Ohio is located in the Midwest of the United States. The state
has natural borders with Lake Erie to the north and the Ohio
River to the south. Bordering states are Indiana,
Michigan, Pennsylvania and
West Virginia. The landscape is flat
in the northwest due to the Ice Age and only becomes hilly at
the transitions to the Appalachian Mountains and the Allegheny
Mountains in the southwest and southeast. It is located in the
Midwest region of the country, Central Northeast division,
bordering to the northwest with Michigan, to the north with Lake
Erie, to the east with Pennsylvania, to the south with the Ohio
River that separates it from West Virginia (to the southeast)
and Kentucky. (southwest), and to the west with Indiana. With
11,689,100 inhabitants in 2019, it is the seventh most populated
state - behind California, Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois
and Pennsylvania - and with 99.37 inhabitants/km², the tenth
most densely populated, behind Pennsylvania, Florida, New York,
Delaware, Maryland, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island and
New Jersey. It was admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, as
the 17th state.
Ohio is one of the country's major industrial centers. In addition to industry, its other major sources of income are finance, coal mining (which helped make Ohio one of the country's major industrial powers), agriculture and tourism.
The rapid industrialization of the state made various native people stand out for their inventions and pioneering. Thomas Edison was born in Ohio and the Wright brothers (known worldwide for having been the first to fly in an airplane, although there are controversies about this) They also grew up here. Another world-famous Ohio native is Neil Armstrong, the first person to walk on the moon.
There is no generally binding division of the state into
regions. Here in the German-language Wikivoyage we use the
following structure, which is mainly based on the different
Flat, agricultural area bordering Indiana to the west and Michigan to the north.
The now agricultural area of the Central Till Plain Prairie and the Southern Till Plain Prairie.
The rolling landscapes of the Southwest Ohio Prairie and the Lexington Plain Prairie; they surround the city of Cincinnati and pass into Kentucky.
Cincinnati · Dayton
Flat, agricultural area surrounding the capital and largest metropolis of Columbus.
Columbus · Newark
In the coastal area of Greater Cleveland and then the Allegheny Plateau formed by glaciers.
The very hilly area of the non-glaciated Allegheny Plateau. There is a lot of coal mining here. The region also includes the Wayne National Forest.
Cuyahoga Valley National Park lies in Summit County and Cuyahoga County. This picturesque nature reserve covers an area of 32,947 acres.
Hocking Hills State Park is a small nature reserve located in Hocking County in Ohio, USA. It covers an area of 2,356 acres.
Mudhouse Mansion is an abandoned residence situated outside a town of Lancaster, Fairfield County in a state of Ohio. It was constructed in 1870's.
Abandoned Ohio State Reformatory that is known for its paranormal activity is also known as a filming site of The Shawshank Redemption.
Prospect Place Mansion or Trinway Mansion is a historic abandoned building in Trinway, Ohio that is claimed to be haunted. It was constructed in 1856.
The Buxton Inn situated in Granville, Ohio is famous as a paranormal hot spot with many witnesses claiming supernatural encounters.
Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an advantage for its
economic and demographic growth. Because Ohio connects the Northeast
with the Midwest, a large amount of freight and business traffic passes
through its borders through its developed highway network. Ohio has the
10th largest highway network in the nation, and is less than a day's
drive from 50% of North America's population and 70% of its industrial
capacity. To the north, Lake Erie provides 502 km of coastline to Ohio,
which allows for the existence of numerous seaports. The state's
southern border is delimited by the Ohio River, while much of the
northern border is defined by Lake Erie. It is bordered to the north by
Michigan and Lake Erie, to the east by Pennsylvania, to the south by
West Virginia and Kentucky, and to the west by Indiana. On the other
side of Lake Erie is the Canadian province of Ontario.
Ohio's shoreline with Lake Erie is about 502 kilometers long, including 85 kilometers of the inlet formed by Sandusky Bay and 106 kilometers of coastline formed by the numerous islands of Lake Erie. The state has more than 2,500 lakes and lagoons, as well as another 180 artificial reserves. The largest lake in the state is Grand Lake, with 5,140 hectares in area. Ohio has nearly 70,800 kilometers of rivers and streams. The state's main river is the Ohio—which acts as the border between Ohio, West Virginia, and Kentucky. Other important rivers are the Cuyahoga, Maumee, Miami, Muskingum and Scioto rivers. About 25% of the state is covered by forests.
