Georgia is one of
the fifty states that, along with Washington D.C., make up the
United States. Its capital and most populated city is Atlanta.
It is located in the Southern region of the country, South
Atlantic division, bordering to the north with Tennessee and
North Carolina, to the east with the Savannah River - which
separates it from South Carolina - to the south with Florida and
to the west with Alabama (the southern half of this boundary is
formed by the Chattahoochee River). With 9,687,653 inhabitants
in 2010, it is the ninth most populated state, behind
California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, Pennsylvania,
Ohio and Michigan. It was admitted to the Union on January 2,
1788, as the 4th state.
Georgia's population growth is one of the highest in the country in recent decades. Its population grew by around 26% between 1990 and 2000, from 6,478,216 in 1990 to 8,186,453 in 2000. Most of Georgia is covered by forests, mainly pine, peach, and magnolia. The northern territory of the state is fundamentally mountainous, while its southern area is flatter and less rugged. The natural aspects of Georgia were and still are very important to the state. Culturally, the natural beauties inspired various artists who grew up there. Economically, they make tourism and the logging industry important sources of income for Georgia. The state is one of the national leaders in timber production. Its forests gave it the nickname The Peach State and a popular saying, Tall as Georgia Pine.
The region that currently constitutes Georgia was in dispute during the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th century, between the United Kingdom and Spain. From the British point of view, Georgia was then part of a colony called the Carolinas, which also included the current states of North Carolina and South Carolina. However, for Spain, Georgia was part of Spanish Florida, keeping the dispute alive with some intensity until the end of the Seven Years' War, in 1763. In 1724, the British created the colony of Georgia. On February 12, 1733, the first British settlers settled in the region, in what is now Savannah. Georgia was the last of the Thirteen Colonies created by the British.
Georgia prospered beginning in the 1750s with the cultivation of rice and corn, becoming a leader in the agrarian industry of the Thirteen Colonies. After the American victory in the American War of Independence, Georgia became the fourth American state on January 2, 1788. Georgia seceded from the Union in 1861, and became part of the Confederate States of America. Georgia was one of the states hardest hit by the Civil War (a stage in Georgia history that inspired the immortal novel Gone with the Wind). Until the beginning of the 20th century, the state's economy depended on agriculture and livestock. From then on, manufacturing became the state's main source of income, and more recently the finance sector has also become one of its main sources of income.
Northwest - the southern end of the Appalachian Mountains.
Center - historic heart of the state including the greater Atlanta area.
Coast - Islands and the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway.
Southwest - Rivers and Plains.
2 Athens - University of Georgia
3 Atlanta - capital and birthplace of Coca Cola
8 Helen - Small village with an alpine look
12 Savannah - Seaside town
Fort Frederica National Monument is an open air museum of the British fort located on St. Simons Island, Georgia in United States. It was constructed in 1736- 1748 by British General James E. Oglethorpe and covers an area 241 acres.
Fort Pulaski National Monument houses old American fortress that was constructed in 1829 under orders of Major General Babcock who was later replaced by Second Lieutenant Robert E. Lee.
Ocmulgee National Monument is famous for massive earth works of the Native American near Macon, Georgia state of United States.
Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport internet (IATA:
ATL), 6000 N Terminal Pkwy, Atlanta, GA 30320. It served 107.4
million passengers in 2018, making it the world's busiest
airport. Feature: WiFi.
I20: From Tuscaloosa to Atlanta and Augusta and on to Columbia
I16: From Macon to Pembroke and Savannah
I75: From Tampa via Macon to Atlanta and on to Chattanooga
I85: From Auburn to Atlanta and on to Greenville
I95: From Jacksonville to Savannah and on to Florence.
The north of the state is in the Blue Ridge Mountains. The state's highest point is Brasstown Bald (1458 m). The length of the Atlantic coastline is 161 km.
Georgia has a west-east width of 370 km between 81°W and 85°53'W and a north-south length of 480 km between 30°31'N and 35°N.
Georgia is bordered by the Atlantic
Ocean to the east, the US state of South Carolina
to the northeast, the
states of North Carolina and
Tennessee to the north, the state of
Alabama to the west, and the state of
Florida to the south.
The border with South Carolina is formed by the Savannah River, starting at the Atlantic Ocean - to the point where the Tugaloo River and Seneca River meet to form the Savannah River. To the west, the Tugaloo forms the border between Georgia and South Carolina. The other border with South Carolina is the Chattooga River, a tributary of the Tugaloo. The Savannah River is dammed at several reservoirs, especially in its upper reaches. Originally, the valley path of the river formed the border between Georgia and South Carolina, but due to the damming of the lakes it is no longer visible in many places. The border with South Carolina is Georgia's only delimited by water and was established in the 1797 Treaty of Beaufort (Treaty of Beaufort).
