Susuman, Russia

Susuman is a city in Russia, the administrative center of the Susuman region and the corresponding urban district of the Magadan region of Russia. The city of regional significance, until 2015 formed the urban settlement of the city of Susuman. Located on the banks of the Berelykh River (Kolyma basin).

In June 1977, a mammoth named Dima was found in the Susuman region in the valley of the Kirgilyakh stream.



The name of the city comes from the name of the Susuman river, the left tributary of the Berelyokh - Kuhuman in Even, huguman means "snowstorm", "drift", "wind" - "windy" river.



For the first time, the Kukhuman River was mentioned in the works of N.M.Beryozkin, who passed through this area in 1901.

The modern spelling of the river "Susuman" (a hydronym from the Even kuhuman "snowstorm, snow, wind") first appeared on the route map of the astronomer-geodesist KA Salishchev in 1929. In the 1930s, geological exploration parties of the Dalstroy trust were often used by the way through the valley of the Susuman River.

In 1932, a schlich analysis of samples taken by the party of geologist E. T. Shatalov in the Susuman valley was carried out, which showed that there is placer gold in the basins of the Susuman and Berelekh rivers. In the same year, at the mouth of the Evrashkalakh stream, the right tributary of the Susuman river in its lower course, on a large dry larch, Shatalov made a paddle with the inscription: "City of Susumansk", as if foreseeing the future of this place. Later, the results of Shatalin confirmed the geological parties of K. A. Shakhvarstova, Kh. I. Kalugin, A. L. Lisovsky.

In the late summer of 1936, in search of rich hayfields, prisoners from the Elgen state farm of Dalstroy entered the valley of the Susuman River, where a new camp with a state farm estate was laid. Thus, the Susuman camp, named after the Susuman River, became the first enterprise to settle in the valley.

Since 1937, by the forces of the GULAG prisoners, active construction of the village began, which continued during the war years.

In August 1937, on the basis of the GULAG camp, the first gold-mining enterprise of the region was organized - the Maldyak mine.

In 1938, the Western Mining Administration (GPU) "Dalstroy" was organized with the center in the village of Susuman, which included three already existing mines: "Maldyak", "Udarnik" and "Stakhanovets". Then the Chai-Urya, Kontrandya, Linkovy and Kuranakh mines were organized. Since that time, Susuman has become the center of the mining industry in the western region of the Magadan region.

In 1957, the Western GPU was abolished and all the mines were transferred to the subordination of the branch GPU of the Magadan Economic Council, and 3 years later the Susuman GPU was created to manage the mines operating at the sites of the Susuman region. On January 1, 1970, the Susumanskiy GPU was reorganized, calling it the Susumanskiy mining and processing plant (SGOK, SuGOK).

SuGOK was awarded the Order of the October Revolution by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1971 for the early fulfillment of the tasks of the five-year plan for gold mining, as well as the improvement of the organization of the production process and the introduction of new technology. 6 years later, in 1977, SuGOK was divided into 2 enterprises: Susumansky GOK and Berelekhsky GOK.

From 1937 to 1999, the Susumans mined 1,052 tons of gold.

In 1939, the newspaper "Miner of the North" was founded in the village.

From 1949 to 1956, the administration of one of the largest Soviet GULAG camps, Zaplag, was located in Susuman.

On December 12, 1964, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, signed by Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR N. Ignatov and Secretary S. Orlov, the working settlement of Susuman, Susuman Rural District of Magadan Region, was transformed into a city of regional subordination. The first meeting of the Susuman City Council of Working People's Deputies took place on December 30, 1964. A member of the CPSU, NS Ivanov, was elected chairman of the City Council.

The industrial environment of Susuman was made up of several large enterprises: SuGOK, a repair and mechanical plant (SRMZ) - the oldest enterprise in the city, created on the basis of repair shops and located in the Zarechye region, a building materials plant (brick plant), a brewery, a bakery and a meat and dairy plant ... The city opened 5 secondary schools, kindergartens "Romashka", "Firefly", "Chaika", a music school, a mining college, a hospital, and a polyclinic. There were two cinemas - the wooden Taiga and the stone Luch, built in the 1950s and 1970s, respectively, and three houses of culture. The first house of culture was built in 1940 at the initiative of the head of the Western Mining and Industrial Administration A.P. Senatov.

Within the city there was a state farm "Susuman", which arose in 1937 on the banks of a small river Talon, which provided the population of the region with vegetables and animal products. In the microdistrict Berelekh was located one of the largest motor depots in the region - No. 5, organized by order for "Dalstroy" in 1937 on the 646th kilometer of the Kolyma highway. The car park then consisted of three units, and there were nine employees.


In order to implement the decision to increase the production of automotive vehicles in the northern version, by order of the Minister of the Automotive Industry of the USSR No. 226 dated July 14, 1971, it was envisaged to create a permanent northern automobile testing station (SAIS) in the North of the USSR. The city of Susuman was chosen to host this station.

The first cubic meters of soil were dug out in 1976, and at the same time the first piles were driven under the foundation of SAIS, the objects of which were then built by the Susuman Construction Department, using progressive construction technology in permafrost regions; in December 1981, the state commission accepted the SAIS into operation. Almost all car factories in the country that produce cars and trucks have cooperated with SAIS.

In the first year of Susuman's existence as a city, a local bus service was organized on a schedule, connecting the city center, Zarechye, Berelekh, Yasnaya Polyana and the food processing plant. In addition to this, a taxi was organized in Volga cars. Also, Susuman, located at the Kolyma highway, has a constant external bus connection: with Magadan, Ust-Nero, and with many villages in the region.

The first coat of arms of the city of Susuman was adopted by the Executive Committee of the Susuman District Council of Working People's Deputies on March 1, 1974.

The city has an airport of local airlines, flights from which connect Susuman with the regional center. The runway of the airfield allows servicing such aircraft as An-24, Yak-40. In 2020, the use of less powerful aircraft, such as TVS-2MS and An-28, was noted.



The climate of the area is assessed as severe, the average annual temperature is minus 11.9 ° С. According to the Köppen climate classification, Susuman is dominated by a humid continental climate with dry winters and warm summers (Dwb index). The transition of daily temperatures through 0 ° С towards a decrease occurs already at the end of the second, beginning of the third decade of September. Usually the coldest month is January. The coldest period of winter is late December - mid January. At this time, in addition to general radiation cooling, stagnation of cold air masses occurs. These factors are complemented by the high-latitude position and elevation of Susuman relative to sea level by 650 m. As a result, local areas of extremely low air temperature are formed here, which can reach -63 ° C, and in some places up to -67 ° C. There is much less rainfall in winter than in summer.

The absolute minimum of minus 60.6 ° С was recorded on January 6, 1971, the absolute maximum - + 35 ° С - was recorded on July 27, 2010.