Most of Ohio's land, except for a small region in the south-central part of the state and an exceptionally flat area in the northwest known as the "Great Black Swamp," is made up of glacial plains. These glacial regions in ancient times were covered by a thick layer of ice, in relatively recent ice ages (the last of which occurred about 10,000 years ago BC). Most of the state is at a low altitude.
We can divide Ohio into four geographic regions:
The Great Lakes Plains are located along the state's shoreline with Lake Erie, and cover all of northern Ohio. It is a relatively narrow region, about 8 kilometers wide at its eastern end, increasing to more than 80 at the western end. It is characterized by its slightly rugged, relatively flat soil, and low altitudes, the lowest in the state—139 meters above sea level at its northeastern end. It is also characterized by its relatively fertile soil.
The Till Plains occupy all of western Ohio. The altitudes of these plains gradually increase as one travels southward. These plains have few geographical features, and are characterized by their low, wide mountains. The highest point in Ohio, Campbell Hill (472 m high)2 is located in the south of this region, in the extreme southwest of the state.
The Appalachian Plateau occupies the entire eastern region of Ohio. It is characterized by its rocky and rugged terrain. This region is home to most of the state's major mineral deposits, including coal, natural gas, and granite.
The Bluegrass Region occupies a narrow south-central region of the state. This region is characterized by its slightly rugged terrain, its pastures and its fertile soil.
Ohio's climate is temperate, with four distinct seasons, with warm
summers and cold winters. However, the weather varies greatly from
season to season. The weather in Ohio is relatively unstable, and can
change suddenly, especially in winter. The main reason for this
instability is the absence of geographical obstacles in the state and in
its vicinity, which allow the rapid movement of air currents coming from
Temperatures in Ohio drop as latitude increases. The average temperature of the state in winter is -5 °C in the north of the state, -2 °C in the central region and 2 °C in the south. The average minimum is -6 °C in the north, -4 °C in the central region and -2 °C in the south, while the average maximum is 2 °C in the north, 5 °C in the central region and 8 °C in the south. The minimum temperatures vary between -40 °C and 5 °C, and the maximum temperatures vary between -30 °C and 15 °C. The lowest temperature recorded in Ohio, -38°C, was measured at Milligan on February 10, 1899.
The average summer temperature in the north is 21 °C (20 °C in the extreme northeast), and 24 °C in the south. The average minimum is 15 °C in the north, 16 °C in the central region and 18 °C in the south. The average maximum temperature is 28 °C in the north and central region and 30 °C in the south. The minimum temperatures vary between 8 °C and 26 °C, while the maximum temperatures vary between 16 °C and 38 °C. The highest temperature recorded in Ohio is 45°C, measured on July 21, 1934 in Gallipolis.
Ohio's average annual precipitation rate is 97 centimeters annually. These rates are highest in the southern and northeastern mountain regions of the state — which can receive more than 120 centimeters annually — and lower along Lake Erie and in the northwest of the state — which receive less than 85 centimeters annually. Toledo receives about 80 centimeters of precipitation annually. The average annual snowfall rate in Ohio is 74 centimeters. These rates increase as you travel east and north. The mountainous northeastern region of Ohio receives an average of about 254 centimeters of snow annually, and because of this, it has several ski resorts.
The word "Ohio" means "Great River", "Long River" or "Beautiful River" in the Iroquois language, used by this group of Native Americans to describe the Ohio River. Ohio's nickname is the Buckeye State (the Buckeye is a chestnut tree of the genus Aesculus). Forests composed of trees of the genus Aesculus previously covered all of Ohio, although many of these forests have been cleared to provide raw materials for various industries, as well as to make room for agriculture. Ohio also claims the nickname Mother of Modern Presidents ( Mother of Modern Presidents), due to the fact that seven of the presidents of the United States were born and raised in Ohio, although this title belongs, in fact, to Virginia, with a total of eight presidents. American presidents born in Ohio are Ulysses S. Grant, Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding. An eighth President, William Henry Harrison, lived in Ohio when he he was appointed president.
The first European explorers to explore the region were the French. Until 1763, the Ohio region was part of the French colony of New France, which then came under British control. With the independence of the United States and the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the United States came to control the region. Ohio became the first territory in the Northwest Territory to be elevated to statehood, and the 17th to enter the Union, on March 1, 1803. Westward expansion and the construction of numerous railroads In the state, the discovery of numerous coal deposits and a solid agricultural industry made Ohio become a great industrial power in the mid-19th century. Ulysses S. Grant, born in Ohio, was one of the Union's leading leaders during the American Civil War.