In the northeasternmost county, Rabun County, begins the border with North Carolina, which from there runs strictly west along the 35th parallel. This northern border of the state of Georgia is formed approximately half by the border with North Carolina and the other half by that with Tennessee, which was a territory of North Carolina until independence. Georgia borders directly on Chattanooga in the northwest. A little further west the border makes a sharp turn to the south. West of the border is Alabama. In the northern half, the boundary runs in a straight line south-southeast until it meets the Chattahoochee River at West Point, which henceforth forms the boundary in the southern half. This is also the border between two time zones: Eastern Time applies in Georgia and Central Time in Alabama.
The southern border with Florida extends east from the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers (which continues south on the Florida side as the Apalachicola River). At first the border is straight, to the east it follows the course of the St. Mary's River into the Atlantic.
Georgia is divided into 159 counties. This makes Georgia the state with the second highest number of counties after Texas with 254 counties.
Park Service designates Georgia as a National Scenic Trail, a National
Historic Trail, a National Recreation Area, a National Seashore and
three National Heritage Areas:
path of tears
Chattahoochee River National Recreation Area
Cumberland Island National Seashore
Arabia Mountain National Heritage Area
Augusta Canal National Heritage Area
Gullah/Geechee Cultural Heritage Corridor
There are also eleven National Natural Landmarks (as of September 30, 2017).
Georgia has three
National Monuments, a National Military Park, a National Battlefield
Park, two National Historic Sites and a National Historical Park:
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park
Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park
Andersonville National Historic Site
Jimmy Carter National Historic Site
Martin Luther King Jr National Historical Park
There are also 49 National Historic Landmarks and 2,141 structures and sites listed on the National Register of Historic Places as of September 30, 2017.
Native Americans lived in the region where the state of Georgia is located thousands of years before the arrival of the first Europeans. In 1540, Hernando de Soto was the first European to visit the area. The first Native Americans to settle in the region were a prehistoric tribe called mound builders for building small mounds of earth for ritual ceremonies. Some centuries before the arrival of the first European explorers, the Creeks and the Cherokee settled in the region, in the north and south, respectively, of the current state of Georgia, gradually taking the place of the mound builders. The Creeks lived further south. Archaeological remains have been discovered, about 1,100 years old, of a Mayan city in the mountains of this state, which is believed to have been built by this people fleeing wars, famine or natural disasters that hit Central America.
The first European settlement on American territory was founded in
1526, by the Spanish Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón. The location of this
settlement is not known with certainty, whether it was founded on the
Atlantic coast of South Carolina or Georgia. Six months after its
founding, the settlement was abandoned due to bad weather and disease.
In 1540, the Spanish Hernando de Soto, leaving the then Spanish colony of Florida in the direction of the Mississippi River, explored parts of the current state of Georgia. In that area, Soto made contact with the mound builders, being the only European known to have sighted this indigenous group. Mound builders are believed to have died out during the 1560s.
The definitive conquest was made after the French Huguenots founded a colony on the Atlantic coast (Fort Caroline) in 1564, which, abandoned shortly after, was restored by order of Admiral Coligny, even though the Queen of France had news from her daughter, Isabel. of Valois, that her husband, Philip II, would not consent to the presence of heretics in his territories. The intention was to attack the Indies fleet when crossing the Bahamas channel; transfer the religious wars to the New World and confront French opinion against Spain. Menéndez de Avilés was in charge of putting an end to these problems and he did so by carrying out the orders that he received from the monarch. The French were expelled in 1565, and then, several forts were founded on the Atlantic coast of the present-day United States, one of which was built in present-day Georgia, in 1566, on the island of St. Catherines.
Jesuits from La Florida established themselves in 1570, completely alone (without Spanish troops), in the mission of Ajacán (present-day Virginia), where they were martyred, with only one child escaping doctrine. In 1572 the Company of Jesus abandoned the missions in this area, being replaced by the Order of Saint Francis. The first Franciscan decade was a turbulent time in which missionary posts were abandoned, although they were later reoccupied.
