Ust-Omchug, Russia


Ust-Omchug is an urban-type settlement in the Magadan Region of Russia, the administrative center of the Tenkinsky District and the corresponding urban district.



Only one mine and one mine were operating on the territory of Tenka when Order No. 894 appeared. This order laid the foundation for the construction of Ust-Omchug. When the first peg for the first tent was hammered in, unfortunately, history has not been preserved. And on October 1, 1939, another order stated that the TSPU was organized. It was placed in a tent at the place where the repair and mechanical workshops were later built. They also lived in tents, which were upholstered with plywood and boards for the winter. On December 26, 1939, N.S. was appointed head of the TSPU. Matveev.

Why was this place chosen for the construction of a new village? What was the determining factor for the leadership of Dalstroy when choosing a location for the new control center?

A little background. In the field season of 1938, the Southern GPU in the basin of the river. Omchug sent a detachment of 5 people, led by Dmitry Ivanovich Spivak. One of the members of this detachment was Petr Ivanovich Avramenko, who became one of the first residents of Ust-Omchug and worked here for more than 40 years. Here are excerpts from his memoirs, which remained on the pages of the regional newspaper Leninskoye Znamya about this time:

“The path started from Atka. We traveled by the first sledge-tractor train. 10 tractors and two sleds are attached to each of them. Atka - Maltan - Kholodkan - Bokhapcha - Solnechnoye Lake, and from there on deer along the Tengkeli, Siliptsovy streams. We arrived at the place where Ust-Omchug is now located on April 30. The place was wonderful! Virgin forest. Larch trees in two girths, as tall as masts ... We had to explore a huge area of \u200b\u200bthe basin of the Omchug, Neglinka rivers, their tributaries, streams, springs ... D. Spivak conducted an eye survey, we dug clearings along the sides, washed, dried samples. The gold was rich. In October we returned to Orotukan. The results were excellent - the samples showed the industrial content of gold. At the end of October of the same year, I again returned to Tenka to organize an exploration site and detailed reconnaissance.

“We only reached the current Agrobaza by car (perhaps P.I. calls Agrobaza Chalbukhan or Anmannanju - I.G.), there was no further road. We went on foot. 23 people, two tents. We had to build a base (perhaps this is the future Detrinsky reconnaissance area - I. G.). A week later, we started digging.

A new reconnaissance section was organized. The indicators were good, and in Magadan they became interested in them. In September 1939, representatives arrived from there, and at the end of September, the newly organized Tenkinskoye Mining and Industrial Administration began to throw in cargo. Construction has begun."

Maybe this discovery was decisive for the choice of a place for the center of the new administration (after all, the richest Omchak placer will be discovered only a year later). If this is so, then the first hopes, apparently, did not come true, because the exploration of the Omchug placer and its tributaries lasted for another 10 years, and the deposit on the river. Omchug began to be exploited only in 1948. Probably, the presence of the road was the decisive argument in choosing a place for the future center of the TSPU. By the summer of 1939, when the Tenkinskoe district GRU was formed on Iganja, according to the memoirs of the first chief geologist of this district GRU B. L. Flerov, “the route was only being built further on Iganji”, and by the autumn of 1939 it was possible to drive to Butugychag by car, only this there was also a “autoprolaz”, and not a road.

But let's get back to the construction of Ust-Omchug, or rather, the village of 184th km, as it was then called, in the road way. From the memoirs of P. I. Avramenko:

“The taiga was uprooted, making room for future buildings. The very first to cut down the building of the mining administration (now there is a monument to Lenin on this place - I. G.), then a dining room (somewhere in the area of \u200b\u200bthe current library - I. G.), a store (the corner of Pobedy and Gornyatskaya streets, now a free place - I . G.), two houses along Komsomolskaya Street (No. 26, 28 - I. G.), a bathhouse (the corner of Gagarin and Tenkinskaya streets, now a vacant lot near the TsDiNT - I. G.). They dashed off the road, built several more residential buildings, and soon the first boiler room began to smoke.”

Tenkinets from 1939, geologist A. Krasilnikov wrote: “Our village was then small and uninhabited. A small administration building, a house where a medical unit and a warehouse of one of the industry departments were located, and 2-3 living quarters - that's all we saw when we arrived here. But in the area of the Detrin River, the construction of two-story residential buildings was going on at an accelerated pace.

This is how the geologist Viktor Volodin remembered the birth of our village: “I remember well the twilight of a winter day when my brother and I arrived in this future village. Then we got off the passing truck just at the intersection of the highway, or “route”, with this road (clearing). Leaving our transport on the left bank of the Detrin, we went along the road going to the right of the main hill at a right angle. It led down the Detrin into the forest. We walked briskly along it, but soon saw that there was nothing further along it. Only to the left were the windows of the radio house, which stood off the road on a low terrace.

On the clearing on the right, not far from this intersection, there was a temporary power plant, which was a barn in which a small engine and generator stood and worked.

A little further along the clearing and away from it, on the left, on a low terrace towering above it, stood a beautiful house that had just been cut down, in which we easily guessed the radio station by the masts with the antenna sticking out near it.

At the end of this clearing, almost one kilometer from the highway, a two-story building of the mining department was then being built.

Having entered the power plant, we asked the people and found out that there is not a single finished building in the village yet, except for the radio station and the power plant, that two two-story engineering and technical buildings and the management building are still being built there, and the management is now huddled in a large tent, which stands a little further on the way on the terrace, and therefore it is not visible from below.

All civilian employees of the administration live in several large tents near the camp.

That's where we went. They settled us in a tent specially designated for business travelers, which stood among others of the same kind. The tents of civilian employees were located near the camp surrounded by barbed wire, in which there were barracks inhabited by road workers and carpenters who were building the village. The camp and tents were located one and a half kilometers from the control tent on the other (left) bank of the Omchug River, which flows into Detrin.

The settlement was built on a site bounded from the southeast by the bank of Detrin, stretched from southwest to northeast, from the southwest - by the right slope of the Omchug river valley, and from the northwest, north and northeast - by a wide bend of the riverbed Omchug. This entire area, on which the village later grew, had an area of about 1 square kilometer.

Then, as already mentioned, the first two two-story houses were built in it, located side by side parallel to the river bank and 50 meters from it. The control building was built 100 meters further from the river bank and approximately 150 meters closer to the Omchug bank.

In November 1939, construction of the TSPU building began in the remote taiga. At the same time, they began to build two-story houses along Komsomolskaya Street.

In January 1940, there was not a single residential building on the current Gornyatskaya, there was a clearing to the TSPU building under construction.

In May 1941, administrative buildings, a canteen, a shop, a bathhouse, a post office, an outpatient clinic and more than a dozen residential buildings were built.

By the beginning of the war, the main streets of Ust-Omchug were the streets that later became known as Gornyatskaya and Rechnaya. These two streets were the oldest in the village, which arose at the very beginning of its construction. The first of them ran a clearing in the forest and a road on it, when on a frosty February evening my brother and I first arrived in this future village a year and a half before the start of World War II.

By 1941, the former glade (Gornyatskaya Street) housed a power plant, central repair and mechanical workshops (TsRMM), a school, a post office, telegraph and savings bank, a shop, a canteen and the Tenkinskoe mining department (TGPU).

In addition to the listed buildings, of which only the TSPU building was two-story, and all the rest were one-story, only two, also one-story, wooden residential buildings were built here: the so-called GRS house, located not far from the power plant, and just like it, on the right side of the street and obliquely from it, a little further on its left side - the house of drivers.

The rest of the listed buildings were then located as follows: TSRMM - on the left side of the street, opposite the power plant, the school - on the right, a few dozen meters from the central intersection (with Rechnaya Street), the post office (post office) and the store occupied, respectively, its eastern and northern corners. The dining room was located in the depths of the future quarter to the north of the store and 2-3 tens of meters from Rechnaya and Gornyatskaya streets. About a dozen meters separated it from the TSPU building, which also stood on the left side of the street.

The third residential building appeared on Gornyatskaya Street in the autumn of 1941. It was the house of the field workers, built by the time the field parties returned against the “house of the State Registration Service” next to the house of the drivers.”