Native Americans lived in the region where the state of Ohio is now
located nearly two millennia before the arrival of the first European
explorers. The first inhabitants of the region were a prehistoric tribe,
called Mound Builders—"mound builders"—because they built small mounds
of earth for their cultural ceremonies. The mound builders would have
settled in the region around 600 BC. C., and they would have migrated,
around 900, to the south of the current United States. There are
currently nearly six thousand archaeological remains, including tombs,
cemeteries and ritual houses, of the mound builders, in Ohio. The region
was later occupied by other Native American peoples and tribes, such as
the Huron, the Delaware, the Ottawa, the Shawnee, and especially the
Iroquois. The Iroquois dominated most of present-day Ohio during the
years preceding the arrival of the first Europeans to the region.
The first European explorer to reach the region that currently constitutes the state of Ohio was the Frenchman René Robert Cavelier de La Salle, in 1669. Cavelier annexed the entire region to the French crown, and the Ohio region became part of the colony of New France. The French, however, took little interest in colonizing the region, and there were only a few trading establishments by various French merchants to trade with the indigenous people.
During the first decades of the 18th century, the United Kingdom began to claim the region, as well as all those located south of the Great Lakes. In 1747, a group of British merchants and Virginia settlers created a company, the Ohio Company of Virginia, with the goal of colonizing the Ohio River Valley region and the areas located southwest of Lake Erie—regions that currently constitute the Ohio State. This company sent a group of settlers led by Christopher Gist to explore the Ohio River Valley region, who set out from Virginia and explored Ohio for almost two months.
The French began to build forts in the Ohio region from the beginning of the 1750s. Gist himself, in 1753, following the orders of the governor of Virginia, returned to Ohio, accompanied by George Washington, to send a message to the French, to leave the region. The French ignored Gist and Washington's message. Disputes between the French and the British over not only the Ohio region, but also the entire region around the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River, led to the start of the French and Indian War in 1754. The war had beginning in Ohio, when a militia commanded by Gist and Washington attempted to forcibly expel the French from the region, having been defeated by French forces. The French and Indian War would last until 1763, ending with British victory. By the terms of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded all regions east of the Mississippi River to the British, and all regions west of the river to the Spanish. The Ohio region came under British control. After the end of the war, an Ottawa Indian chief, Pontiac, who had good relations with the French, rebelled against the British. Pontiac would lead numerous attacks on British forts in 1763 and 1764, and an attack on Detroit, Michigan, in 1764. The attack had little success, and Chief Pontiac fled into the Illinois region.
During the American Revolutionary War, the different Native American groups in Ohio were divided over the question of which side to be on: the American rebels or the British. For example, Shawnee leader Blue Jacket and Delaware leader Buckongahelas allied themselves with the British, while Cornstalk, a Shawnee, and White Eyes, a Delaware, agreed to establish friendly relations with the Americans. The latter, however, often did not differentiate between friendly and hostile Native Americans. What's more, Cornstalk was killed by an American militia, the same thing that probably would have happened to White Eyes.
In 1780, American George Rogers Clark defeated the Shawnee forces, allied with the British. One of the most tragic incidents of the Revolutionary War, the Gnadenhütten Massacre of 1782, occurred in Ohio. After the end of the war, under the terms of the Treaty of Paris, the United States assumed control of all British colonies east of the Mississippi River, south of the Great Lakes. The United States government created the Northwest Territory in 1787, of which Ohio was a part. That same year, a mercantile company purchased several lands located in present-day Ohio from the government, having founded Ohio's first permanent settlement, Marietta, on April 7, 1788. This immediately became the capital of the Northwest Territory, in July of the same year. Quickly, other settlements would be founded in the region.
Native Americans who had allied with the British during the Revolutionary War continued to attack American communities after the war ended in 1783. In 1794, General Anthony Wayne defeated a Native American force in a nearby region. to the present-day city of Toledo. In 1795, the Native Americans accepted and ratified the Treaty of Greenville, where they agreed to cede about 70% of all of present-day Ohio to the United States government. The Native Americans did so thanks to under pressure from Chief Tarhe, a Wyandot chief. Thanks to the treaty, peace was restored in the region, and more Americans began to settle in the region.
