Kamyshin, Russia



Kamyshin is a city of regional significance in the Volgograd region of Russia. The administrative center of the Kamyshin district (not part of the district), forms the urban district, the city of Kamyshin.



The territory of Kamyshin and the surrounding area has been inhabited by people since ancient times. For example, located in the northeast of Kamyshin, the archaeological site Urakov hillock is rich in finds dating back to 10.5 thousand years BC.

XVII-XVIII centuries
The territory on which the city of Kamyshin is now located has been repeatedly raided by the Nogais, Kuban and Crimean Tatars. A settlement of the Golden Horde is known at the site of Kamyshin. In 1580, the ataman Yermak Timofeevich went from these lands to the Kama, and then to conquer Siberia, crossing from the Ilovlya river to Kamyshinka. In 1667, Stepan Razin went to the Volga in the same way.

In 1668, Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich sent the archers to the mouth of the Kamyshinka. Under the leadership of the British engineer Colonel Beile, a fortress was erected on the left bank of the river to protect the Volga trade route and fight the insurgent Cossacks and peasants.

In 1670, the troops of Stepan Razin, who came from Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd), burned the fortress. But after a while, on the site of the destroyed settlement, the "lobby people" began to settle again. It was decided to reinforce the fortress with a guard garrison.

In 1692, Peter I gave the order to send a regiment of archers and free peasants to the mouth of Kamyshinka, and in 1693 his brother-in-law, Prince B.I.Kurakin, who was ordered to found a city on the left bank of Kamyshinka, went there.

In the summer of 1695, during the First Azov campaign against the Turks, Peter I himself visited Kamyshin. The Tsar drew attention to the narrow isthmus between Kamyshinka and Ilovlya and decided to dig a canal in this place that was supposed to connect the Volga and Don. The project of the canal was called "A new and true map of digging, so that from the Don or Tanais by ships Ilovlei river to Kamyshenka and Kamyshenko river to the Volga or the Astrakhan river to enter the Caspian Sea." On the canal about 3 kilometers long, it was planned to build 4 dams. Work on the creation of the canal was carried out in the period from 1697 to 1701, but its construction was never completed. The pits preserved from the construction work determined the future name of the settlement near the river - Petrov Val. On September 27, 1697, the Dmitrievsky rifle regiment under the leadership of Yakov Bush was transferred to Kamyshin from Kazan "to guard the gateway". On the bank of Kamyshinka, the Petrovskoye fortification was erected. Later, the city, enclosed by a rampart and surrounded by a palisade with 4 gates, began to be called Dmitrievsky - the streltsy regiment venerated and kept the icon of the holy Great Martyr Dmitry Thessaloniki.

In the Volga region, peasant riots often broke out, and the archers always sided with the rebels. In 1704, Peter I sent a detachment under the command of Prince Dmitry Khovansky, which burned Dmitrievsk for the participation of its inhabitants in the Cossack uprising against "shaving beards and putting on German dress." The fortress was moved to the right bank of Kamyshinka.

September 25, 1704 - Tsar Peter I sent a letter to the governors Ivan Bashmakov and Alexei Bykov in Dmitrievsk (Kamyshin) and Tsaritsyn, in which it was ordered to draw up a map of the shores of Kamyshinka and Ilovlya:
“Describe what places and natural boundaries, and whether there are forests, islands and fields, and how many fathoms or versts there are. And the drawing and the inventory should be sent by hand to the order of the Kazan Palace. "
On May 13, 1708, one of the detachments of Kondraty Bulavin entered Dmitrievsk without a fight. The garrison soldiers went over to the side of the Bulavins. Cossack self-government was organized in the city, but by August the city was again under the control of government troops.

The second time Peter I visited Dmitrievsk on June 15, 1722 during the Persian campaign, accompanied by Catherine I, F. M. Apraksin and D. K. Kantemir. Peter wished to inspect the city, assess the defenses of the fortress. During his two hours in the city, the tsar managed to discuss with the voivode the role of the city in protecting the lower Volga region, the Volga trade route, the Trans-Volga steppes and the fight against raids.

In 1731, in order to protect the line of the right bank of the Volga, the Volga Cossack army was established. On August 3, 1731, the Senate issued a decree on benefits for immigrants to the Tsaritsyn line, which contributed to the development of the region.

In the middle of the 18th century, an economic upturn began in Dmitrievsk, caused by the beginning of salt mining on Lake Elton in 1747. The peasants left the landlords and went to Saratov and Dmitrievsk to work on salt mining. 70% of all salt mined during the 18th century fell on the Elton deposit.

In 1767, during her journey along the Volga, Catherine II visited Dmitrievsk.

In 1768, the commandant of the city, Colonel Kaspar Mellin, began to build pavements in the city, vzvoz to the Volga; in the Kremlin, a fortress was erected with batteries, a palisade, a gate and a tower, an office, a state house.