And again from the memoirs of geologist Viktor Volodin: “In 1941, Ust-Omchug was already at that time a much more crowded village than Iganja was even in the days of its full heyday. There was no club here yet, but there was a rather large dining room in which films were regularly shown. To do this, after dinner, the tables were removed to the wall, placing them one on top of the other, a screen was hung in the hall and benches were placed. There were so many people in the village that more than half of the people they met on the street were strangers. One of the employees of the department in which I began to work joked that it was more like Moscow here and therefore better than on Iganja.

In the autumn of 1942, a second house for field workers was built, occupying the western corner of the same central intersection.

Finally, in 1943, on the last still empty southern corner of it, a third house for field workers was built, in which I now also settled. There were more vacant lots on the street then than buildings.

On the right side of the street, next to the school, there was also the building of the fire brigade, built in 1942, and on the left side, separated from it by a large wasteland, there was a square fenced with a fence, on which barracks and other

River Street, which arose simultaneously with Gornyatskaya Street, led southeast to the bank of Detrin and northwest to the bend of Omchug from Gornyatskaya Street. Its length is probably 700-800 meters. The clearing in the centuries-old larch forest, along which this street later ran, initially led to two two-story houses of the ITR, which were built here simultaneously with the TSPU building at the very end of 1939 and at the beginning of 1940.

They are located near the coast on both sides of this street and face it with their end sides. Their facades, for some reason unknown to me, were turned towards the river, and the back side looked at the village. Both of these houses fit into the Komsomolskaya street that arose much later, stretching to the southwest. The houses were of the barracks type with a corridor system with rooms on either side. Opposite the stairwell there was a shared kitchen on each floor. I lived in one of these houses together with A.M. Kovalev.

In addition to these two houses and the listed buildings at the intersection of Gornyatskaya and Rechnaya streets, the latter also housed the so-called eight-apartment two-story house built just before the war, that is, completed just before it began and located on the southwestern side of the street near the houses of the ITR.

Opposite it, that is, on the other side of the street, stood the one-story house of the hydrometeorological service, which was later occupied by the post office. Further behind Gornyatskaya Street stood the small mansion of the head of Ten'Lag, then, also on the right side, a long wooden building with stone wings - the administration of Ten'Lag; then, also on the right, at the corner of Tenkinskaya Street, stood the one-story building of the NKVD district department.

On the left side of the street, northwest of the intersection with Gornyatskaya, there was a house of the special unit with a golden cash register, then a fence stretched out, enclosing the territory of the VOKhR. The back of this territory with the same long fence led out onto the already outlined, but still deserted Tenkinskaya Street, on the other side of which there was a bathhouse that had been operating since 1940.

At the northwestern end of Rechnaya Street, on its left side, behind a high fence, stood the large mansion of the head of the TSPU. He headed a small street that stretched along the banks of the Omchug bend and also consisted of mansions. There was the so-called house of directorate - a hotel for high-ranking persons and mansions of commanding staff.

Probably, two dozen meters from River Street in its first quarter, that is, not far from the houses of the ITR, there was a club opened in the spring of 1943, separated from Gornyatskaya Street with an area up to 50 m wide, in the center of which, later in 1947, a sculpture was placed on a pedestal I. V. Stalin, replaced by a bronze monument to V. I. Lenin, opened on April 30, 1958.

All the buildings of the village were wooden, unplastered, and all the first time they shone with not yet grayed yellow-white logs of centuries-old larches, cut down partially at the place of construction. At that time, only two wings were made of stone, built from large fragments of shale - extensions near the Tenlag building. At that time, the Geofond was located in one of them.

The village was still very young in those early years. He had just turned three years old, it was the fourth year of his existence.

During the construction of the village on the site of a four- or five-century-old larch forest, the builders tried not to cut trees that did not interfere with the construction. There were a lot of them left in the wastelands and between the houses of the village. Wastelands with uncut trees were sections of a real ship grove.

Thick, tall larches with straight trunks and green crowns were very beautiful and adorned the village in the first two or three years of its life, but they stood unstable and fell in strong squally gusts of wind and sometimes even threatened the lives of passers-by. In the summer of 1942, I once witnessed a devastating squall that caused a massive fall of trees.

In the summer of 1943, the village quickly changed its appearance. They began to plaster and whitewash the walls of houses from above, not only from the inside, but also from the outside. Leonid Andreevich Koff, the head of the alluvial department of our GRO TSPU, became the instigator, and perhaps the initiator of this case, who was the first to almost plaster the house in which he lived with his own hands.

It was a pity that at the same time, under the plaster, the features of the buildings disappeared without a trace. Beautiful, perfectly cut into a corner from edged, hewn logs, the first buildings of the village with smooth, even walls became exactly the same as those cut down “in a paw” or built “in a pickup”, that is, in the same way as stables, stables and cattle yards are built . True, the latter greatly benefited from this and became much more decent.

And in the village dining room, a picture painted by one of the imprisoned artists in oil paints, obviously, back in 1940, continued to hang, which depicted the same dining room, just built with unplastered log walls shining with fresh yellowness and smelling of resin.

The picture, which I really liked in the first years of the war, also depicted the buildings closest to the dining room, it seems, the post office, the shop and the mansion of the head of Tenlag, as well as the stumps that had not yet been uprooted from the larches cut down in front of the dining room and many still living green larches around. Everything was drawn very well and very similar to nature, which in the first years of my visits to the dining room could be observed.

However, we uprooted the stumps in front of the dining room in the early autumn of 1941, in 1942 the trees disappeared, and in 1943 the dining room with whitewashed plaster walls and other buildings changed beyond recognition.”

And although, according to P.I. Avramenko, built poorly and slowly, yet the village grew. The construction of the settlement was carried out by the Capital Construction Department of the TSPU13, and the builders were the prisoners of the Komendantsky OLP. The camp zone was located on the site of the current Zarechnaya Street, apparently, the creek owes its name to the neighborhood with the zone. Lagerny, the first left tributary from the mouth of the river. Omchug.

"Difficult Childhood"

During the war years, there was a rapid growth of the mining industry in Tenka. Many new mines and mines sprang up. By the end of 1941, TSPU already included 9 mines and mines, 2 factories. During the war years, the head of the TSPU was V.A. Vinogradov, Ch. engineer first K.K. Sarakhanov, then D.A. Osepyan (he worked in this position for several more years after the war). More than once, TSPU became the winner of the socialist competition among the enterprises of Dalstroy (the 1942 plan for metal was completed by TSPU by November 20 by 159.4%).

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, the leaders of the TSPU were major engineer Bokarev (mentioned in 1947), engineer-colonel V.V. Volkov (1948 - early 1950s), mining director of the 1st rank Vasyunin (mentioned in 1952). The last head of the TSPU until 1957 was Lieutenant Colonel of the quartermaster service E.I. Azbukin.

A small touch to the biography of the last head of the TSPU Evgeny Ivanovich Azbukin: born in 1915, education - FZO. Since 1940 in Dalstroy (propaganda instructor at the political department of the Northern GPU, deputy head of a number of mines for political work, head of the mine, deputy head of the TSPU). After graduating in 1952 from a one-year course at the Higher Officers' School, he was appointed head of the TSPU, where he worked until its abolition. After that, he worked as chairman of the Tenkinsky district executive committee. In fact, the first person who ruled our territory under Dalstroy remained the first person under the Soviets.

The Mining and Industrial Administration is the main administrative and economic body of the entire region, although, strictly speaking, the territory of the TSPU at that time belonged to two administrative entities at once, the Srednekansky and Olsky districts of the Khabarovsk Territory. All enterprises, organizations and institutions of the districts, including Ust-Omchug, were subordinate either to the TSPU or directly to other branch services of Dalstroy. The power of administrative formations (Councils of various levels) was formal.

A large department of the TSPU was the Department of Capital Construction (OKS), which led industrial and civil construction in the management and, accordingly, the village of Ust-Omchug as well. At the beginning of the war, the OKS was liquidated, and a construction site of the TSPU was created instead, and the former construction sites at enterprises were reorganized into construction superintendents, while retaining the functions of independent self-supporting units. In the second half of 1941, the construction site of the TSPU included five construction superintendents: the Butugychag mine, factory No. 1 named after. Chapaev, Ust-Omchug village, Svetly mine, factory No. 6 (Arman).