In 1800, the government created the Indiana Territory, from the western portion of the Northwest Territory. Ohio continued to form part of the Northwest Territory, changing the Territory's capital to Chillicothe, located in present-day Ohio. According to the Northwest Ordinance, any particular territory formed from breakaway areas of the Northwest Territory would automatically be admitted as a state when its population exceeded 60,000. Although Ohio's population was only 45,000 in December In 1801, Congress determined that the region's population was rapidly growing, and that Ohio could begin the process of elevation to statehood, assuming that its population would exceed 60,000 when it was officially elevated to statehood.
In November, preparations began for the secession of the Ohio region from the rest of the Northwest Territory, and for the creation of the state of Ohio. That same month, a constitutional convention created Ohio's first Constitution. On February 19, 1803, President Thomas Jefferson signed an act in Congress that recognized Ohio as the 17th of the United States. At that time, the official declaration of statehood was not yet a custom of Congress, a custom that would become common with the elevation of Louisiana to statehood. On August 7, 1953, the year of Ohio's 150th anniversary as a state, then-President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed an act officially declaring March 1 as the date on which Ohio was officially elevated to statehood. , becoming part of the Union.
The Louisiana Purchase, carried out in 1803, caused the state's
economy to grow rapidly, since products produced in the state could be
easily transported across the Mississippi River and its tributaries to
the port of New Orleans. Annually, large numbers of ships sailed between
New Orleans and the small port centers in Ohio, transporting
agricultural products produced in that state to New Orleans, from where
they were taken to other regions.
In 1812, the War of 1812 began between the United States and the United Kingdom. Ohio was the scene of one of the most important and famous battles of the war, the Battle of Lake Erie, held on September 10, 1813. In this battle, nine American ships, commanded by Commander Oliver H. Perry, faced each other. to six British ships, in Lake Erie, a battle that resulted in victory for the United States. The results of this victory were American dominance of the waters of Lake Erie, as well as American control of the Northwest Territory, and increased drastically the morale of the population and American soldiers, after a series of defeats in the development of the war.
After the end of the war, the continued development of Ohio's economy caused Ohio's population to skyrocket. Thousands of people began to settle annually in the state, in addition to many other people from other states, and immigrants from European countries, especially Germans and British.
In 1835, a war almost broke out between Michigan and Ohio over a narrow strip of land in the northwest corner of Ohio. This war, which was called the Toledo War, did not occur due to the intervention of the federal government. In 1836, the government ceded this piece of land to Ohio. This sector of land is home to the city of Toledo, which gave its name to the "war." It was then that Ohio's borders acquired their current boundaries.
River trade between Ohio and New Orleans continued, and the need for more economical and efficient ships led to steamboats replacing the older sailing ships. The first steamboat to navigate the Mississippi was the New Orleans, in 1811, and the first to sail on Lake Erie was the Walk-in-the-Water, in 1818. In 1825, the Canal Canal opened. Erie and in 1832, an extension of this, the Ohio Canal, was completed, connecting Cleveland and Portsmouth. In 1845, another extension of the Erie Canal, the Miami Canal, was inaugurated, connecting Toledo and Cincinnati.
Ohio's numerous river canals served as trade routes for more than 25 years. Beginning in the 1830s, railroads began to be built in large numbers. The extensive and modern railroad and river transportation system caused the state's agricultural industry to develop dramatically during the 1840s, making Ohio a leader in the agricultural industry of the United States. The state's economy would diversify, with the growing expansion of the state's transportation system, and manufacturing would quickly become a major source of income as well. In 1841, William Henry Harrison became the first Ohioan to assume the presidency of the United States.
Ohio played an essential role in the American Civil War. Most of the state's population was abolitionist, that is, they were against slavery. Many abolitionists helped thousands of slaves flee, both before and during the Civil War, being transported from the abolitionist states to Ohio or Canada via the Mississippi River and the Ohio River, or via railroads. Several key people in the Union forces were native Ohioans, including Generals Ulysses S. Grant and William T. Sherman. In addition, Ohio supplied nearly 320,000 soldiers, more than the quota requested by President Abraham Lincoln for that state. The only armed conflict in Ohio occurred in 1863, when Confederate troops, led by General John Hunt Morgan, raided north, destroying any American infrastructure they found on the front. Morgan would be captured in Ohio, but managed to escape and return safely to the Confederacy.