The region of present-day Georgia would continue to be little explored by Europeans until the beginning of the 18th century; The Spanish crown, focused mainly on the search for reserves of precious metals, barely built a few defensive forts and left this mountainous and forested terrain in the hands of the missionaries. In 1629, the English began to claim the region. This year, King Charles I of England created a colony, the Carolina Colony, of which he wanted Georgia to be a part. In 1721, the British created a fort near the Altamaha River, abandoning it in 1727, due to its high maintenance cost.
In 1730, a group of British established plans for the creation of a
colony in the unexplored southern Carolinas. This colony was called
Georgia, in homage to the then monarch of the United Kingdom, King
George II of Great Britain, George in English. This authorized the
creation of the new colony through the segregation of the southern
region of the Carolinas. Initially, this group of British planned to
send prisoners or people in debt to that area. This plan, however, was
abandoned, and only a few indebted people were sent there, people who
were never heard from again after their departure from the United
In 1732, King George II granted a license to operate the new colony of Georgia for 21 years to a corporation called Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America. ), whose objective was to finance and supply the recruitment and transportation of settlers between Europe and Georgia. Despite the protests of the Spanish, who claimed the region, the first British settlers, led by James Oglethorpe, were sent to Georgia on November 17, 1732, departing from the United Kingdom, aboard the HMS Anne. On February 12, 1733, these settlers landed in the region where the city of Savannah is currently located. These settlers had the collaboration of Tomochichi, an Indian chief of a Creek tribe, who helped the settlers build adequate shelters and grow corn and rice, and persuaded other Indian tribes not to attack the new settlers. In the twenty-one years that Georgia was controlled by the Trustees, more than four thousand settlers settled in Georgia, half of whom had their travel expenses paid for by the Corporation.
Both the United Kingdom and Spain claimed Georgia. This issue, plus the fact of the existence of illegal trade between British merchants and Spanish colonies in America, caused Spain and the United Kingdom to go to war (War of the Seat) in 1739. In this war, Oglethorpe attempted to annex the Spanish colony of Florida, although he did not succeed. In 1742, after the capture of a significant Spanish military force on St. Simons Island, Georgia, by Oglethorpe and his troops, the war ended. However, the question of Georgia's claim continued.
During the period when Georgia was under the control of the Corporation, the colonists had various limitations imposed by the British crown, which did not apply to the rest of the Thirteen Colonies. For example, they could not use slave labor. While the economies of North Carolina and South Carolina prospered from the cultivation of corn and rice, Georgia's economy suffered from low exports and high prices for imported goods, leading many to resort to smuggling of products. Spaniards via Florida. In 1752, the Corporation opened its hands on the conditions of its licence, and George II reorganized the colony as a colonial province, in 1754, removing the restrictions previously imposed on the colony. Georgia then prospered economically, and its population began to grow rapidly.
The first conflict in Georgia in the United States War of Independence was the attempt to capture eleven ships loaded with rice in the port of Savannah in 1776, managing to capture only two. On July 24, 1778, Georgia ratified the Articles of Confederation, the father of the Constitution of the United States of America. Savannah was conquered by the British in December 1779. In late September 1779, American naval forces, with the help of the French Navy, took the city, after laying siege to it for three weeks. Despite the city's recapture, most of Georgia was under British control by the end of 1779. It was only in 1782 that British troops present in Georgia would leave the colony. After the end of the American Revolution in 1783, and under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, the United States took control of all British colonies south of the Great Lakes, north of the Gulf of Mexico, and east of the Mississippi River.
The region that currently constitutes the states of Alabama and
Mississippi was annexed to Georgia. It became the fourth American state
on January 2, 1788.
During the 1790s, cotton cultivation became the state's main source of income, thanks to the invention of equipment that easily separated the cotton thread from the seed. The new industry, however, did not significantly increase the demand for land in most of Georgia, relatively isolated from the rest of the country because of the mountains, forests and swamps of the north of the state. Private companies purchased large amounts of land from the Georgia government, for only about four cents per hectare, thanks to the bribery of state government officials. These lands also included parts of Alabama and Missouri. However, the discovery of this case of corruption, known as the Yazoo Fraud, led the state's population to elect new legislators in the gubernatorial elections of 1795. The new government rejected the sale, although many refused to return the lands. This problem was resolved in the 1800s. In 1802, Georgia sold all of its land west of the Chattahoochee River to the federal government. In 1810, the Supreme Court of the United States of America ruled that the sale was legal, and in 1814, the US Congress approved the grant of $4.2 million to be distributed between landowners and the government of Georgia.