Tenkinskoye district GRU, having become the geological exploration department of the TSPU, was relocated in 1941 from the village. Iganja in Ust-Omchug. GRO TSPU during the war years was headed by very famous geologists - this is the future laureate of the Lenin Prize I.E. Drabkin, already in those years, candidate of geological and mineralogical sciences N.P. Anikeev, who was awarded the title of Hero of Socialist Labor in 1966, laureates of the Stalin Prizes S.D. Rakovsky and G.A. Kechek. A brilliant constellation of Tenkino geologists of the war years immortalized their names in the history of the region with the discoveries of new deposits. These are the winners of the Stalin Prizes in 1946 V.A. Matveenko, E.P. Mashko, N.I. Chemodanov, P.M. Shumilov, B.B. Evangulov and many others.
After the camp, the well-known Abkhaz poet Sh.L. Tsvizhba.

In 1947, geological exploration was separated from the TSPU into an independent balance and subordinated to the GRU Dalstroy. The new organization was named Verkhne-Kolyma district GRU. G.A. became its head. Kechek, and the chief geologist P.M. Shumilov. One of the paragraphs of the order read: “Deputy. to send the head of the Sevvostlag, Colonel Comrade Bondarenko, to the VkraiGRU, with the arrival of the labor force, an additional 400 workers and organize the OLP in the districtGRU as part of the Tenlag. Near the camp "Komendantsky" (on the current Zarechnaya street), another one appeared, colloquially referred to as "GROvsky". OLP, which supplied labor for the VKrayGRU, was number 15 and was located 272 km from Magadan (or a kilometer from Ust-Omchug). On March 1, 1952, there were 1962 prisoners in its composition, including the number of convicts with articles “for counter-revolutionary crimes” was 4.5%, the criminal bandit element was 2.5%, the rest belonged to “others”, i.e. to householders. And this is understandable, since a large number of prisoners working in geological exploration were unescorted. Of course, most of them were not in Ust-Omchug.

OLP No. 15 in 1952 consisted of 8 camps: Chelbukhansky, Kulinsky, Valunisty, Rodionovsky, Sanga-Talonsky, Urchansky, Armansky and Sukhoi. "Dry" was the central camp point of OLP No. 1 524. (On the map, on the Sukhoi stream, 1 km from the valley of the Omchug river, a small settlement of the same name is indicated, but without marking the camp zone. Judging by the certificates-characteristics of OLPs, wire zones were in each out of 8 camps. Apparently, the zone with that name was still on Zarechny, and the distance from OLP No. 15 to Tenlag in 1 km (according to information) also corresponds to its location on Zarechny, and they only worked on Sukhoi z / c) . By order of December 11, 1953, OLP No. 15 became the Upper Kolyma district GRU.

The war made adjustments to the construction of the newly born village. Mining equipment had to be repaired. “At the end of 1942, Dalstroy issued an order to organize central repair and mechanical workshops in the village of Ust-Omchug,” wrote engineer G. Popov, who had worked there from the first days of the creation of the TSRM. - Soon the building of the mechanical repair shop was built and machine tools were brought in - about a dozen metal-cutting machines. After that, the construction and equipment of the remaining three workshops of workshops began - a foundry, a forging and boiler room and an electrical repair shop. The need to organize casting on site became clear from the very first days. Therefore, overcoming the difficulties associated with the importation of the necessary materials, the team of metalworkers achieved the construction of a cupola furnace - a furnace for melting cast iron with a capacity of one and a half tons per outlet, and then mounted a special furnace for melting bronze.

Testimony of an old-timer of the village A. Krasilnikova: “In 1942, on the site of a forest massif, the corps of the TsRMM appeared.” The fact that the TSRMM was created in the third year after the formation of the TSPU, that is, in 1942, was written by the heads of the workshop I. Lukyansky and S. Brodsky in the regional newspaper. In later publications, including the author's, based on the historical information about the Tenkinsky plant, compiled by the head. The archive of K. Vvedenskaya on November 8, 1970, the year of the formation of the TsRMM is called 1941. It seems that the information received from eyewitnesses of the event shortly after the event is more accurate. Perhaps, in the absence of archival documents (according to TsRMM, they are available only from 1943), Vvedenskaya used information received from veterans of the plant after a longer period of time, and the inaccuracy "stretched" into subsequent publications. In the explanatory note to the report on capital investments of the TSPU for 1942, the TSRMM was named the main design object and, therefore, could not be built in 1941. Most likely, it was only under construction in 1942, and began to work thoroughly in 1943.

In the early years, TSRMM repaired steam excavators, gas-generating vehicles ZIS-21, bulldozers until 1944, TSPU did not yet have, manufactured mine cars, earthen buckets and other mining equipment, repaired transformers and electric motors. In 1944, the first pneumatic hammer was installed at TSPU. The foundry shop was launched in 1943.

One of the veterans of this enterprise, I. Gritsenko, calls A. Dementyev the first head of the CRMM, he was supported by the old-timer of Ust-Omchug I.S. Grundman. S. Evseev, who was the director of the GOK in the 1980s, wrote that the first head of the workshops was A.E. Vasiliev, who worked in this position until 1957. Who is right has not been established.

After several years of general work at Butugychag, until December 1944, the talented physicist, inventor and future writer G. G. Demidov continued his camp term at the Central Russian Metallurgical Museum as an electroplating engineer.

In 1957, Hero of the Soviet Union P.I. Nikulin: “Simultaneously with the construction and equipment of the workshops, the construction of a diesel power plant was carried out. Before it, the village had one locomobile with a capacity of 50 horsepower, which barely met the needs of Ust-Omchug in lighting. Immediately with the launch of the first workshop, the locomotive fleet of the station was increased to four units. Later, a complete reconstruction of the power plant was carried out.”

The power plant was located on the street. Gornyatskaya, opposite the TsRMM. A curious detail from the stories of the old-timer of the village P. I. Avramenko. When buying a new light bulb, the base from the burnt out light bulb had to be handed over to the store, and the flasks for the lamps were made at the factory in the village. Glass. Quartz from the vein at Chikhara was also sent there, so that the trucks carrying goods to Ust-Omchug did not go back empty. Probably a quartz quarry on the left bank of the river. Omchug (the so-called "white stones") was intended for the same.

Difficulties common to the whole of Kolyma did not bypass Tenka either. During the war years, the influx of new prisoners "from the mainland", the main labor force of Kolyma in the first years of development, sharply decreased. The problem of personnel during the war years was solved as follows. It was forbidden to release from the camps those convicted under Art. 58 and 59 of the Criminal Code of the RSFSR (counter-revolutionaries and bandits); those convicted of domestic crimes were released in agreement with the head of the NKVD RO and transferred to the category of civilian employees, until the end of the war they were obliged to work in Dalstroy.

There was not enough transport, in the very first military winter there was not enough gasoline - the existing transport did not get up. Cars and tractors were converted to gas generators. Instead of gasoline, they worked on wood.

Difficulties with food - we get it ourselves. During the war years, gardens began to appear around Ust-Omchug on the site of uprooted clearings. A popular vegetable was swede - large and fruitful in a harsh climate. They grew turnips, cabbage and even tobacco. In 1943 potatoes were planted for the first time. For one person they gave five, for a family - 10 kg of potatoes, with the condition that they must be planted.

In September 1940, the first issue of the newspaper “For Metal” was published in Ust-Omchug, since 1941 it began to appear regularly, this was the predecessor of the current regional newspaper, and then it was the organ of the political department of the Tenkinsky Mining and Industrial Construction (TGPS) (so for some time it was called TSPU). It was published twice a week. Its first editor was Gogolev (initials unknown). With No. 37 (776) dated April 6, 1947, the newspaper became known as Bolshevik. The editor of the newspaper was N.N. Glushkov.

There was also local radio broadcasting in the village. Its organizer and editor was a former consular officer, a German by nationality, by the name of Eller or Eher. In what year the radio broadcasts began, unfortunately, it was not possible to establish, but in 1945-1946, according to the stories of the old resident of our village, I.S. Grundman, these radio programs were broadcast, and then there was a break.

During the difficult war years, life in Ust-Omchug did not stop. The newspaper “Za metal” in No. 40 (88) dated May 8, 1941 reported that “in the village of Ust-Omchug, they started building an elementary school for 160 students. At the construction site of the school, deforestation and uprooting of stumps are carried out. The builders organize socialist competition among themselves. They undertake to complete the construction of the school by the beginning of the academic year 1941-1942.