After the end of the American Civil War, Ohio's economic growth increased again. Tens of thousands of people from other states in the United States and other countries came to settle in the state. The manufacturing industry developed rapidly, and in the 1870s it surpassed agriculture as the state's main source of income. In 1869, the Cincinnati Red Stockings—now the Cincinnati Reds—became the first professional baseball team in the country. The great industrial growth of Ohio would also promote a technological revolution in the state, not in vain numerous world-renowned inventors are from Ohio, and would have made their inventions in the state. Among them, Thomas Edison stands out. The presence of natural resources such as coal also helped Ohio become a major industrial power.
During the late 19th century, four people from Ohio became president of the United States. These people were Ulysses S. Grant—the Union Lieutenant General during the Civil War—Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, and Benjamin Harrison. William McKinley, although not a native Ohioan (he was born in Virginia, although he spent most of his childhood in Ohio), became president of the country in 1897. Another Ohio native, William Howard Taft, became the seventh person that state to assume the American presidency, in 1909.
During the late 1890s, Ohio's government was severely marred by a
political corruption scandal involving various government officials in
Ohio and the state's largest cities. Because of this political scandal,
major government reforms were carried out during the 1900s. In this
decade, the Wright Brothers—one of them, Orville, a native of Ohio—would
make numerous pioneering flights in their airplanes in the state. .
In 1913, major floods—the worst in the state's history—hit Ohio. They caused nearly 350 deaths, and damage estimated at 100 million dollars. Because of this, the state Legislature instituted a conservation program in 1914 to prevent future floods from causing so much damage. Numerous levees and dams were built throughout the state during the 1910s and 1920s. The federal government also built another 20 levees and dams. Warren G. Harding became the seventh and last Ohio native to assume the presidency of the United States in 1921.
The First World War accelerated the growth of the state's economy, thanks to the large production of war material. Growth continued through the 1920s, although unevenly—manufacturing prospered, while farms faced increasing difficulties due to deflation and increasing competition from other countries in the international market. This caused an increase in emigration from rural areas towards cities, and by the end of the decade, more people lived in cities than in rural areas.
The economy based on agriculture and manufacturing made Ohio one of the states most affected by the effects of the Great Depression. Unemployment rates rose dramatically, to over 35% among urban workers, while the drastic decline in overall produce caused numerous farms to fall into serious debt, causing many to lose theirs. The federal government and the state government soon instituted numerous social and economic assistance programs. In 1934, for example, construction began on a flood control project in the Muskingum River Valley, having been inaugurated in 1938—but not before being inadvertently tested in a "trial by fire" (in 1937, this system , not yet completed, prevented large and sudden floods in the Ohio River from causing great destruction in nearby cities).
The effects of the Great Depression ended with the entry of the United States into World War II, when the state began to produce a large amount of war material. After the end of the war, various government agencies set up research and testing centers in the state, especially in the fields of nuclear energy and the aerospace industry. The opening of the St. Lawrence Canal provided an efficient expressway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Great Lakes, and the port cities of Ohio benefited greatly from the opening of this canal. Various provincial programs encouraged industrial growth, such as tax cuts, financing the construction of industrial centers, and the provision of low-cost electricity. By the late 1960s, Ohio was the nation's fourth-largest exporter of industrial products.
The state's industrial growth continued until the early 1970s. Ohio went through a severe economic recession during the 1970s and 1980s, due to skyrocketing fuel prices, increasing competition from foreign industrialized products both in the international market and in the domestic market, and due to the relocation of Ohio factories to southern states of the nation, where costs are lower, or even to other countries. This recession caused population growth to stagnate, and it only ended in the late 1980s, when lower fuel prices, as well as greater abundance, stimulated the industrialization of the state. The relocation of factories to other regions where costs are lower, however, continues.
In 1971, the Ohio government implemented an income tax, earning the state $373 million the following year through its collection. Due to the financial crisis suffered from the 1970s, the government gradually increased this tax. In 1995, the state's income tax generated more than $4.5 billion, representing more than twelve-fold growth over a period of two decades, a period in which the state's population growth stagnated and population remained stable. In 1990, George V. Voinovich was elected, promising in his program to reduce taxes and public spending. He managed to reduce public spending, mainly through cuts in socioeconomic aid services to those in need. In his place, Voinovich increased spending on education. With the state's economy improving in the early 1990s, Voinovich was re-elected in 1994.