More land was acquired through the removal of Native Americans from the region, forcing them to migrate beyond west of the Mississippi River—a region that was not yet part of the United States. In 1827, all the Creek tribes of Georgia agreed to sell their lands to the government, and emigrated to the Oklahoma Territory. In 1829, gold was discovered in Georgia, attracting thousands of white settlers from other states, which caused the inhabitants of the state to pressure the government to expel the Cherokees, who owned land rights to large areas of Georgia, they had their own government and did not recognize the authority of the Georgian government. In 1830, with the Indian Removal Act, the Cherokee and all Native American tribes living in the region were forced to retreat to the Oklahoma Territory, and thus, the last Cherokee tribe to migrate to Oklahoma did so in 1838.
Georgia's economy, throughout the first half of the 19th century, depended largely on the cultivation, processing, and export of cotton to European countries. However, for the sale of cotton at low and competitive prices in the European market, the use of slave labor was necessary. After the election of abolitionist Abraham Lincoln in 1861, Governor Joseph Y. Brown went on to lead a movement for Georgia's separation from the United States. On January 19, 1861, Georgia became the fifth American state to secede from the Union, joining the Confederate States of America. Ironically, a politician who was previously against Georgia's secession from the Union, Alexander H. Stephens, was elected vice president of the Confederacy.
Later, during the beginning of the American Civil War, the Union Navy blockaded the entire Georgia coast, placing various ships around the state's main port, Savannah, thus interrupting the state's cotton export to European countries. In September 1863, Union troops led by William T. Sherman defeated a Confederate force at the Battle of Chattanooga, one of the Union's first major victories, achieved in the extreme northwest of the state. In May 1864, Sherman would advance southeast, capturing Atlanta in September, burning the city in November. Sherman then continued advancing toward Savannah. Along his way, Sherman ordered the destruction of any valuable property—such as factories, railroads, and public structures; and stealing supplies from farms and the cities they passed through, causing damage estimated at 100 million dollars. Savannah would finally be conquered by Sherman on November 20, 1864.
Georgia was one of the states of the Confederacy that suffered the
most from the war. The great destruction caused by Sherman's advance in
the American Civil War, the great casualties suffered by the state—more
than any other state in the Confederacy except Virginia—and the economy
in pieces caused a great depression, not only economic but also social,
in Georgia. American troops occupied the state until 1870. In 1868,
Georgia was readmitted to the Union as an American state. However, in
1869, she was expelled for refusing to ratify the Fifteenth Amendment to
the US Constitution, which gave the right to vote to any male person of
legal age - regardless of race. At the time, more than half of Georgia's
population was black. It was only in 1870 that Georgia would ratify this
amendment, and readmitted to the Union on July 15, becoming the last
state of the former Confederacy to be admitted.
In the final decades of the 19th century, secondary industry increasingly became an important source of income for the state. At the same time, several railroad lines were built in the state, and gradually, cotton ceased to be the most important source of income for Georgia farmers, who began to diversify their crops. In the 1890s, the state dramatically increased state budgets for education and social and economic assistance. At the beginning of the 20th century, manufacturing became Georgia's most important source of income. The First World War further increased the state's industrial and agricultural production.
In 1922, Rebecca Latimer Felton became the first woman to serve as United States Senator (and, as of 2008, remains the only female Senator from Georgia in the United States Senate), holding the office for just one day. During the early 1920s, beetles wreaked havoc on the state's cotton fields, causing a major recession in Georgia's agricultural sector, with many farmers losing their entire crops, falling into debt, and being forced to sell their farms. .
Georgia was hard hit by the Great Depression, where the recession in the state's agricultural sector worsened, and many factories and business establishments closed or laid off thousands of workers. The effects of the recession would be minimized through government assistance programs beginning in 1933, but the recession would end only with the country's entry into World War II. During the war, the migration of large numbers of people from rural areas to the state's cities increased dramatically. In 1943, Georgia became the first American state to allow people over 18 years of age to vote in elections - previously, only people over 21 years of age could vote.
Georgia's industry grew strongly in the years following World War II, thanks to relatively low operating costs. In 1950, for the first time in the state's history, more people worked in the industrial sector than in the agricultural sector. Migration of the rural population to the city also increased, and in 1960, Georgia's urban population surpassed its rural population. At the same time, the large emigration of African Americans from the Southern Region of the United States towards the industrialized states of the north decreased the proportion of blacks in the state's population. Currently, about 28.7% of the state's population is black.