The builders kept their promise. In 1941, when cities and villages were being destroyed in the west of our country under fascist bombs, young Ust-Omchurs sat down at the desks of the first real school in our village. “It was a low one-story building that could hardly accommodate 4-5 grades.”

And until 1941, two rooms in the TSPU building, according to I.S. Grund-man, occupied for school classes. If this is true, then it was probably only in the 1940/1941 academic year, since a year earlier, not only the TSPU building was not there, but the children themselves were unlikely to be here either. The first builders of Ust-Omchug in the autumn of 1939 started with tents, and it is unlikely that the leaders of this construction immediately brought their families with children here, and the prisoners did not have school-age children here.

The first director of the school was Mikhail Mikhailovich Gogolev. Perhaps the first director and the first editor of the newspaper are the same person. This school, according to the testimony of the old-timers of the village I.S. Grundman and G.N. Zakharova, was located on the current Gagarin Street, next to the building of the former printing house. Now this place is a wasteland. Not far from the school, in adapted small premises, there was a boarding school for children from villages where there were no schools yet. Toddlers and girls lived in the building, where later there was an editorial office, and older boys lived in a separate house on the street. Komsomolskaya. A boarding canteen was located in a small annex to the fire station.

The school has grown with the students. It was necessary to open the 5th, then the 6th grade. The number of students also increased. “In 1945, a spacious, bright two-story ten-year building was built.” The school was located at the corner of Gornyatskaya and Shkolnaya streets. “Our children started the 1946 school year at a new ten-year school.” And the first release of the tenth grade took place in 1949. Graduates - only 11 people, four of them were from the Magadan orphanage.

One girl did not have parents, but she entered the Krasnoyarsk Forestry Institute and graduated from it. All the teachers of the Tenkinskaya secondary school helped her financially study.

The school in Ust-Omchug was called Tenkinskaya, probably because children from all over Tenka studied there ... And the teachers in the early years were not always specialist teachers. Children were taught by geologists, former repressed engineers, etc.

The director of the school in 1945-1946 was the wife of the head of the TsRMM, Maria Markovna Dementieva, then there was Nikolai Vasilievich Ukhov, since 1948, Alexander Iosifovich Gudovich. A remarkable galaxy of teachers taught young Tenkinites in the 2nd half of the 1940s and in the 1950s: M.S. Permyakova (since 1946), A.A. Pisareva (since 1950), N.E. Voitsekhovskaya (since 1952) and others. A graduate of the Tenkinskaya school in 1954, B.P. Drozdov also remembers other teachers well: teachers of mathematics and drawing of the exiled Alexander Alekseevich Nikitin, Russian language and literature - Anna Ivanovna Dolgikh, physicists - Samir Bulatovich Bulatov, physical education - Oleg Belanovich.

Two years later, next to the school, a two-story building of a boarding school grew up (its last lifetime purpose was the administrative building of a consumer services plant).

Soon these buildings were also missing. In the 1950s, another school building appeared in the center of the village. It was a wooden two-story building, kids from the 1st to the 4th grade lived and studied here (later the TRGPU was located there, then the GOK training complex, the building was destroyed in the late 1990s). Now all these buildings are empty lots. Perhaps in the early 1950s, when the school building became more than one, the Ust-Omchug school appeared. At least in the regional newspaper for 1954, both names are found at the same time - Tenkinskaya secondary school and Ust-Omchug school.

In August 1942, at the place where the discoverers of Omchug gold hunted four years ago, a hospital with 20 beds was opened, and in 1944 the first pharmacy was opened. All medical institutions of the district were under the auspices of the medical unit (since 1947, the sanitary department) of the TSPU, which was subordinate to the Sanitary Directorate of Dalstroy. The hospital in Ust-Omchug was not yet a district hospital, such a status was at the hospital in the village. Transport, and the hospital in the village. Ust-Omchug will become a district only at the end of 1952.

The kindergarten of the village was also subordinate to the medical unit (sanitary department) of the TSPU, when the first children's preschool institution appeared, it was not revealed, at least in 1946, there was a kindergarten in Ust-Omchug, in subsequent years it was called a children's home.

In almost all camp administrations of Dalstroy, there were cultural teams released from work, consisting of 15-20 people who performed with concerts in all camp divisions. There was such a brigade in Tenlage. In 1943, it was directed by a former actor of the Kalinin Regional Drama Theatre, and at that time s/k K.A. Nikanorov, among the actors of this brigade were prisoners of all stripes - from thieves and deserters to "enemies of the people." After general work at the mine. Timoshenko was an artist of the Tenkinskaya cultural brigade from the autumn of 1943 until the autumn of 1944. The future People's Artist of the USSR G.S. Zhzhenov. Among them were the future soloists of D. Verdi's opera "La Traviata", staged on the Magadan stage by L.V. Varpakhovsky in 1945, - T.E. Yakovlev and A. Gryzlov. The programs were designed by the artist E. E. Valentinov, the future Honored Art Worker of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The artists of this cultural brigade toured the mines and mines of Tenka with concerts, and lived in the commandant's camp.

“The jazz orchestra was the core of the cultural brigade. Half of the musicians in it are professionals with a conservatory education. There were two great singers. Lyric tenor T.E. Yakovlev is a professional opera artist, brought to Kolyma almost straight from the tour of the Bolshoi Theater in Paris. (T.E. Yakovlev before his arrest - singer of the Red Banner Song and Dance Ensemble of the Red Army - I.G.) Baritone Sasha Gryzlov, nicknamed "Watch" - a professional swindler, an "honest thief", who had in his repertoire jazz songs exclusively lyrical, a love genre, the only one allowed by the thieves' censorship to be performed from the stage ... From the crooks there was also a couple of dancers who "beat" dashingly gypsy dances.

"Until 1943 there was no club, all cultural and educational work was carried out in the dining room." Later, a monument to the "father of nations" in an overcoat and in full growth appeared in front of the club. This 310-seat club was located on the site where the stele of Glory now stands. It burned down in a fire in the early 1980s. The monument to Stalin was removed, as elsewhere, after 1956.

Thanks to the GULAG (no matter how paradoxical it sounds), the cultural life of the village in the war and the first post-war years was at a very decent level. Many actors and directors, musicians and artists, having served their terms in the camps, did not have the right to leave. Remaining in such a semi-free state, they united around themselves talented people of other professions. Thus, orchestras, choirs, theater groups arose on the club stages of small villages. Ust-Omchug was no exception.

One of the talented nuggets in those years was a former prisoner, and at the end of the war and after it, an electrician of the district GRU Vladimir Grundman. With his enthusiasm for the theater, V. Grundman “infected” the young front-line soldier Iya, who arrived in our village in 1945 and became his wife. Vladimir Vladimirovich passed away a long time ago, in 2003 Iya Stepanovna Grundman passed away, having preserved in her family archive documents about the amateur art activities of Ust-Omchug 1944-1968. - theater programs of performances and concerts printed in the printing house, scenes from performances captured in amateur photographs, newspaper publications about the performances of the Ust-Omchug People's Theater. Even during her lifetime, she presented them to the Tenkinsky Historical and Local Lore Hall. What are these documents about?

In those years, the amateur art activities of the central club of Ust-Omchug included a choir, various ensembles, an orchestra and a theater. In the archive of Iya Stepanovna (I note that it is far from complete), there are mentions of 20 performances that took place on the club stage of our village. And the repertoire is as follows: A. Ostrovsky - "Guilty Without Guilt", "Talents and Admirers", "Mad Money", "Not All the Cat's Carnival"; M. Gorky - "The Last"; J. Moliere - "The Doctor involuntarily"; Ibsen - "Nora, or a doll's house"; plays by Soviet playwrights - A. Arbuzov, S. Mikhalkov, A. Galich, Vs. Vishnevsky, A. Kron and others.

The first artistic director and director of many performances was Alexander Alekseevich Belov, in the past he was an employee of the Moscow Maly Theater (his activity there, according to I.S. Grundman, was something like teaching the artistic word to actors). In Ust-Omchug, he also taught at school, but - biology and Russian.

