Amderma - a settlement (in 1936–2004 - an
urban-type settlement) in the Nenets Autonomous District. Located in the border zone, Amderma is the
administrative-territorial unit (village) and the municipality
(rural settlement Amderma settlement as the only settlement in its
composition) in the Polar region.
The name of the settlement
in translation from Nenets means “rookery of walruses”.
Founded in 1933, the settlement of Amderma, in 1936 received the
status of an urban-type settlement. In December 2004, due to the
possibility for the village residents to have privileges granted to
rural residents, Amderma was assigned to rural settlements
(townships), and within the framework of the municipal structure, it
was given the status of a rural settlement. The administrative
center and the only settlement in the municipality is the settlement
The settlement of Amderma is located on the coast
of the Kara Sea, east of the Yugorsky Shar strait on the Yugorsky
Peninsula. The distance to the district center, Naryan-Mar, is 420
km. The nearest train station is 270 km away in the city of Vorkuta.
The settlement is located beyond the Arctic Circle in the
European part of Russia. The polar day lasts from May 20 to July 30,
the polar night - from November 27 to January 16. Not far from the
village flows the river Amderma.
Climate The climate is arctic, winter is slightly mitigated by
the Kara Sea, at the same time frosts below −40 ° C are possible,
often the village is reached by Atlantic air masses that bring thaws
in winter. Summer is cool, heat rarely occurs, winter lasts on
average from late September - early October to early - mid May.
The village was founded in July 1933 in connection with the start
of the construction of a mine for the production of fluorspar
(fluorite), the field of which was discovered in 1932 by the
geological exploration batch P. A. Shrubko. The organizer of the
construction of the settlement and mine for the production of
fluorspar was mining engineer E. S. Livanov. The extraction of
fluorite (raw materials for metallurgy, optics, and the ceramic
industry) at the Amderma mine allowed the USSR to abandon import
In 1936, the village was given the status of a
working village. After the end of World War II, when other deposits
of fluorspar, which were more profitable in production, were
explored, the Amderma mine was closed. However, the village
continued to develop as a base for the development of the Arctic.
From 1940 to 1959, the Amderma District existed.
28, 1956, the 72nd Guards Polotsky Order of Suvorov, 3rd class,
fighter aviation regiment, which performed the tasks of air defense,
which organizationally was part of the 4th Air Defense Division of
the 10th Arkhangelsk Separate Air Defense Army, was based at the
airport located near the village. The regiment was withdrawn from
the village on October 25, 1993 to Savvatiya (Kotlas, Arkhangelsk
In 1969, 2.9 thousand people lived in the village.
The maximum number of residents lived in the village in the 1980s:
according to the 1989 census, the population of the village was 5.1
In the 1980s, fluorite production was
resumed, but not for long. In the 1990s, the prospect of gravel
extraction was considered, which was not realized due to
In 1995, a comprehensive permafrost
laboratory was closed, and in 1998, the Torgmortrans office.
Amderma's population declined sharply in the 1990s due to the
departure of residents. In 1998, 1.9 thousand inhabitants were
registered. And according to the 2002 census, only 650 people
remained in the village. In 2011, there were 556 people.
the future, Amderma is considered as a basis for the development of
oil and gas fields in the northern part of the Timan-Pechora oil and