Ussuriysk, old names: the village of Nikolskoye (before 1898), the city of Nikolsk-Ussuriysky (until 1935), Voroshilov (until 1957) - a city in Russia, the administrative center of the Ussuriysky urban district (until March 25, 2005 - a district) of Primorsky Territory.

It is located on the Prikhanka plain, 80 km from Vladivostok on the Komarovka and Rakovka rivers, in a hollow between the hills. A distant part of the city (the village of a sugar plant near Khenina Sopka) stands near the left bank of the Razdolnaya River. The area of ​​the urban district is 3,690 km².

Population - 173 640 people. (2020), the second largest city in Primorsky Krai (after Vladivostok). Ussuriysk urban district - 199 341 people. (2020). Food production accounts for about 60% of the city's industry.

It was founded in 1866 as the village of Nikolskoye, which on April 3, 1898 was transformed into the city of Nikolsk-Ussuriysky. In 1934-1943 it was the administrative center of the Ussuriysk region. The city is considered by a number of authors as a possible candidate for the role of the capital of Primorsky Krai.

Ussuriysk is divided into a number of historical districts, the clear boundaries of which are not defined: Central, the region of Seven Winds, Zheleznodorozhnaya Slobodka (among the people of Sloboda), Mezhdurechye, Voskhod, Sugar Factory Settlement (sahposyolok), 5th kilometer, Dobropolye, Khenina Sopka and Chernyakhovsky ( more often Kirzavod). The city also includes small villages: Baranovskoye (with a landfill) and the village of Mineralny.

City Day is usually celebrated on the second Saturday in September.



Ancient history

Convenient geographical location, climate and relief have constantly attracted people to the Khanka lowland, in which the city of Ussuriysk is located. Paleolithic settlements (40-10 thousand years BC) on Ilyushkina and Strelkovaya hills were found directly within the city limits. Neolithic settlements (7–5 thousand years BC) and settlements dating back to the Bronze Age (5–4 thousand years BC) have not been found in the city limits, but there are many of them in the vicinity of the city. Settlements of the Iron Age (3–1.5 thousand years BC) were found on the outskirts of the Baranovsky garrison and at a poultry farm, as well as several dozen in the vicinity of the city.

In 698, on the site of the future Ussuriisk, the medieval state of Bohai was created, which included the southern regions of Primorye. In the days of the Bohai state (VII-X centuries), the administrative center of the province of Suibin-do, the city of Suibin, was located on the site of the city of Ussuriysk, which was destroyed in 926 by the Khitan. Before the fall of Suibin (in some transcriptions of Shuaibin), it was famous for horses, and beyond the borders of the state.

Later, this area became one of the centers of the Chzhurzhen uprising against Khitan rule. After the victory of the Jurren and the establishment of the Jin dynasty, the city of Suibing (Chin. Shuaybin) was completely restored and greatly expanded, and the province of Suibing-do was also restored, the area of ​​which increased.

Today in Ussuriysk there are the ruins of two kremlins of this city, which are considered as the South Ussuriysk and West Ussuriysk fortified settlements. The area of ​​both settlements is over 100 hectares. It was here in 1124 that Wanyan Esykui, an associate of Aguda, the founder of the Jin Empire, moved. On the neighboring Krasnoyarovskaya volcano there was a mountain fortress Suybina, whose area was 37 hectares. This fortress Puxian Wannu (the governor of the eastern provinces, who seceded from the empire in 1215 and created the state of Eastern Xia) expanded to 180 hectares and made his Upper capital, which he called Kaiyuan. Suibing and Kaiyuan were captured by the Mongols in 1233 and destroyed. The remnants of the population were enslaved and resettled in 1246 in the valley of the Liaohe River by the Mongol Khan Guyuk.

The ruins of Suybin were mapped as the city of Furdan by the French Jesuits Regis, Jartu and Fidelli, who made up the "Kangxi Map" and worked on the territory of Primorye in 1709. Later, the material was transferred to Jean Baptiste d'Anville, and in 1734 the city of Furdan first appears on the European map, and then on various maps this city was found until 1860.