An interesting publication in the newspaper "Soviet Kolyma" dated December 23, 1947 under the heading "Six performances", which summarizes the results of the review of Soviet performances in the clubs of Dalstroy. Collectives were not invited to Magadan, but “The Commission of the Political Administration and the District Committee of the Trade Union went to the places and watched six performances. As a result of the review, the question was to be decided who would have the right to defend the honor of Dalstroy's amateur art at the regional review in Khabarovsk. It is not known from the publication who got this right, but the most flattering reviews about the performance of our club are “A Man from the Other World” by Vl. Dykhovichny and M. Slobodsky. The newspaper publication contains the following lines: “The performance, which was shown in Ust-Omchug, pleased with the unity of all its moments, including artistic and musical design. It is a joyful event in the life of Dalstroy. I would especially like to note the work done by comrade. Khakham, who was the chairman of the commission for the preparation for the review.

And not a word about the director who staged this performance, his name is not even mentioned in the newspaper publication, and only from the surviving theater program do we learn that it was directed by Leonid Viktorovich Varpakhovsky. The fact is that, in contrast to Comrade. Haham”, the famous Soviet director L. Varpakhovsky was not a “comrade” at that time. After three arrests and 10 years in prison, at the end of 1947 he was forced to end up in Ust-Omchug, where he worked as a director of our club until 1953. A year later, his wife Ida Samuilovna Ziskina (Varpakhovskaya), a former Kolyma Traviata.

A small amateur photograph is very curious: near the poster there is a small group of amateur artists, and on the poster there is an inscription: “Club of the village of Palatka, amateur art group of the central club Tenka, August 16-17 - the premiere of “Mad Money” - A. Ostrovsky, August 18 - "Ilya Golovin" - S. Mikhalkov. Here you have a distant Kolyma village in 1950! Both performances were staged by L. V. Varpakhovsky. The decorator was Nikolai Tikhonovsky, also a former political prisoner. After his release, until the end of his days, he worked in our club as a worker, supply manager, led the club in 1954, and devoted his leisure time to his favorite work - he played in the orchestra, designed performances, and painted posters.

Theatrical programs have not been preserved, but only photographs of scenes from the performances "Nora, or the Doll's House" and "House in Cherkizovo", which, according to I.S. Grundman, designed, already mentioned here, by the artist E.E. Valentinov.

In the past, professional actors, and in the years described, the special settler E.P. Dokukin and former constable A. Matusevich were also artists of club performances.

But even non-professional actors, having such teachers, played quite professionally. Not every professional can boast of more than 20 major roles, and that's how many roles I have played by V. V. Grundman on our club scene in those years, and there were also performances with an artistic word, an entertainer. When the venerable directors left, he himself staged the play by A. Ostrovsky “Not all the cat's Shrovetide”, where he played the role of the merchant Akhov.

And other amateur actors enjoyed well-deserved success with the audience and critics of those years - M. E. Pavlenin, G. A. Osepyan, E. B. Dinor, I. Shtrykov, Z. Yushchenkova, G. Fridlender and others. I. S. Grundman said that before going home from work, they ran into the club just like that, to chat. How many interesting people worked there in very modest positions. Becker worked as a stoker in the club - "culture itself", in the words of I. S. Grundman, Mikhail Zakharov, also an amateur theater actor, was a worker in the club. The violinist A.A. worked as a cleaner in the club for some time in 1953 - early 1954. Dzygar, before his arrest and camp - 1st violin and accompanist of the Harbin Symphony Orchestra, laureate of international competitions, and after Ust-Omchug - a teacher at the Children's Music School in Magadan, accompanist and conductor of the Magadan Regional Theater. Gorky. The pianists who were recently released from the camp, G.G. Vetrova (before her arrest she worked with the famous singer P. Leshchenko) and exiled to Ust-Omchug G.F. Richter (German communist, Ph.D., associate professor of German literature and linguistics, music teacher, wife of the repressed anti-fascist writer G. Günther in 1936) also performed on the club stage of Ust-Omchug. In one of the saved I. S. Grundman programs of a club concert of the early 50s. – 3 departments and repertoire from folklore to classical music. Although club theaters and amateur clubs in the villages were considered amateur, as we can see, quite a few professionals also worked on their stages.

But let's return from the club scene to the streets of Ust-Omchug in the 1940s - early 1950s and look at it through the eyes of the old-timers of our village. The main institution of the village is a two-story U-shaped building of the mining department (located on the site of the current monument to Lenin), not far from it is the administrative building of Tenlag, followed by the police building (part of the Tenlag building and the police building were demolished in 1996, now there is a square), then diagonally across the road is the building of the commandant's office (in this place there is a square in front of the TsDiNT). A little later, in the second half of the 50s, the building of the prosecutor's office was built (now there is a Prok store). All this is the administrative center of our village. Another institution from the same row is a small house of a military tribunal (a visiting tribunal sat here), Tenkinskaya Street began from it (it was demolished several years ago). The area of the current Rassvet store and adjacent areas is a residential area of the VOKhRs. On the construction of a military camp in the village. Ust-Omchug for the shooters of the Coastal Camp and the organization of a construction site here was mentioned in a memorandum for 1951 by the head of the Berlag, Colonel Vasilyev, addressed to the head of the Gulag, Lieutenant General Dolgikh.

The headquarter was located on the Embankment. Yes, there was such a street in our village. On it is the house of the head of the TSPU, built in 1950 (until recently it was the old part of the building of the music school, and now Variant LLC), other heads of the TSPU lived in a barrack nearby (a former tourist center, now the building has been demolished). At the end of the street is a small house of G.A. Kechek, leader of the Tenkino geologists. In general, the "privileged quarter" did not look very good either. And why was the street called Embankment, you ask, because there is no river there? It is now gone, but then one of the canals of the river passed through the current stadium and sports school. Omchug. Countless canals and oxbows of Omchug were also located on the site of the current microdistrict.

Shopping mall. In 1950, a two-story Raduga store was built, and two years later a new grocery store was added to it (before the fire, the Erika store).

At the beginning of st. Gornyatskaya on the left were located TsRMM, on the right - a power plant. At the end of Gornyatskaya there are taiga thickets, where a convoy was located. In the subsidiary farm of Ust-Omchug there were several heads of cows. Children and nursing mothers were given 200 g of milk per week. The distribution of milk was strictly monitored by the women's council of the village.

This entire barracks center with several wooden two-story buildings is surrounded by typical Kolyma architecture - the private sector. In the first decade, these houses were built mainly on the left bank of one of the Detrin channels, later called Poganka, in the area of \u200b\u200bthe current Komsomolskaya and Detrinskaya streets.

The population of the village - s / c, former s / c, security and contract negotiators. Among the latter are specialists and chiefs. Many of the specialists - engineers, geologists, etc. - wore military uniforms and had various ranks of officials of the NKVD-MVD. After all, they are all employees of this department. There is not a single civil authority in the village yet.

in 1950, 2945 people lived in the village, incl. workers - 578 people, employees - 495, engineers - 356, MOP - 118.

Ust-Omchug was the central settlement of the Tenkinsky Mining Administration, there were 18 different enterprises and organizations in it, both subordinate to Dalstroy and not included in its system. The main ones were: Central Repair and Mechanical Workshops, Housing and Communal Services, Department of Capital Construction, Administration and Political Department of TSPU, Regional Geological Exploration Department, 7th Communications District, Branch of the State Bank, Regional Department of the Ministry of State Security, Savings Bank, Sanitary Department of TSPU, etc.

In 1950, there were 171 houses in the village with a total area of 11158 m2, 3.8 square meters of living space per 1 inhabitant.

In 1950, there were 5 boiler houses in Ust-Omchug. Central heating is available in the production workshops of the CRMM, hospital, dispensary, children's institutions, administration, retail outlets and canteen, as well as in 14 residential buildings with a living area of 4189 m2. The total length of the heating network was 5 thousand meters. There was no water supply, sewerage and sidewalks in the village.

There were profiled highways on three streets: on Clubnaya, 1400 m long, River - 550 m, Tenkinskaya - 100 m.

The village was fully electrified. Ust-Omchug had its own power plant with a capacity of 700-900 kW, the length of the power grid was 18 km.

The radio center of the village with a capacity of 300 watts served 425 radio points. The telegraph junction had two switches with a total capacity of 200 numbers, the length of the telephone line was 235 km.

Socio-cultural institutions of Ust-Omchug in 1950:
secondary school with a capacity of 452 people;
boarding school, where 161 pupils lived;
hospital with 40 beds;
a polyclinic with a monthly attendance of 41 thousand people;
kindergarten and nursery, each with 50 seats;
club for 350 seats;
central library with 17,500 books.