Until the early 1960s, all Georgia schools were segregated. In 1954, a US Supreme Court decision ordered all states that required or permitted racial segregation in schools to integrate all of their educational districts. It was only in 1960 that the Georgia government began integration, after a mandate from the United States government to integrate or close its schools. In 1961, for the first time in state history, African American children attended previously white-only schools for the first time. The process of racial integration in schools was slow, with only about a fifth of Georgia's educational districts being integrated in 1965. In 1969, a new order from the federal government made it mandatory to accelerate the integration process in all schools in the state.
During the 1970s, Rap was created in Holly Springs but many whites moved from areas mostly inhabited by African Americans, moving to regions where blacks were less numerous, causing a large increase in the proportion of blacks in the population of numerous big cities - especially Atlanta. Today, about two-thirds of Atlanta's population is African American. Georgia's population growth skyrocketed thereafter, and today, Georgia is one of the fastest growing American states in the country.
Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to
the northeast and east by South Carolina, to the east by the Atlantic
Ocean, to the south by Florida, and to the west by Alabama. Georgia is
the largest state in the country east of the Mississippi River, since
West Virginia separated from Virginia in 1863. The rugged terrain of the
northern region of the state makes waterfalls common in the region. The
highest are Amicalola, with its 222 meters high, and Toccoa, with 57
meters. The main rivers that flow through Georgia are the Altamaha,
Chattahoochee (the longest in the state), Suwannee and the Savannah. The
state's coastline has a total length of 161 kilometers - which rises to
3,772 kilometers, if we include all the regions bathed by the sea, the
coastline along the oceanic islands, bays and estuaries. About 60% of
Georgia is covered by forests,
Georgia can be divided into six distinct geographic regions:
The Appalachian Plateau occupies a small area in the northwest corner of Georgia. It is characterized by its rugged and mountainous terrain, located at an altitude between 550 and 600 meters. It is also characterized by its narrow parallel chains of mountains, with also narrow valleys.
The Appalachian Valley and Mountains Region, characterized by its relatively uneven terrain, with large valleys - with very fertile soil - and by its wide mountain ranges. It envelops the Appalachian Highlands region.
The Blue Ridge occupies the eastern ridge of northern Georgia, located immediately east of the Appalachian Valley and Sierra Region. It is characterized by its rugged and very mountainous terrain, varying between 600 and more than 1,200 meters. The region has the highest point in Georgia, Mount Brassmount, at 1,458 meters above sea level.
Piemonte, located south of the three regions mentioned above, is characterized by its relatively flat and uneven terrain, with an average altitude of 450 meters in the north, gradually decreasing as one travels south. The south of Piemonte has an average altitude of 120 meters. Five of the state's largest cities - Atlanta, Athens, Augusta, Columbus and Macon are located in this region, the most populated in the state.
The Eastern Gulf Coast Plains occupy all of southwestern Georgia, and are located immediately south of the Piemonte. It is characterized by its flat terrain and very little hilly, relatively sandy soil - where most of the state's peanut, onion, potato and watermelon cultivation takes place.
The Atlantic Coast Plains occupy all of southeastern Georgia, located immediately south of the Piemonte and east of the Eastern Gulf Coast Plains. It is characterized by its slightly rugged terrain, low altitude - 0 meters on the state's coastline with the Atlantic Ocean - and by its very fertile soil.
Georgia has a subtropical climate, relatively pleasant in winter and
hot in summer. Temperatures are more pleasant near the Atlantic Ocean.
The average annual temperature of the state is 18°C.
The temperature during winter reduces as you travel north. Southern Georgia averages 11°C in winter, while northern Georgia averages 5°C. In winter, the average minimum is 7 °C in the south and 0 °C in the north. The average of the maximum temperatures is 17 °C and 10 °C respectively. The extremes vary between -10°C and 20°C. The lowest temperature recorded in Georgia was -27°C on January 27, 1940, in Floyd County.
In summer, the temperature variation in the state is minimal, basically depending on the altitude of the terrain - the higher it is, the lower the average temperature. In summer, the average minimum temperature in the state is 22 °C, and the average maximum temperature is 33 °C. The highest temperature recorded in Georgia was 44°C, recorded on August 20, 1983, in Greenville.
Georgia's average annual rainfall precipitation rates is 1270 millimeters per year. The annual average is higher in the north of the state — where it reaches 150 centimeters annually — and smaller in the central region of the state, which receives about 115 centimeters annually. The wettest months of the year in Georgia are July and August, and the driest months are October and November. Snow is scarce in the state. The average annual snowfall rate is very low: it receives about 2.5 centimeters of snow per year, most of it in the north of the state.
