Ermak Travel Guide

 

Izhevsk

Ижевск

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Hotels, motels and where to sleep

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Description of Izhevsk

Izhevsk is the 20th largest city in the Russian Federation, a large administrative, industrial, commercial, scientific, educational and cultural center of the Volga region and the Urals, the capital of the Udmurt Republic. Forms the urban district of the city of Izhevsk.

Izhevsk is famous defense and engineering industries. He bears the unofficial title of the “arms capital” of the Russian Federation, and the title of the city of labor glory. In 2010, Izhevsk won the 3rd place in the Rosstroy contest “The most comfortable city of Russia” in the I category.

 

 

 

History of Izhevsk

Pioneer settlements
The pioneer settlements on the territory where modern Izhevsk now stands were founded by Udmurts in the 5th century. There were two fortified settlements situated on the banks of the Karlutka River. Later, this territory joined the Khanate of Kazan. In 1552, Russia conquered the Khanate and, in 1582, Ivan the Terrible conferred the lands by the Karlutka and Izh Rivers on Bagish Yaushev, a Tatar morza. The quit-rent had been imposed on the Udmurt population ever since. The Yaushevs owned the land until the reign of Peter the Great.

Ironworks construction
On September 15, 1757, Count Pyotr Shuvalov, owner of seven factories in the Urals, bought land in the Kama Region and got permission from Empress Elizabeth to build three ironworks there. In those days, ironworks were powered with steam, and wood was the only heat energy source. For that reason it was decided to build one of the plants on the forest-rich land near the Izh River and make iron bands and anchors of cast iron here. Another ironworks was built on the Votka River.

In April 10, 1760, serfs from neighboring villages and artisans from other Shuvalov's plants began dam construction under the direction of Alexey Moskvin, a mining engineer and a trustee of Shuvalov. This date is considered to be Izhevsk's foundation date. Construction proceeded at a slow pace. The serfs were unhappy with being taken from their villages, with arduous duties and regular physical punishment. As a consequence, rebellions were often excited.

In 1762, Shuvalov died. The factories went to his son Andrey. In accordance with the ukase of Catherine the Great dated November 15, 1763, all Shuvalov's ironworks including one in Izhevsky Zavod lapsed to the Crown for debts. Since that time, it has been under the authority of the Collegium of Mining, an institution in charge of the mining industry in Russia. The ironworks on the Izh and Votka Rivers were called Kama Plants.

In 1763, construction of the dam and ironworks was completed and the first bloomery iron was smelted. As a result of the dam construction, one of the biggest reservoirs in Europe was formed. Near the ironworks, the settlement was built. This settlement was named Izhevsky Zavod, meaning "the plant on the Izh" in Russian.

First time, the ironworks made palm-wide iron bands from three to six meters long. These bands were supplied to Moscow for the Kremlin renewal. The iron from Izhevsky Zavod was used for construction in St. Petersburg.

Pugachev's Rebellion
In October 1773, the news of the popular revolt against Catherine II on the Yaik and the manifestos of Yemelyan Pugachev reached Izhevsky Zavod. The Cossak passing himself off as Peter III proclaimed liberty for serfs and called for killing nobles and factory owners. This had the backing of the serfs and artisans. So Colonel Feodor Wenzel, the manager of the Goroblagodat and Kama plants, and Aleksey Alymov, the manager of Izhevsky Zavod ironworks, were forced to escape to Kazan.

On January 1, 1774, a detachment of the Yemelyan Pugachev's rebel army came into the town. The rebels destroyed the ironworks, burned its office buildings, and wrecked the houses of the managers. They demolished the food depot and distributed the food to the people. The ironworks money was sent to the staff of the rebel army, near Ufa. The serfs were freed. Some of them joined the detachment. Iron production stopped for a while. In April 1774, Pugachev's army fought losing battles everywhere and was forced to leave Izhevsky Zavod. The managers returned and cowed serfs and artisans into submission, forcing them to pledge allegiance to Catherine the Great. A list of workers who had joined the rebel army was compiled for future reprisal.

In spite of opposition from the forces of Wenzel and Alymov Brothers, Pugachev's army occupied the town again on June 27, 1774. The crowds hailed Yemelyan Pugachev. He dealt with the complaints of serfs and workers for two days. Forty-two persons, including Wenzel and Alymovs, were executed. On June 29, Pugachev left Izhevsky Zavod and set out for Kazan. Many workmen of Izhevsky Zavod joined his detachments and fought selflessly in last battles of the Rebellion, which was mostly crushed by early September 1775. In spite of defeat of the rebel army and execution of its leader, separate bands of rebels continued resistance. New managers of the ironworks suppressed serfs and brought back artisans by force, cracking down on the bands of rebels.

The ironworks was restored and began to function by the end of 1775. The former order was reinstated. The forced laborers weren't interested in boosting productivity and the practice fell into decay by the 19th century.

 

Arms factory foundation
In 1800, Emperor Paul I ordered an arms factory built in the Urals in view of a mounting threat from Napoleonic France. Andrew Deryabin, a mining engineer, chief of Goroblagodat, Perm, Kama and Bogoslov plants, chose the site for the new plant. He saw several places in the Perm and Vyatka governorates and concluded that the most suitable place for plant foundation was Izh Zavod. It occurred to him to turn the ironworks into the armory.

Alexander I approved of Deryabin's project and construction began on the arms factory building on June 10, 1807, considered the year of Izhevsk's second birth.

 

 

 

 


 

Transportation

 

 

Hotels, motels and where to sleep

 

 

Restaurant, taverns and where to eat

 

 

Cultural (and not so cultural) events

 

 

Interesting information and useful tips