In the village there was a sports base of the voluntary society "Non-Ferrous Metals", as well as a football and volleyball stadium and a sports town.

From public utilities in the village worked:

bath with the number of simultaneously washing 15 people. and a laundry with a capacity of 40 kg of linen per shift. In October 1950, a bath-laundry under construction with a capacity of 45 people was put into operation. simultaneously washable and with a capacity of 100 kg of dry linen per shift;
four hairdressing salons with a total of 7 masters and a capacity of 200 people per day;
repair and shoe and repair and repair workshops with the number of workers employed in them 14 people with a turnover of 300 thousand rubles. per month.
The trade network of Ust-Omchug in 1950 was represented by 5 stores, their total turnover was 2000 thousand rubles. per month, the dining room with a branch at the hotel served 300 people. The monthly turnover of the canteen was 256 thousand rubles.

In October 1950, a new bakery with a capacity of 4,500 kg was put into operation. bread per day.

December 2, 1953 Ust-Omchug becomes the administrative center of the new Tenkinsky district, and on December 22 of the same year it receives the status of a workers' settlement. In 1954, the first civil authority was formed in the person of the Soviets of Working People's Deputies. Ust-Omchug also becomes the center of the formed Ust-Omchug village council, its first chairman was 26-year-old Avenir Ivanovich Borisenko.

Perhaps the young enthusiasm of the executive committee members, the expectation of greater and better changes, allowed them at a meeting of the executive committee of the council in July 1954 to make the following decision: subjugation and renaming it to Omchug. Apparently, the decision of the superiors was not positive, the village did not become a city.

Nevertheless, one of the numerous Gulag "islands" of Kolyma is gradually turning into an ordinary settlement, and is increasingly overgrown with "masterpieces of architecture" in private sector areas. They were erected by people released from the camps, many of whom, after leaving the camp, were in exile, in a settlement, under the supervision of the commandant's offices, where they had to report monthly. They also settled in our village. They built housing for themselves, as it was necessary, where it was necessary and from what it was necessary. Container boxes were also used. The roofs were covered with wood chips. They also made furniture themselves. Tiny, but numerous rooms and nooks and crannies of these buildings with low ceilings, small windows and separate entrances on all sides testify not only to the poverty of their creators. Finally came the opportunity to be alone after the crowded camp barracks and hostels for freemen, where even food was forbidden to cook individually. To help the new settlers of the 1950s, it begins to produce furniture and building parts for individual developers at the checkpoint of the TSPU (Office of Industrial Enterprises), and TSRMM, as consumer goods, produces scoops for extracting ash from stoves, pans, washboards, wooden rolling pins.

The checkpoint of TSPU was formed in August 1954 through the reorganization of the former construction and maintenance office (SEC TSPU). The TSPU checkpoint was the largest enterprise in Ust-Omchug. It was in charge of the manufacture of consumer goods, repair and construction work, the communal services of the village were also included in the scope of this enterprise. Until 1957, the checkpoint of the TSPU also included numerous logging sites of Tenka. And it is quite strange that in March 1954 the children's center of the district center was transferred from the sanitary department, first to the SEC, and after the reorganization of the latter, obviously, to the checkpoint.

In the 1950s, in Ust-Omchug, the private sector built up the right bank of the Poganka, the area of \u200b\u200bthe current Zelenaya, Magadanskaya, and Vostochnaya streets. The local authorities are trying to restore order in this spontaneous construction. Let us cite with some abbreviations and a small commentary one of the minutes of the meeting of the executive committee of the Ust-Omchugsky Soviet of June 1954. It is interesting not only for its history, but also for the geography of our village reflected in it. Pay attention to where the rivers and channels passed. His decision reads:

“Approve the existing names of the streets of Gornyatskaya, River (since 1965, Pobeda St.), Naberezhnaya (now the area of Kosmonavtov St.), Tenkinskaya.

Rename existing street names: Kolymskoye Highway to Magadanskaya Street, Detrinskaya Street to Komsomolskaya.

Create new streets: Nagornaya, Shkolnaya, Sovetskaya (running from Magadanskaya St. past the building of the transit hotel to Shkolnaya Street), Severnaya (since 1968, Gagarin St. - I.G.), Vostochnaya (running from Detrinskaya Protoka to the south of Komsomolskaya Street) , Green, Worker, Pioneer, Proletarian, Builders (on the territory of bonds), Army (on the territory of OLP No. 11), Rural (at the Agrobase SEK), Road (at the DEU TSPU) (since 1958, mine, in honor of the mine based here "Cheerful" - I. G.), New (behind the Detrinsky bridge).

Create new lanes: Lesnoy (going from the transit hotel to the northwest), Omchugsky, Parkovy (going from Severnaya Street to Shkolnaya), Nizhny, Yuzhny, Sadovy, Bolnichny, Protochny, Zapasnoy (going from Shkolnaya St. to Shkolnaya St.). Soviet)".

(True, the fact that Agrobaza was renamed into Selskaya Street, apparently, was forgotten, since in 1958, by decision of the executive committee of the council, it was again given this name - Selskaya Street).

By the decision of the council in the summer of 1954, the passage for trucks along the street was closed. Gornyatskaya, and from the same year a regular passenger service between Magadan and Ust-Omchug was opened for the first time.

And if the population of Ust-Omchug in 1954 was about 5 thousand people, then by the end of 1956 it was already 7.2 thousand.

Despite the fact that the TSPU was still the most powerful economic organization, an “exodus” began from under its monopoly. In March 1954, departments of the district executive committee were formed - health, education, culture, trade, agriculture. Relevant institutions and enterprises are transferred from TSPU under their authority. In 1954, the construction of the administrative building of the district committee of the trade union and the central library began, the first stone building of Ust-Omchug (the current building of the regional library), however, construction was completed not in 1955, as planned, but only in 1960. Although, perhaps, in there is an error in the BTI certificate, since this building is in the photo of 1958.

The Bolshevik newspaper from January 1954 changes its name to Leninskoye Znamya, and from February 25, 1954, it becomes not an organ of the political department of the TGPS (TGPU), but an organ of the RK CPSU and the district council of working people's deputies (which, however, did not change much , to say the least). It is difficult to say when the secrecy in the newspaper exceeded common sense, I happened to see only some copies of the Soviet Kolyma for 1944, the district newspaper for 1946 and the binder of the Lenin Banner for 1954. The farther from the war, the more secret the newspapers became publications. In 1944, the mine is called a mine, a mine is a mine, respectively, with its name; in 1946 everything was depersonalized by the word “enterprise”, but at least with a name, for example, enterprise named after. Budyonny. In 1954 - the apogee of secrecy, only the enterprise, no matter what - mining or bath-laundry, and where it was located, the reader had to guess by the name of his boss. In general, a classic example of bird language. I can't help but quote him. In those years, it was customary to print announcements about the dissolution of marriage between spouses. Here is one of many: “A citizen ... living in the village of an enterprise where the head of Comrade. Trifonov, filed a divorce case with a citizen ... living in the village of the institution where the head of Comrade. Zhukovsky. The normal address was indicated only if it was Magadan or another city in the USSR. Or the beginning of a newspaper article: “In the village of the workshop, led by Comrade. Pevzner (an enterprise where Comrade Primakov is the head) built a new outpatient clinic building. Translated into a normal language, it would sound: “In the village of Factory built ...”. Often newspaper publications in 1954 about the production successes of the miners were signed - “A. Kovinko, site economist. The surname of the Ukrainian writer-satirist Alexander Ivanovich Kovinko as a s/k of the mine named after. Budyonny had to be met in the memoirs of his countrymen. In what enterprise he worked as an economist, it was impossible to understand from the newspaper. And only from archival documents by the name of the head of the mine, which was in that year (and they changed very often), we managed to find out that everything was there, at the mine. Budyonny. The entire newspaper is written in this language. To be fair, I must say that there are exceptions. Elections were held three times in 1954 - to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, to people's courts, to the district Soviet of Working People's Deputies - as you can see, "national holidays" were often held before. The newspaper printed lists of polling stations and districts. Here the settlements were called by their proper names, so at least you can find out what kind of villages our area then made up, but you still won’t know what enterprises were there (after all, the enemy is not asleep!).