Modern history

Ussuriisk was founded in August 1866 as the village of Nikolskoye (in honor of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker) by 13 families who came to the settlement from the Astrakhan and Voronezh provinces. The Ilyushenko family was from the Voronezh province. The rest came from the Astrakhan villages of Akhtuba, Bolkhuny, Kapustino, Cherny Yar, Krasny Yar and Enotaevsky district. On May 15 (28), 1868, the village was burned down during the "Manzov war". The war revealed the important location of the village, and Governor General Mikhail Korsakov in June ordered the restoration of the village and the construction of a barracks to permanently house a garrison as part of a company inside the ancient fortress. This is how one of the largest garrisons of modern Primorye was born. Already in 1870 the headquarters of the 3rd line battalion with two companies was transferred here from Kamen-Rybolov. In 1871, the first wooden church was built in the village. In 1880, the 3rd and 4th battalions of the newly formed 1st East Siberian Rifle Brigade were deployed in the village. In 1881, residents of Nikolsky turned to the authorities with a petition to transform the village into a city. The first school - a parish school - was opened in 1883. Later (1896) a brick building was added to it (in 1999, a city museum began to be created on the basis of a brick extension). In 1893, traffic was opened on the Ussuriyskaya railway between Vladivostok and Nikolskoye. According to the 1897 census, 8982 people lived in Nikolskoye (7007 males and 1975 females).

In accordance with the Imperially approved regulation of the Committee of Ministers "On the formation in the South Ussuriysk district of the Primorsky region of the city under the name:" Nikolsk-Ussuriysky " the settlement of the station Ketricevo and the settlement of Suifunsky Later, the number of residents of the newly formed settlement was replenished by immigrants from Ukraine, who massively moved to the south of the Far Eastern region of the Russian Empire.


In April 1905, by order of the Governor-General R.A.Khreschatitsky, 10 redoubts and other fortifications began to be erected in the southern and eastern outskirts of the city to defend the city from a possible Japanese attack.

One of the correspondents Ivan Illich-Svitych described the city of Ussuriisk in 1905 as follows:

This is a large Little Russian village. The main and oldest street is Nikolskaya. Along the entire street, on both sides, stretched white huts, in places and now still covered with thatch. At the end of the city, at the confluence of Rakovka with Suputinka, as is often the case in indigenous Ukraine, there is a “headquarters”, near which the “mlynok” is picturesquely nestled, so that it would be quite the picture in which the “old did” in one song confuses the “young maiden "-" and rates, and a milny, and a cherry garden ", if this last one was present. Among the Russian population, not counting the Cossacks, Little Russians are so predominant that the rural inhabitants of the city, the so-called intelligent, calls it nothing else than "Ukrainians". And indeed, among the Poltava, Chernigov, Kiev, Volyn and other Ukrainians, immigrants from the Great Russian provinces are completely lost, being, as it were, an inclusion in the main Little Russian element. A bazaar on a trading day, for example, in Nikolsk-Ussuriysk, is very reminiscent of some place in Ukraine; the same mass of steep-horned oxen lazily chewing gum next to wagons filled with sacks of flour, cereals, bacon, pork carcasses, etc .; the same Ukrainian clothes in public. Everywhere you can hear a cheerful, lively, lively Little Russian dialect, and on a hot summer day you might think that you are somewhere in Mirgorod, Reshetilovka or Sorochintsy of the times of Gogol.

In 1916, the South Ussuriysk branch of the Amur Department of the Russian Geographical Society was created in the city, which was headed by A.Z.Fyodorov for many years.

In September 1917, the first Far Eastern conference of the Bolsheviks was held in the city under the leadership of A. Ya. Neibut.

On February 20, 1935, the city was renamed Voroshilov in honor of the Soviet military leader Klim Voroshilov. On November 29, 1957, the name of the city was changed again, from that time it was called Ussuriysk.

Until the 1980s, Ussuriisk ranked second in terms of population in the Primorsky Territory. Then he gave this place to Nakhodka, but today he again became the second city of Primorye.