Kashin, Russia

Kashin is a city (since 1238) in Russia, the administrative center of the Kashinsky district (urban district) of the Tver region. One of the oldest cities in the Tver region. Population - 13,757 people. (2020).

The city is located on the banks of the Kashinka River (left tributary of the Volga), in the southeast of the region, 150 km from Tver, 180 km from Moscow, not far from the border with the Yaroslavl region.

The railway station on the Savyolovo - Sonkovo ​​branch, the Kashin - Kalyazin, Kashin - Kushalino - Tver, Kashin - Kesova Gora - Bezhetsk highways.

Kashin is the only resort town in the Tver region. The sanatorium near the springs of medicinal and table mineral water, located right in the city, was opened at the end of the 19th century. There are several mineral water bottling enterprises in the city.

Kashin is called “the city of the Russian heart” because the Kashinka river, meandering through the city (in total, it makes six bends within it), forms an exact silhouette of the heart.



The ensemble of the Kashin Kremlin with the remains of a rampart and posads, surrounded by the Kashinka River. On the territory of the peninsula there are shopping arcades, merchant houses, a central square with monuments.
Kashin resort with a picturesque valley of the Kashinka tributary of the Maslyatka river, a beautiful pump room. In total, the sanatorium has eight sources of a wide variety of mineral water. A pump room with three types of water (No. 12, No. 18 and No. 21) is open to everyone.
Embankment of the Kashinka River with wooden pedestrian bridges.
Kashinsky Museum of Local Lore. Located in the building of the Church of the Entry into Jerusalem.

Monasteries and temples
Klobukov (founded in the middle of the 14th century, active).
Dmitrovsky (mentioned in 1521, in ruins).
Sretensky (founded at the beginning of the 15th century, in ruins).

As of 2022, the following temples have been preserved in Kashin:
Resurrection Cathedral. In 2009 it was transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church. Before that, it housed the House of Culture. Services are held in the Nikolo-Vasilievsky chapel (bell tower). The rest of the temple is undergoing restoration. In 2009, a monument to Anna Kashinskaya was unveiled in front of the cathedral. With a high 76-meter bell tower, decorated with a clock (1867).
Ascension Cathedral - recently restored, in 1993 the relics of St. Anna Kashinskaya. Currently it is a cathedral.
Ilyinsko-Preobrazhenskaya (1778) is an elegant church on a high, steep bank of the river. Restored, but without a bell tower.
Nativity of Christ on the mountain (1786) - located next to Ilyinsko-Preobrazhenskaya. Operating, restored without a bell tower.
Church of the Cross (1784) - located next to the sanatorium, on the other side of the Maslyatka valley. A functioning temple.
Church of Peter and Paul (1782).
Church of Florus and Laurus (1751). Closed during the Khrushchev campaign. Recovering.
Sretensky Church of the former Sretensky Convent. Near the temple in 1998, the grave of St., revered by local residents, was found and restored. schema-nun Dorothea.
Trinity Cathedral of Klobukov St. Nicholas Monastery (with the chapel of St. Nicholas). Beheaded, but preserved quite well. As of 2022, it is being restored.
Church of the Intercession of the Klobukov Monastery. The first of the restored churches of the city in the era of modern Russia (1995, it was again restored (and almost completely) in 2007).
Church of Alexy, Metropolitan of the Moscow Klobukov Monastery. The current one has been restored.
The Church of Peter and Paul is used as a courtyard of the Klobukov Monastery. The church never closed. Its most spectacular view opens from Komsomolskaya Street. Known for its inclined spire.
Dmitrov Passion Cathedral of the former Dmitrov Monastery. Beheaded, not restored. An approximate copy of this cathedral can be seen in Nizhny Novgorod (Alexandro-Nevsky New Fair Cathedral on Strelka).

Church of Elijah the Prophet in Kashin
Spasskaya Church. The church has been beheaded and is being restored.
Church of the Entrance to Jerusalem (1789). Does not work. The building houses a local history museum.
Kazan (Vlasyevskaya) church with a 2-tier bell tower. The upper tier was dismantled in 1967. The rest of the temple was dismantled and converted into a fire station.
Church of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary on Chistye Prudy. The bell and dome were destroyed during Soviet times. It was used as a shoe-felling workshop. In 2012-2013 it was converted into a mini-hotel and cinema hall.
Makaryevskaya Chapel. A functioning chapel, erected on the site of the cell of St. Macarius of Kalyazin.
The wooden church of Saints Joachim and Anna (mid-17th century), which was one of the pearls of the city, burned down in March 1995 as a result of “unintentional arson.”


How to get there

By train
From Moscow: from the Belorussky railway station by train No. 602Ya Moscow - Rybinsk.
From St. Petersburg: by train No. 607A St. Petersburg - Uglich.

By car
Highways connect Kashin with Kalyazin, Tver and Bezhetsk. Moscow - Sergiev Posad - Kalyazin - Kashin - the optimal route to Kashin by car.