But we will continue our journey through Ust-Omchug. On the site of the former vegetable gardens (now the administrative building of the former GOK, bank and court) next to the club, the Metallurg stadium appears with a front entrance decorated with sculptures of athletes, along the hospital campus there was a sports shooting range. An indispensable component of all village demonstrations during public holidays was a column of motorcyclists from the DSO Metallurg with flags. Campaign motorcycle races were also popular. In December 1955, according to other sources, in September 1956, the Children's and Youth Sports School began to work in the village.

At the end of June 1956, Ten'lag was closed, and with it the camp zones. The name "Komendantsky" in relation to the nearest settlement of Ust-Omchuga has become obsolete, and it was renamed the village. Zarechny. Only here, with regard to the year of renaming, there are discrepancies - in 1957 and in 1960. Since 1979, the village. Zarechny became st. Zarechnoy Ust-Omchuga.

In the summer of 1957, a culture and recreation park was opened in Ust-Omchug.

1957 was a year of great reorganizations in the Magadan region. Dalstroy was liquidated, and with it all mining and industrial departments, including TSPU, ceased to exist. The Magadan Economic Council was formed, in direct subordination to which all the mines and mines passed. And in 1960, branch management of industry returned again. The regional mining departments were recreated, now under the auspices of Severovostokzoloto. In our area it is TRGPU. Other large enterprises also reorganized. The Tenkinsky office of industrial enterprises in Ust-Omchug was reorganized into the Tenkinsky construction office, and from June 1, 1960, its name was changed to the Tenkinsky construction department (TSU). In March 1959, the VKrayGRU was reorganized, it became known as the Tenkinskaya complex expedition, and a little later the word "geological exploration" (TKGE) was added to the name. And if we continue this topic, we can say that in February 1964 the oldest enterprise of our village TsRMM (later TRMM) changed its sign to TRMP (Tenkinsky Mechanical Repair Plant).

On October 20, 1958, the first broadcast of the regional radio broadcast went on the air, not only in the village of Ust-Omchug, as it was in the 1940s, but for the entire region. F. F. Bezbabichev was the organizer, the first and long-term editor of the regional radio broadcasting. Probably, there is not a single old-timer in Ust-Omchug, and even in the region, who would not know him.

Fedor Fedorovich Bezbabichev. Born in 1904 in a peasant family in the Lipetsk province. At the age of 16 he became a Red Army soldier, at 17 - a member of the CPSU. Then he worked at party work and as a journalist. All his life he was fanatically devoted to the Communist Party and selflessly served it. He is a participant in the suppression of "kulak revolts" during the years of collectivization and a fighter against "leftist bends" of the first secretary of one of the Siberian regional committees of the party, an apologist for the Stakhanov movement in the Urals, in 1937 he himself was repressed and spent 10 years in camps, including a large part of the term - in the camps of Tenka. After being released in 1947 and rehabilitated in 1956, he fought for reinstatement in the ranks of the party, was reinstated and was an active communist in the district party organization. He first worked as a rate-setter in a construction organization, and since 1958 as an editor of the regional radio broadcasting organized by him. A great bookworm, all his wealth was books, unmercenary (he gave numerous expensive gifts for anniversaries to kindergartens, repeatedly refused an apartment, and so he lived in a barrack until his death). He loved our region very much, dreamed and made attempts to create a museum of the region to educate the younger generation in the spirit of patriotism, using the examples of pioneer geologists and devoted communists. His radio rubric "Live Pages of Tenka's History" is evidence of this.

On the eve of May Day, April 30, 1959, a monument to Lenin was solemnly opened in front of the club building, where a few years earlier a monument to Stalin had stood on the same pedestal. In 1959, a new hostel was built for the boarding school (now it is the building of the district administration). And it was the first three-story building in our village.

Little was built yet, more often social facilities were opened in adapted premises. In January 1960, the doors of the Children's Music School were opened in the former mansion of the head of the TSPU. 1 teacher and 18 students - that was the start. In the next academic year - 85 students, and 40 more applications were submitted for the evening department for adults. Then the school was completed twice, in 1963 and 1970, since it no longer accommodated everyone who wanted to study there. In 1970 there were 11 teachers and 176 students in the Children's Music School.

In the mid-1960s, the House of Pioneers and a children's library were opened in adapted premises.

New enterprises are being formed in Ust-Omchug. Small enterprises united their fleets and formed a branch of motor depot No. 1 (Palatkinskaya). In 1960, the branch had 102 trucks. In 1961, the Tenkinskaya motor depot was formed from the branch. In September 1960, the Kulinskaya LZK was reorganized into the Tenkinsky logging enterprise with a base in Ust-Omchug, and in April 1963, the Tenkinsky and Omsukchansky logging enterprises merged into one - Central, with a base in Ust-Omchug. At the beginning of 1961, the Kurchatov mine was moved to Zarechny. In the 1960s, a repair and construction department, a consumer services complex, etc. were formed.

In 1962, a training and course plant began to work to train young people in mining professions - bulldozers, drillers, explosives, drivers.

In 1960, a runway was built in Ust-Omchug to receive small planes, and the first planes appeared. In 1966, we had our own aviation unit. Maria Semyonovna Pashkevich, the commander of the An-2 aircraft, a participant in the Great Patriotic War, a pilot since 1940, stood at the origins of Tenkinskaya aviation.

Residential buildings continued to be built. In the 1960s, their appearance changed. These are no longer barracks with conveniences in the yard, but mostly wooden two-story buildings, however, with partial communal amenities - cold water, a toilet and a separate kitchen in each apartment. Only for 1964-1966. about 20 houses were sold. They are being built on Komsomolskaya, on Sovetskaya, on Zarechnaya, a new lane is emerging - Yubileiny. The dream of our fellow countrymen is getting an apartment in a house with a bathroom, however, with water heating in titanium. New public facilities are also being built - kindergartens (at the end of Gagarin Street), a school for 964 places (1966) (now there is a Center for Additional Education), a restaurant (1960).

1967 is the anniversary year of the 50th anniversary of Soviet power, and it is customary to celebrate anniversaries with labor gifts. In Ust-Omchug this year a new club on Zarechnaya, a cinema "Rossiya", a residential building with a large department store "Rassvet" built on the ground floor, a four-story house with a deli "Central" on the first floor (commissioned in 1969) were put into operation. ). In 1967, the first automatic telephone exchange in the region was installed in Ust-Omchug. Such small achievements in the age of “mobile phones” of modern youth probably seem like a trifle, but it was a connection with the “mainland”. The construction of a radio relay line has begun so that we can watch TV programs. This significant event, without which we cannot imagine our life now, took place in Ust-Omchug on March 16, 1969, just on the day of the elections to the local Soviets. And another remarkable event in 1967 - most enterprises switched to a five-day work week with two days off.

In 1968, the first building of the poultry farm was built on the right bank of the Detrin (the former Anmannandzha site), and the central estate of the Tenkinsky state farm was transferred from the village. Chalbukhan in Ust-Omchug. The state farm is reorganized into a specialized poultry farm "Tenkinsky" with subordination to the Magadan trust "Ptitseprom".

I would like to recall the names of some of our honorary countrymen, whose work was awarded high government awards in the 1960s. These are the “Kurchatovites” I.A. Belyakov, G.M. Voinov, P.G. Kuzmichenko, A.N. Reshetnitsky, V.I. Sergeev, I.P. Ushakov, head of the TKGE S.S. Kolchin, carpenter TRSU S.A. Sysoev, pediatrician R.V. Belousova, broadcasting editor F.F. Bezbabichev, commander of the police department B.N. Belyaev, N.M. Ilyukhin with TRMP, A.E. Mironov and V.P. Zakharov from the Tenkinskaya motor depot.

In the 1960s and subsequent years, the population of the village is no longer growing at the expense of former prisoners, young specialists and skilled workers come here. The North attracts not only with romance, but also with high wages and northern benefits. There is an acute problem of lack of housing. To replenish the housing stock, without reducing the existing one, it is possible only by building up vacant plots, and there are no such plots within the boundaries of the old building. Otherwise, you will have to stir up the "anthills" of people who live so closely. It was then that they made a bold and difficult decision - to build up the floodplain of the Omchug River, separated from the channel by a dam, with typical five-story buildings. At the origins of the construction of the microdistrict were the architect of the district A.V. Shein, chairman of the district executive committee M.A. Petrov, head of TSU A.I. Lyamov, TSU chief engineer P. S. Tenenbaum, head of the design and estimate department of the TSPU Tretyakov, and design engineer at the district architecture Polzunov1. In 1969, the construction of the Ust-Omchug "cheryomushki" began. At first timidly, three-, then four-story building, and then five-story houses went. Every year they got better and better. On the ground floor of some houses there are built-in spacious shops, a hairdresser's, a TV and radio workshop. In 1971, a new dormitory building was built for the boarding school, the old building of the boarding school was occupied by the Tenkinsky district executive committee (now it is the district administration). By the 30th anniversary of the Victory, a new street appeared in Ust-Omchug - Mira Street, expanded its territory and st. Victory.