During these years, more than 100 colonies of Germans were founded in the Volga region, who moved from Germany, devastated by the Seven Years War (1756-1763). In Kamyshinsky district, 46 German settlements were created, including Ilovlya, Verkhnyaya Dobrinka, Ust-Gryaznukha, etc.


In 1769 Dmitrievsk was visited by the head of the Orenburg Physical Expedition, organized by the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences, Ivan Ivanovich Lepekhin, in order to study the nature of the region. In his works, he described the city of that time:
The city of Dmitrievsk is located on the very Volga coast. The Kamyshinka River flows from the eastern side, and the Volga River from the midday. ... The biggest advantage of this city is the salt pier, which feeds most of the people in the hall ... There are only three churches, two wooden and one stone. The merchants are prosperous in it. The trades of the merchants consist mainly of fish, the supply of bread and cattle, which they receive from the Kalmyks nomadic in the neighborhood. Without them, residents ate from sowing melons and watermelons, which taste better than the Astrakhan ones ...

On August 13, 1774, Emelyan Pugachev, who had seized Saratov by that time, approached Dmitrievsk, where he was met by Major Diez, with whom there were 500 garrison soldiers, 500 Kalmyks and 1000 Don Cossacks, led by the princes Derbentov and Dundukov. The ensuing battle ended in the defeat of the city defenders. The commandant of the fortress, Kaspar Mellin, was executed by the rebellious garrison. The soldiers and Cossacks elected a sergeant from among their own midst and hospitably greeted the self-appointed tsar. The city was plundered and partially burned.

On November 7, 1780, Catherine II issued a decree to rename Dmitrievsk to Kamyshin, which, as a district town, became part of the Saratov province. On August 23, 1781, Catherine approves the new coat of arms of Kamyshin:
in the upper part the coat of arms of Saratov; at the bottom there is a grass called reeds, in a white field, from which the city got its name.
In 1785, a royal decree was issued on the transfer of all available land to the nobles wishing to settle in the Saratov province; in the Kamyshinsky district, noble nobles received more than 100 thousand dessiatines of "granted lands" in their possessions. The nobles resettled their serfs from other provinces to these lands, and also enslaved the local peasants who had previously settled here. By the end of the 18th century, 52,389 peasants of the county found themselves in serfdom.

XIX - early XX century
In the second half of the 19th century, Kamyshin, as a merchant city, occupies a significant place in the Volga trade. In 1879, 13 644 people lived in Kamyshin, of whom 90 were merchants, 11 590 were bourgeois and townspeople, and 1782 were shop workers. There were 9 churches in the city - 7 Orthodox, Lutheran and Catholic. By 1892, there were already 17,684 people in Kamyshin.

In 1894, the Tambov - Kamyshin railway was opened, which made it possible to create 4 steam sawmills, 3 steam mills, an elevator, salt grinders, an oil warehouse and an oil tanker in the city.

In 1896 a wooden bridge was built across Kamyshinka. In 1897, a water supply system appeared in the city. The water tower, the water from which was dispensed through the streets, still stands on Kamyshinskaya Street; the modern coat of arms of Kamyshin is decorated with the "crown" of the water tower teeth.

By 1899, 12 smithies, 10 slaughterhouses, a sawmill and other craft workshops, as well as marinas of the shipping companies “On the Volga”, “Caucasus and Mercury”, “Airplane” and the pier of the towing ferry were operating in Kamyshin.

In 1900, the city had over 18,000 inhabitants; the City Park of Culture and Leisure was founded, 200 stores were already open. The first revolutionary circles appeared, in which they read forbidden political literature.

In 1905, the number of employees of Kamyshin's railway transport was about 700 people, and about 1000 people from work stations and elevators in the district. 7 sawmills employ 700 people, and in summer up to 1000. Merchant Borel's mill employs 250 workers. Working conditions in factories, factories and craft workshops, whose labor force was mainly formed from ruined peasants, were unsatisfactory.

After the events of Bloody Sunday (January 9 (22), 1905), a revolutionary struggle began in Kamyshin. On March 5, 1905, the reeds sent a resolution to the Council of Ministers, in which they demanded "to pursue an economic policy for the benefit of the working classes, to alleviate the tax burden, to introduce an income tax."

Clashes with the police and strikes began. On May 1, 1905, a suburban demonstration took place. During the October skirmish, a rally was held in Kamyshin.

Civil War
With the outbreak of the Civil War in 1917, an Executive Committee was created in the Kamyshinsky district to deal with issues of the personnel of the garrison, the requisition of grain from the kulaks, suppression of speculation, and more. At the Kamyshin station, a military control transport commission began work from the Soviet.


In early December, in Kamyshin, we received a message that the Orenburg Cossacks were sent to the city. On December 11, the Cossacks approach the city. Members of the Executive Committee Olovyashnikov and Volozhanin were sent to Saratov for machine guns and artillery. A specially formed commission has taken under strict control the protection of gunpowder and cartridge depots. On December 11, at a meeting of the Executive Committee, a decision is made to disarm the officers of the reserve regiment and other units.