By bus
From Moscow from Savelovsky station on the right side of the entrance at 8:00, 11:30, 14:00, 18:00.



Table mineral waters “Kashinskaya” and “Anna Kashinskaya”.
Products of the Kashin distillery "Veresk" - vodka, liqueurs, balsam.
The products of Era OJSC are confectionery and pastille products, as well as souvenir gingerbread cookies.



As for nutrition, the best option is to buy simple food in stores. Of course, there are cafes, restaurants, etc. in the city, but since there are few visitors, these establishments do not focus on them. Those who settled in the Kashin sanatorium do not need to think about food - a boarding house.



Hotel "Rus", Karl Marx Street, building 16 (a large 5-storey building in the style of the 70s of the 20th century. When entering from Moscow, it is impossible to drive past (on the right, in front of the bridge over Kashinka). Rooms are of acceptable quality, with amenities .

Average cost
There are 2-3 more small hotels for 2013. Information about them is awaited. You can try using the Kashin sanatorium as a hotel. By agreement with the administration and availability of available places, short-term accommodation is possible, even for a day. The positive aspects are the boarding house, cleanliness and order, location almost in the city center. Prices are moderate.


Security questions

Terrible roads in the city and surrounding areas. Be prepared, especially after a fairly bearable journey from Moscow. A considerable number of one-way streets. It is recommended to keep a distance in front of the car in front! On weekends, the market (central) square is closed to traffic. The population of the city is mostly friendly, there are no or only a small number of migrants from the south.



Cellular communications from all operators in the city are stable.



The name Kashin was formed from the personal name Kasha, which was repeatedly attested in Old Russian anthroponymy, or directly from the word porridge “a special treat associated with a wedding ceremony; a feast at the newlyweds' house after the wedding. There is an assumption that the name of the city, like the river Kashinka, is of Finno-Ugric origin. The exact date of the foundation of the city is unknown. The first mention of the city dates back to 1238: in the Nikon Chronicle, Kashin is mentioned among the cities devastated by the Mongols. The second mention refers to 1287, when the Grand Duke of Vladimir Dmitry Alexandrovich and his allies in a campaign against Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tverskoy besieged Kashin for nine days.

A number of historians, following D.A.Korsakov (who, in turn, relied on the research of contemporary Yaroslavl ethnographers) believed that in the 13th century Kashin was part of the Uglitsky principality, but this opinion is erroneous.

In reality, the Kashin lands (including Ksnyatin) in 1212-1238 were part of the Pereyaslavl-Zalessky principality, and then - after the Pereyaslavl-Zalessky principality Yaroslav Vsevolodovich received the Vladimir grand reign (1238) - went to the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. When the Tver principality was formed in 1247, Kashin and the lands stretching to it became part of it.

During the period of proprietary indivisibility of the Tver principality, Kashin was the main city of the northeastern lands of the Tver "country" - with its "husbands" (serving nobility) and its "regiment" (military militia). The city was strongly fortified, and the position of the city contributed to its inaccessibility: Kashinka skirted it from all sides, and it stood as if on a peninsula. Access to the city was only from the side of a narrow isthmus between the bends of the river, through which a deep ditch was dug, fortified by a rampart with a tynom and a palisade.

Specific period
The center of the appanage principality of Kashin became in 1319, when, in accordance with the spiritual charter of the Tver prince Mikhail Yaroslavich, who was killed in 1318 in the Horde by order of the Khan Uzbek, the territory of the Tver principality was divided between his sons: Tver with the adjacent volosts was allocated to the eldest son Dmitry , southwestern regions with the center in Zubtsov - Alexandru, southern regions (Klin with volosts) - Konstantin; and the northeastern regions (Kashin with volosts) received the youngest of the sons - Vasily Mikhailovich. Vasily, who at one time (in 1349-1365) also occupied the Tver grand-ducal table, founded the Assumption Monastery in the city in honor of his mother, later canonized Anna Kashinskaya.

In the XIV century, the city was more than once embroiled in strife between the Tver and Moscow princedoms, although the local princes tried to defend their independent position. In 1321 and 1328, the city was captured by the Moscow and Tatar detachments, who united in the fight against Tver. In 1375, after the defeat of Tver in the struggle with Moscow, Prince Vasily Mikhailovich II achieved the recognition of the Kashin principality as independent, independent from Tver. However, in 1382, Vasily died without leaving an heir, and Kashin again became the inheritance of the Tver Grand Duchy, and the Kashin table was successively occupied by the sons of the Tver Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich: Alexander Ordynets, Boris and Vasily (aka Vasily Mikhailovich III).

In 1400, the spiritual charter of Mikhail Alexandrovich, who died in 1399, assigned Kashin to Vasily Mikhailovich III. However, his relations with his brother, the Grand Duke of Tver Ivan Mikhailovich, were very tense, and he more than once expelled Vasily from Kashin (finally, in June 1412, when the Kashin prince was arrested, but managed to escape the convoy and flee to Moscow). After Vasily's death in 1426, the Kashinsky inheritance legally ceases to exist, and its lands are included in the number of Tver grand ducal possessions.