The current Georgia Constitution was adopted in 1982. Older
constitutions were adopted in 1777, 1789, 1799, 1861, 1865, 1868, 1877,
1945, 1976. In total, ten constitutions were created, more than any
other American state. Amendments to the constitution are proposed by the
Legislative Branch of Georgia, and to be approved, they need at least
the approval of 51% of the Senate and the House of Representatives of
the state, in two successive votes, and subsequently by 51% or more of
Georgia's voting population, in a referendum. Amendments can also be
proposed and introduced by constitutional conventions, which need to
receive the approval of at least 67% of the votes of both chambers of
the Legislature and 51% of the state's electors in a referendum.
The chief executive officer of Georgia is the governor. He is elected by the state's voters for terms of up to four years. A person can serve as governor only twice. The governor of Georgia administers the state budget, therefore, the governor has great power over the state's finances. In addition to that, the governor has the responsibility of appointing more than a thousand different officials to positions in the state government, one of the largest in the country. These appointments need to be approved by the Georgia Legislature.
The Legislative Branch of Georgia is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has a total of 56 members, while the House of Representatives has a total of 180 members. Georgia is divided into 56 senatorial districts and 180 representative districts. The voters of each district elect a senator/representative, who will represent that district in the Senate/House of Representatives. Until 1960, these districts were organized so that each was the same size. However, the large population growth of the state's cities came to indicate that Georgia's dwindling rural population had the power to elect government. In 1960, the government reorganized these districts so that each had a similar population. The term of office of senators and representatives is two years. There is no limit to the number of mandates that a given person can serve.
The highest court in the Georgia Judicial Branch is the Georgia Supreme Court, composed of seven justices. Georgia also has a Court of Appeals, composed of nine judges. The state is also divided into 45 judicial districts, each with a Superior Court (regional in nature), having between one and twelve judges depending on the population of the District. All judges of the Judiciary are elected by the population of the state (in the case of judges of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeals) or by the population of the judicial districts (in the case of judges of these districts). for terms of up to six years in duration, with the exception of the judicial district of Atlanta, where the term of office is eight years.
Georgia is divided into 159 counties, more than any other American state except Texas. The vast majority of these counties (149) are governed by boards of commissioners, composed of between three and eleven members. The other ten are administered by a single commissioner. All commissioners are elected by the population of the respective counties, for terms of two, four or six years in duration—in most Georgia counties, the term of office of the commissioners is four years. These commissioners have legislative and executive authority over the county.
Most of Georgia's 536 cities are governed by a mayor and city council. All of these cities are considered main cities (cities), and there are no secondary cities (towns) or towns, nor independent cities. Georgia possessed five different state capitals throughout its history. Savannah was the first capital of Georgia, during the American colonial period, alternating with Augusta. For a decade the state capital was Louisville. Between 1806 until the American Civil War, Milledgeville served as the state capital. In 1868, Atlanta became the fifth capital of Georgia, remaining the state capital to this day. The state Legislature held meetings in other temporary locations, such as Macon, especially during the Civil War.
About half of Georgia's government budget is generated by state taxes, and the remainder comes from budgets received from the federal government and loans. In 2002, the state government spent 30,053 million dollars, having generated 24,847 million dollars. Georgia's government debt is $8,243 billion. The debt per capita is $965, the value of state taxes per capita is $1,612, and the value of government expenditures per capita is $3,517. Georgia has one of the smallest government debts per capita of any American state, behind only Arizona, Kansas and Tennessee.
Politically, in current times, most of the state is dominated by the Republican Party. However, between the end of the American Civil War, when the US government imposed Republican governors in the state, until the 1960s, all of the state's governors were Democrats. Republicans have since gained increasing political strength in the state. In federal elections, until 1964, the population of Georgia has voted overwhelmingly for Democrats, although since then the US presidential elections have been very varied in Georgia. Of course, while in rural areas the Republican vote is overwhelmingly majority, the Democratic vote remains very consolidated in urban areas, especially in the Atlanta area. In the 2020 United States presidential election, Democrats achieved their first victory in the state since 1992.
According to the 2000 United States Census from the United States
Census Bureau, the population of Georgia was 8,186,453, a growth of
25.8% relative to the state's 1990 population. of 6,508,419 inhabitants.
A 2007 estimate put Georgia's population at 9,544,750, a growth of 46.6%
relative to the state's population in 1990, 16.6% relative to the
state's population in 2000, and 6.9% in relation to the estimated
population in 2005.
