thorough study of the building. We have small excavated sites for study and several statues looted by early diggers.
"Basilica" has a size of 68 meters by 40 meters. The building was built around the central square (j). The colonnade surrounded the open area on three sides and supported the porticoes (b). Bronze and marble statues in niches in the walls stood.
The columns of the portico were made of brick, covered with plaster. The interior of the portico is decorated in the fourth style, with scenes of lions and dolphins, as well as scenes of heroic battles.
Bronze statues of Emperor Augustus (reigned from January 16, 27 B.C. - August 19, 14) to the left and Emperor Tiberius (reigned September 18, 14- March 16, 27) to the right. Stood at g and h
Marble statues of Emperor Claudius on the left and Emperor Titus (ruled from June 23, 79 to September 13, 81) to the right. They stood at the positions e, d, f. By the way, it was Emperor Titus who ruled at the time of the eruption. But he personally visited area of Herculaneum and Pompeii and a number of settlements around the Gulf of Naples twice in 79 and 80 years. The young emperor was shocked by what he saw. He personally gave large amounts to refugees in order to cover their costs.