Because of the strength of industry in the region, Ohio, since the end of the 19th century, suffered from serious pollution, both atmospheric and river, caused by the numerous factories owned by the state and the dependence on coal plants for the generation of electricity. In 1985, Ohioans voted in a referendum to invest $100 million in a research program aimed at creating a "clean" coal plant. In 1993 the first of these plants was inaugurated. That same year, the population of the state approved in a referendum the investment of 200 million dollars for the improvement and expansion of the state system of parks and nature reserves. The state has also joined forces to clean its rivers and lakes.
The capital of Ohio is Columbus, located near the center of the
state. As of 2019, the governor is Mike DeWine. Ohio has 16 seats in the
United States House of Representatives.
The chief executive officer of Ohio is the governor. This is elected by the voters of the state for a term of up to four years. A given person can serve as governor as many times as he wants, but not twice consecutively. It is the responsibility of the governor to indicate to the officials of the Executive and the Judiciary. However, all of his instructions need to be approved first by the state Senate. All Executive officers chosen by the governor cannot serve two consecutive terms.
The Legislative Branch of Ohio is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has a total of 33 members, and the House of Representatives, 99. Ohio is divided into 33 legislative districts. The voters of each district elect a senator and three representative members, who will represent said district in the Senate and the House of Representatives. The term of office of senators is four years, and that of members of the House of Representatives is two years. A given person cannot serve as senator twice in a row, nor can he serve more than two consecutive terms as a member of the House of Representatives.
The highest court in the Ohio Judiciary is the Ohio Supreme Court, composed of seven justices. These judges are elected by the population of the state for a term of up to six years. Ohio also has twelve Courts of Appeals, and each county administers a regional Judicial Court. Ohio is divided into twelve judicial districts, where each of the Court of Appeals courts operate. Each of the courts of the Court of Appeals has eight judges, elected by the population of the state for a term of up to six years. All judges of the regional courts – composed of three to twelve judges – are elected by the population of the respective counties for a term of up to six years.
About 55% of Ohio's government budgets are generated by state taxes, while the remainder comes from federally provided budgets and borrowing. In 2002, the state government spent 52,594 million dollars, having generated another 45,439 million. Ohio's public debt is $20,009 billion. The debt per capita is $1,754, the value of state taxes per capita is $1,764, and the value of government expenditures per capita is $4,610.
The current Ohio Constitution was adopted in 1864. Amendments to the Constitution are proposed by the Ohio Legislature, and to be approved, they first need to be ratified by at least 51% of the state Senate and House of Representatives, in two successive votes, and then by 51% or more of Ohio's voting population, in a referendum. The population of the state can also propose amendments to the Constitution through petitions, which require the signature of at least 10% of the people who voted in the last referendum or in the last state elections for governor held in the state. If this petition has a minimum of 10% signatures, the amendment is then reviewed by the Legislature, and put to a vote in a referendum, where it must obtain the vote in favor of at least 51% of voters in two consecutive referendums. If this amendment is ratified by 51% or more of the voters in both ballots, the amendment is automatically approved. Amendments can also be proposed and introduced by constitutional conventions, which need to receive the approval of at least 67% of the votes of both houses of the Legislature and 51% of the state's electors in a general election, or 51% of the state's electors in an election held periodically every 20 years.
Ohio is divided into 88 counties. These counties are governed by Boards of Commissioners, which are composed of three members—with the exception of Summit County, which is governed by a chief administrator and a seven-member Board. Any urban area with more than five thousand inhabitants is considered a main city. The state does not have secondary cities (towns); Any urban area with less than five thousand inhabitants is considered a town. Most cities and towns in Ohio are governed by a mayor and a municipal council, while the remainder are governed by either an administrator and a Council or a Board of Commissioners.
Politically, Ohio is considered what in English is called a "swing
state", although state politics is dominated by Republicans. The mix of
urban and rural areas, and the significant presence of large blue-collar
industries and major white-collar business districts, leads to a balance
between conservative and liberal populations that, along with the
state's 20 electoral votes—more than those with many of the "swing
states"—makes the state decisive for the outcome of national elections.