Georgia's natural population growth between 2000 and 2006 was 438,939 — 849,414 births minus 410,475 deaths — growth caused by immigration was 228,415, while interstate migration increased by 378,258. Between 2000 and 2006, Georgia's population grew by 1,177,125 inhabitants, and between 2005 and 2006, by 231,388 inhabitants. Georgia's population growth rates are one of the highest in the country, and the state is currently the ninth most populous in the United States.
About 90.1% of Georgia's population over the age of 5 have English as their first language, and 5.6% have Spanish. French is the third most spoken language in the state, with 0.6% of the population, followed by German and Vietnamese, each with 0.4%. 7.3% of the state's population is under 5 years of age, 26.5% is under 18 years of age, and 9.6% is 65 years of age or older.
Georgia's gross domestic product was $320 billion in 2003. The
state's per capita income, meanwhile, was $29,000. The unemployment rate
The primary sector accounts for 2% of Georgia's GDP. The state has 50,000 farms, covering approximately 30% of Georgia. Together, agriculture and livestock account for 1.85% of the state's GDP, and employ approximately 120 thousand people. The state has large herds of cattle and sheep. The main agricultural products produced in the state are chickens and their derivatives, eggs and meat, of which Georgia is one of the national leaders in annual production. Bovine and sheep meat and milk are also important products of state livestock farming. The main products grown in Georgia are walnuts and peanuts. The state is the national leader in the production of these two products. Other cultivated products important to Georgia's economy are cotton, peaches, tobacco, rice and corn. Fishing and forestry together account for 0.15% of the state's GDP, employing nearly ten thousand people.
The secondary sector contributes 21% of Georgia's GDP. Secondary industry accounts for 16.5% of the state's GDP and employs approximately 608 thousand people. The total value of products manufactured in the state is $59 billion. The main industrialized products manufactured in the state are industrialized foods, transportation equipment, chemical products, textiles, machinery, wood products, and advertising material. The construction industry accounts for 4% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 270 thousand people. Mining accounts for 0.5% of Georgia's GDP, employing about 9 thousand people. The main mineral products in the state are bauxite, marble, granite and magnesium.
The tertiary sector accounts for 77% of Georgia's GDP. About 19% of the state's GDP comes from community and personal services. This sector employs more than 1.3 million people. Wholesale and retail trade accounts for 18% of the state's GDP, and employs approximately one million people. Financial and real estate services contribute about 16% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 307 thousand people. Government services account for 12% of Georgia's GDP, employing approximately 680 thousand people. Transportation, telecommunications and public services employ about 272 thousand people, and account for 12% of Georgia's GDP. 65% of the electricity generated in the state is produced in coal-fired thermoelectric plants, and 30% in nuclear plants, and the remainder is generated in hydroelectric plants.
The first educational centers in Georgia were created during the 18th
century. These rustic schools, small structures, were built by rural
communities, on plots provided by one of the community's landowners.
These schools operated through the hiring of "traveling teachers," who
were paid to teach for a short period, and traveled from one rural
community to another. For this reason, community education at the time
was irregular. These rustic schools were maintained by the local
community, and freely accessible to any white child. The rich
landowners, for their part, hired teachers from the north of the country
as private tutors for their children.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Georgia built some public schools in the main cities of the state, however they did not provide budgets for these schools after their founding, so these schools were forced to charge for the provision of educational services. Some cities and counties assumed the costs of public education, however the majority was private, with some of these schools allowing students to study if they agreed to work on farms controlled by the school. It was only in the 1870s that Georgia created a statewide system of public education. This system, maintained by the state government, provided budgets for any elementary school in the state. Starting in 1912, the state's public education system also began to provide funds for secondary schools.
Currently, all educational institutions in Georgia need to adhere to the rules and regulations issued by the Georgia State Board of Education. This Board directly controls the state's public school system, which is divided into different school districts. Each major city (city), various secondary cities (towns) and each county are served by a school district. In cities, the responsibility for managing schools lies with the municipal school district, while in less densely populated regions, this responsibility lies with school districts operating throughout the county as a whole. Georgia allows the operation of "charter schools", independent public schools, which are not managed by school districts, but which depend on public budgets for their operation. School attendance is mandatory for all children and adolescents over seven years of age, until the completion of secondary education or up to sixteen years of age.
In 1999, the state's public schools served nearly 1.48 million students, employing approximately 90.6 thousand teachers. Private schools served about 116.4 thousand students, employing approximately 10.7 thousand teachers. The state's public school system consumed about $8.537 billion, and public school spending was approximately $6.5 thousand per student. About 85.1% of the state's inhabitants over 25 years of age have a high school diploma.