On December 13 and 14, 1917, a county congress of volost land committees was held in the city. The delegates report that the implementation of the "Decree on Land" in many localities began in mid-November 1917.

On December 21, 1917, the National Economy Council was created, which took over the management of the economic activities of the city and county. Workers' control was established at enterprises, which was a preparatory measure for the nationalization of enterprises.

On January 28, 1918, the first county congress of Soviets of Peasant Deputies was held in Kamyshin, at which a report was heard by a delegate to the provincial congress of Soviets of Peasant Deputies, reports from the field on the creation of Soviets and the Red Guard.

On January 29, 1918, village and volost Soviets were created in all volosts and in 215 uyezd settlements.

On February 1, 1918, the first party conference was held, where the district party committee was elected.

The military intervention, which began in 1918, intensified the merchants. Counter-revolutionary uprisings and protests against the policy of the Soviet state were organized, in which kulaks, Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries participated.

The demobilized front-line soldiers of Kamyshin united in the counter-revolutionary "Union of Front-line soldiers", but at a meeting of the Executive Committee of the Soviet on March 24, 1918, a resolution was adopted to destroy it.

On May 29, 1918, the city and county were declared under martial law.

In the spring and summer of 1918, the kulaks began an active opposition to the power of the Soviets, refusing to hand over grain to the state.

Thanks to the committees of the village poor, the Bolsheviks were able to defeat the kulaks in the countryside and confiscate their grain.

On January 30, 1918, an order was announced to create the Red Army on a voluntary basis.

In March 1918, a Red Army detachment numbering 400 people was created in Kamyshin.

In September 1918, a voluntary revolutionary regiment was created in the city at an urgent meeting of the district committee of the Bolshevik party of the district executive committee and trade unions.

In May 1918, an extraordinary commission was created in the city to combat counter-revolution and banditry (Cheka).

In the summer of 1918, all banks, 420 households, industrial enterprises and trade establishments were nationalized in Kamyshin.

During the year, 100 primary classes and 42 schools for adults were opened. Public reading courses were organized. The central public library opened in March 1918.

On July 15, 1919, the troops of the Caucasian Army of the AFSR under the command of General Wrangel, with the support of the Don army of General Sidorin, captured Kamyshin during prolonged battles, defeating the superior forces of the Reds and capturing 13 thousand Red Army men, 43 guns and many machine guns. In the city, 12 steam locomotives, more than 1000 carriages, a large number of shells and cartridges, 3 carriages of trench property and other large supplies were seized.

However, already on the night of July 29-30, the Volga military flotilla of the Reds, breaking through from the north, began to bomb Kamyshin at dawn. There was a panic in the city. The Reds fired several dozen shells and retreated to the north.

In mid-August, in view of the enormous superiority of the enemy forces (about four infantry divisions with fourteen cavalry regiments, numbering over 15,000 bayonets, 7,000 checkers with 70 guns), in order to reduce the front and so as not to expose their right-flank units to the risk of being cut off, the White command recognized the need leaving Kamyshin without a fight and retreating to the line: the river Sestrenka White Gorki-Talovka-Salomatino.

20s-30s of XX century
In January 1920, 5 libraries were opened in the city, the first kindergarten began to work.

In March 1920, a working university was founded in Kamyshin, where courses for teachers, nurses, bookkeepers, and clerks take place.

In 1922, at the school. Tolstoy (now the building of the Teacher's House), Komsomol member Anna Ashinina creates a pioneer organization.

By 1930, 8 large communes, 27 collective farms and 9 partnerships were established in the Kamyshinsky district, engaged in joint land cultivation.

By 1931 in Kamyshin, 94% of peasant farms were transformed into collective farms.

January 10, 1934 Kamyshin and Kamyshinsky district are part of the Stalingrad region.

The industrialization of the city begins. So, in 1934 a tomato, vegetable and meat cannery was launched, in 1936 - the first bakery, in 1938 - paint and varnish plant No. 2 "Pobeda", in March 1939 - Kamyshin glass container plant.


The Great Patriotic War
In the first days of the Great Patriotic War, more than 20,000 reeds were sent to the front. All enterprises and organizations of Kamyshin directed their work towards fulfilling the orders of the front.

On July 8, 1941, the first ambulance train arrives in Kamyshin. A network of hospitals is being developed in the city.

Refugees came to Kamyshin every day, and by the winter of 1942 the city's population had increased by 8 times.

During the Battle of Stalingrad, the city became an important strategic point.

On November 17, 1942, Komsomol volunteers left the Kamyshinsky Park of Culture and Rest to defend the Motherland.

In May 1941, the Solikamsk Tank School was relocated to Kamyshin from the Urals, which was in the city until July 1947, providing the front with technicians with lieutenants of the armored forces.