Despite the dependence on Tver, the city minted its own coin (pool), carried out chronicle work. The city gradually turned into a large trade center; Kashin merchants traded with near and far lands. The craft developed, especially the production of white paints. They also formed the basis of the original coat of arms of the city: in the upper part of it was depicted the Tver crown, and in the lower part - three white mortars (mortars were called small cones of dry lead white, the form in which this paint went on sale).

As part of the Russian state
In 1485, together with the entire Tver Grand Duchy, Kashin was annexed to Moscow, which caused a long extinction of Kashin as a commercial and industrial center.


In 1504, Kashin, among other lands, was allocated to the son of Ivan III, Yuri Ivanovich Dmitrovsky, and from that time was part of the Dmitrovsky appanage principality. Under Yuri Ivanovich, the first stone cathedral was erected in Kashin - the Resurrection (on the site of the modern cathedral), and in the Kalyazin Trinity Monastery, territorially related to Kashin, the stone Trinity Cathedral and the refectory chamber were erected. However, in 1534, Yuri Ivanovich was thrown into prison by the order of the ruler Elena Glinskaya (where he died two years later), and the Dmitrov estate was liquidated.

In 1565, after Tsar Ivan the Terrible divided the Russian state into oprichnina and zemstvo, the city became part of the latter. In the 17th century, the city experienced a series of disasters, in 1609 it was taken and plundered by the Poles, in 1654 an epidemic of plague hit the city, in 1676 Kashin burned down almost to the ground. However, the city quickly recovered its potential. Along with the production of some of the best paints in Russia, the city was famous for blacksmiths, potters and icon painters, as well as fairs.

New and modern times
The development of the city was greatly facilitated by the founding of St. Petersburg, the commissioning of the Vyshnevolotsk water system and the general development of the northern lands under Peter I. Kashin merchants extended their influence to the new capital: some of them received contracts to provide the Peter's army with weapons and provisions. The growing prosperity of merchants and artisans was reflected in the appearance of the city. By the end of the 18th century, there were already many stone houses and churches in the city.

In 1775, Kashin received - in connection with the establishment of the Kashin district - the status of a district town. During the Patriotic War of 1812, merchants fully provided the city's militia with weapons and food. At the same time, flax growing began to develop rapidly in Kashin and the region, bringing new profits to the city.

In 1867 the Resurrection Cathedral was built; with the money of the merchant Terlikov, a majestic bell tower was added to it, which is still the largest in the diocese. The merchant N.P. Cherenin founded a public library in Kashin, the merchants Manukhina - the first hospital, the merchant I. Ya. Kunkin - the local history museum. In 1898, a railway was opened, connecting Kashin with the capital - St. Petersburg. At the same time, stone trading rows were built (still performing their function), a resort was founded and the Alekseevsky real school was opened.

Kashin merchants were also known throughout the country for their piety and willingly donated money for the construction of churches. By the beginning of the 20th century, there were 21 churches in Kashin (2 of which were cemeteries) and 3 monasteries. The ecclesiastical importance of the city is emphasized by the fact that the Orthodox bishop of Tver historically bears (except for 1934-1941: Tver and Smolensk and 1941-1956: Tver and Velikoluksky) the title "Archbishop of Tver and Kashinsky."

By the end of the 19th century, Kashin experienced an economic recession: the vodka factory of the merchants Zyzykin (which had previously produced artificial grape "Kashin" wines) ceased to exist, and in 1892 only two small factories remained in the city - felt-felting and candle - with 22 workers. The population was 6952 in 1893; there were 1,120 houses in the city (mostly wooden).

On January 4 (17), 1918, Soviet power was established in Kashin. Over the next three decades, irreparable damage was caused to the historical heritage of Kashin. The city, which stood out on the Tver land with an abundance of churches of the 17th-18th centuries, soon turned into a faceless Soviet province. In particular, the communists demolished the Assumption Cathedral in 1664-72, the Church of the Annunciation (1688), the Nativity of the Virgin (1690), the Korsun Mother of God (1768), the Introduction (1781), the Intercession (1790s), St. Sergius of Radonezh (1803).

A wooden church of Joachim and Anna stood near the Dmitrov monastery above Kashinka from the middle of the 17th century. This is one of the oldest log buildings that have survived in central Russia. In 1968-71. the temple was restored, but on the night of March 20, 1995, it caught fire (perhaps it was deliberately set on fire) and died in the flames.

From 2005 to 2018, within the framework of the municipal district "Kashinsky district", the city of Kashin constituted in it the municipality of the same name with the status of an urban settlement as the only settlement in its composition. In April 2018, all rural and urban settlements that were part of the abolished Kashin district were transformed by uniting them into one single municipal entity - the Kashin urban district, the center of which is the city of Kashin.