The first library in Georgia was created in 1736. The first public library, for its part, was created in 1888. Georgia currently has 57 public library systems, which annually move an average of 4.6 books per inhabitant.
The first institution of higher education founded in Georgia was the University of Georgia, founded in 1785 in Athens, it was the first state-commissioned public university in the United States. This university is currently part of the University System of Georgia, which operates about 35 different colleges and universities. Currently, the state has about 124 higher education institutions, of which 74 are public and 50 are private. Of these institutions, about 30 were universities, and the rest were faculties.
Georgia is currently the main communications center for the Southern Region of the United States. The state's major paved highways were inaugurated at the beginning of the 20th century, and the vast majority of smaller state highways were paved in the decades following World War II. Atlanta is the main transportation center in Georgia. In 2003, the state had 187,543 kilometers of public roads, of which 2,004 kilometers were interstate highways, considered part of the United States federal highway system.
The state has an extensive railway network. Atlanta, in addition to being the main railway center of the state, is also the main railway center of the Southern region of the United States. In 2002, Georgia had 7,530 kilometers of railway tracks.
Atlanta currently has the busiest airport in the world, in terms of number of passengers served, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport, which moves nearly 82 million passengers a year. Savannah is the main port center of Georgia, and is one of the most modern ports in operation in the country.
The first newspaper published in Georgia was the Georgia Gazette,
first published in Savannah in 1763. The oldest newspaper in the state
still in publication, meanwhile, is the Augusta Chronicle, of Augusta,
first published in 1785. In 1828, the Cherokee Phoenix first American
Indian newspaper was published in New Echota, published in English and
the Cherokee language. Currently, 256 newspapers are published in
Georgia, of which 32 are daily newspapers.
Georgia's first radio station was founded in 1922, in Atlanta. This radio station, code WSW, was the first to operate in the South, and also the first to offer regular evening programs. The WSW slogan, which still exists today, was "The Voice of the South." The first television station was founded in 1948, in Atlanta. Currently, the state has 257 radio stations—of which 127 are AM radio and 130 are FM—and 32 television stations. Atlanta is home to several major and world-renowned television companies, such as CBS, CNN, TBS and TNT.
Georgia was the birthplace of a large number of big names in cinema such as Kim Basinger, Julia Roberts, sisters Elle Fanning and Dakota Fanning, Laurence Fishburne, Chloë Grace Moretz, Spike Lee and Steven Soderbergh. It was also the birthplace of great musical figures such as Ray Charles, Otis Redding or R.E.M.. But Georgia is above all the native state of Martin Luther King, civil rights activist.
The four major professional sports leagues in the United States have
featured Georgia teams since the 1960s: the Atlanta Braves of Major
League Baseball, the Atlanta Falcons of the National Football League,
Atlanta United FC of Major League Soccer, and the Atlanta Hawks of the
National Basketball Association. In the National Hockey League there
were two Georgia teams: the Atlanta Flames, and the Atlanta Thrashers.
The Georgia Bulldogs and the Georgia Tech Yellow Jackets are two prominent teams in college football, having won multiple national titles and bowl titles. College football's Chick-fil-A Bowl has been played in Georgia since 1968.
Atlanta Motor Speedway is an oval where the NASCAR Cup has raced since 1960. Meanwhile, the Road Atlanta road course opened in 1970 has hosted IMSA GT Championship races, CanAm, Trans-Am, NASCAR Busch Series and currently the Petit Endurance race Le Mans of the United SportsCar Championship. In the 2000s, the Tour de Georgia, a road cycling race of the UCI America Tour, was run.
The 1996 Olympic Games were held in Atlanta. The Augusta Masters, one of the four major men's golf tournaments, has been played annually at Augusta National Golf Club since 1934. Since 1998, most editions of the Tour Championship have been held at East Lake.
Amphibian: green frog (Hyla cinerea)
Tree: oak (Quercus virginiana)
Butterfly: Papilio glaucus
Drink Coca Cola
Empire State of the South
Flower: rose (Rosa laevigata)
Fossil: shark tooth
Fruit: peach (Prunus persica)
Motto: Wisdom, justice, and moderation
Mammal: right whale (Eubalaena)
Music: Georgia on my Mind.
Bird: rufous thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)
Fish: black sea bass (Micropterus salmoides)
Reptile: Gopherus polyphemus
Tagline: Georgia on My Mind