In the 1970s, a new Sports Palace and a new stadium near the park, a new hospital building and a clinic on the first floor of a new residential building were built in Ust-Omchug. A central boiler house, a new bathhouse and a laundry room, and even a flower greenhouse next to the bathhouse were built, where one could buy a bouquet of flowers even in winter. On the site of the former stadium, new production buildings for the Tenkinsky GOK (as the former TRGPU became known since 1970) and the district committee of the CPSU have grown. Next to the first administrative building of our village, the former TSPU, and in the 1950s-1960s it housed almost all the institutions of Ust-Omchug (the district committees of the CPSU and the Komsomol, the district executive committee, part of the geological exploration expedition, the trading office of the URS and many even smaller organizations) a three-story building was built for the Tenkinskaya geological exploration expedition. A lot of housing was built by household organizations and enterprises of the village on Zavodskaya and Zarechnaya streets.

Our village grew and improved. New residential buildings grew in the microdistrict, their comfort improved. Instead of the cramped stove-top kitchens and titanium bathrooms (both requiring wood) of the 1960s and early 1970s, the kitchens now had modern electric stoves and hot water taps. In 1980, another new school (boarding school) was built in the microdistrict, it was connected by a warm passage with the dormitory building of the boarding school built earlier. New hospital buildings, 3 new kindergartens in the microdistrict and one in the park, a bank building, a communications center, a large restaurant in the center of the village, specialized stores have grown.

In the 1980s, the population of Ust-Omchug was stably 10 thousand, reaching a maximum in 1989 - 11.3 thousand people.

In 1986, many of our countrymen were awarded orders and medals for their labor achievements. Orders were received by TSU carpenter E.V. Nozhkin, drilling foreman TGRE S.A. Martoyan and foreman of drillers N.A. Tokarenko, foreman of the state farm "Tenkinsky" N.N. Zhuravleva and milkmaid V.S. Gurskaya, foreman of KBO tailors N.M. Kuzmenko, teacher T.Yu. Prozorova and pediatrician G.A. Balashov.

The joy of the transformations, the confidence that it will be even better in the future, was imprinted on the pages of the regional newspaper in 1974 in the publication of P.P. Kozlov, at that time the district architect, and 20 years later - the chairman of the Tenkinsky district executive committee.

“... Ust-Omchug is already a city, it has more than 20 thousand inhabitants. Numerous five-story houses adorn the streets. Particularly attractive is the central street - Victory.

Gornyatskaya also looks unusual. Here you will not see barrack-type houses - these unsightly houses have long been demolished, in their place there are beautiful multi-storey buildings.

... We go into one of the apartments. The height of the rooms is striking. It is almost half a meter higher than in apartments built 20 years ago... Built-in furniture is installed in all rooms. There are also rooms for drying outerwear.

... Here is a group of schoolchildren rushing to the swimming pool, which is located on the banks of the Detrin River. The holiday is approaching - New Year 1994. Citizens acquire fluffy Christmas trees grown in the forestry nursery. There is a brisk trade in numerous shops.

Most of the streets of the city are concreted, cars of different brands scurry along them. Guests from various cities of the country and villages of the region are visiting the city together with us. They stopped at a new, comfortable hotel.

The journey through the city of the future lasts several hours, and we are surprised to notice that there is no wind on its streets. Yes, the wind will not break into the city now. Multi-story windproof buildings built on the outskirts, thoughtful residential complexes protect the city from gusts of icy wind. And we are returning to the present to tell people about the future of Ust-Omchug, which will become a reality.”

Well, the reader, smiled bitterly? Let's go back to the present. Maybe not everyone in the 1970s believed in these projects, but the most pessimistic of all pessimists could not have imagined what would become like now. Although in some ways Pavel Petrovich turned out to be right - this is about "numerous shops", more precisely - shops scattered around the basements and first floors of buildings. Every summer, separate pieces of the walls of the first floors of buildings bloom with all kinds of colors of the most "poisonous" shades, according to the tastes of their "designers" - the owners of these shops. And cars of different brands appeared, only they scurry along the potholes of our roads, raising dust.

In the early 1990s, they were completing what had already been started a long time ago - the House of Culture and several residential buildings. The last house in Ust-Omchug was built in 1993 on the street. Gornyatskaya, 49a, and from non-residential in 1995 they finished rebuilding the long-suffering bathhouse. But it still failed to finish everything that had been started. One of the unfinished boxes for several years blackened with failures of window openings, which never became windows, until it was dismantled and transported to the Shkolny mine, and the other (one of the hospital buildings under construction) still stands unfinished. For years, a tower crane looming near it then rusted for a long time on the ground, laid next to an unfinished building.

The population is declining, as of January 1, 2004, 4600 inhabitants remained in Ust-Omchug, which is already less than the level of 1954.

In the 1990s, the GOK, the Kurchatovsky mine, both expeditions, TSU and TRSU, the Mining Equipment Repair Shop (former TRMP), the timber industry and state farm, the motor depot and many other enterprises and organizations disappeared. Some enterprises and fields of activity have disappeared completely, such as geological exploration, logging, agriculture, others have been transformed into numerous economic entities, their number goes to hundreds. They grow like mushrooms and disappear like mushrooms in autumn. New institutions also appeared, for example, the employment service. In the old days, such a service was simply not needed, since there was enough work for everyone. At first, a numerous tax service and tax police appeared, but somewhere they decided that it was unprofitable to have such a service in the region and transferred it to a neighboring region, shifting this burden onto “economic entities” - let them go to us themselves.

In Ust-Omchug and the region there are not enough qualified doctors, teachers, the population has long forgotten about such a boon of civilization as dry cleaning, there was no hot water for several years, constant problems with heating. Mail is delivered twice a week. Now this is our reality.

Buildings where organizations and children's institutions were once located are now occupied by other departments. Where the expedition was, now the police, the children's polyclinic - the military registration and enlistment office, the bookstore - a commercial bank, the children's library - the "labor exchange", the district committee of the CPSU - the court. Reminds me of the 1950s, only with the opposite sign. There are no buildings left of many other institutions and organizations. Ruins and ashes, but wastelands. Now, as in the late 1960s, the problem of building sites would not arise, only there is no one to build. Garages and ancillary industries have invaded the territories of the former kindergartens near the park and in the park, disfiguring the already unattractive appearance of our village. In the center of the village, where there was once a restaurant and a shopping area, now, like a decoration for the "White Sun of the Desert", huge capacities of an electric boiler house rise. Not to fat, I would live, but hot water appeared. There are worse corners in Ust-Omchug. There is a bitter joke among my countrymen. When someone leaves the village, they advise: “Take Zarechnaya or Zavodskaya Street as a souvenir so that nostalgia does not torment you.” Because they look like Stalingrad in the newsreels of the war years.

On the godless earth, new things also appeared. In the building of the abandoned repair and construction department, there is now a Protestant church, and between the court, the police and the monument to Lenin, there is a tiny Orthodox church. That's just "will Varlaam street lead to the temple?".



There is no route transport inside the village. The village administration ignores this issue, despite the large stretch of the settlement.

There is a regular transport connection with the regional center (Magadan) and the village. them. Matrosov.

Social infrastructure
The village has a school for 600 people, a kindergarten, a central district hospital, and a children's art palace.



Ust-Omchug has a cold climate and a significant amount of precipitation, even in dry months it often rains. According to the Köppen climate classification, it is a subarctic climate (Dfc index) with uniform moisture and painfully cold winters.

Average annual air temperature - -8.9 ° C
Relative air humidity - 74.5%
Average wind speed - 3.5 m / s



Mining and processing plant
Mining Equipment Repair Shop
JSC "Electrum-plus"