Not in vain, Ohio was the state in which the 2004 Presidential Elections
were decided, between George W. Bush and John Kerry. Bush narrowly won
the state's 20 electoral votes (a 2 percentage point margin and 50.8% of
the vote). The state backed Democrat Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996,
although in 2000 and 2004 it supported Republican George W. Bush. Ohio
was also a decisive factor in the 1948 Presidential Election, when
Democrat Harry S. Truman defeated Republican Thomas E. Dewey (who had
won the state four years earlier), and also in the 1976 Election, when
Democrat Jimmy Carter narrowly defeated Republican Gerald Ford.
Ohio's demographics cause many to view the state as a microcosm within the nation. Curiously, no Republican presidential candidate has entered the White House without winning Ohio. For this reason, this state occupies a very important place in the electoral campaigns of both parties.
According to the 2000 national census from the United States Census
Bureau, Ohio's population was 11,353,140, a growth of 4.2% over the 1990
data of 10,887,325. An estimate made in 2005 estimates the state's
population at 11,464,042 inhabitants, which represents a growth of 5.2%
in relation to 1990 data, 1% in relation to 2000 data, and 0.1 %
relative to 2004 estimate.
Ohio's natural growth between 2000 and 2005 was 217,877 people—789,312 births minus 571,435 deaths—population growth caused by immigration was 75,142 people, while interstate migration resulted in the loss of 177,150 people. Between 2000 and 2005, Ohio's population grew by 110,897 inhabitants, and between 2004 and 2005, by 13,899. About 3.4% of the state's population (340,000 inhabitants) was not born in the United States.
Ohio's gross domestic product was $419 billion in 2003. The state's
per capita income, meanwhile, was $30,129, the 25th highest in the
country. The unemployment rate in Ohio stands at 6.1%.
The primary sector corresponds to 1% of Ohio's GDP. The state has about 80,000 farms, occupying about half of its area. Agriculture comprises 0.95% of GDP, and employs approximately 160,000 people. Central Corn Belt, Ohio is one of the nation's largest producers of corn. The state is also one of the national leaders in the production of soybeans, wheat and straw. Other important agricultural products are milk and beef, chicken eggs, tomatoes and onions. Fishing and forestry are responsible for about 0.95% of GDP, employing about 2,000 people.
The secondary sector accounts for 29% of Ohio's GDP. The manufacturing industry—the state's largest source of revenue—accounts for 25% of the state's GDP and employs approximately 1,130,000 people. The total value of products manufactured in the state is $120 billion—behind only California and Texas. The main industrialized products manufactured in Ohio are transportation equipment, industrial machinery, chemical products, steel, industrialized foods, plastic and rubber products in general, furniture and appliances, glass and printed materials. Ohio is the second largest national steel producer, behind only Indiana. The construction industry comprises 3.8% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 347,000 people. For its part, mining is responsible for 0.2% of Ohio's GDP, employing nearly 22,000 people. The state's main natural resources are coal, natural gas and granite.
The tertiary sector comprises 70% of Ohio's GDP. About 18% of the state's GDP comes from community and personal services. This sector employs more than 1,950,000 people. Wholesale and retail trade corresponds to 17% of GDP, and employs approximately 1,520,000 people. Financial and real estate services correspond to about 16% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 475,000 people (the state's main financial center is Cleveland, other important financial centers are Cincinnati, Columbus and Toledo). Government services correspond to 11% of GDP, employing approximately 800,000 people. Finally, transport and telecommunications employ 290,000 people and comprise 8% of GDP. Coal-fired thermoelectric plants produce about 85% of the electricity generated in the state, while the rest is generated in nuclear plants.
The first school in Ohio was founded in 1773 by a missionary, with
the goal of converting Native American children to the Catholic
religion, and imposing "Western" ideals and customs on them. In 1825,
the state government authorized the founding of a public education
system composed only of elementary schools, beginning to provide budgets
for the maintenance of secondary schools (high schools) starting in
1853. During In the 1960s, several school districts closed several of
their schools due to lack of budget.
Currently, all educational institutions in Ohio must follow certain rules and standards dictated by the Ohio State Board of Education. This board directly controls the state's public school system, which is divided into several school districts. The council is made up of four members elected by the Legislature and 8 members chosen by the governor, for an official period of up to four years. Each major city (city), various secondary cities (towns), and each county consists of at least one school district. In Ohio, a given school district often operates in several cities at the same time, even if it is centered in another given city. In cities, the responsibility for managing schools falls to the municipal school district, while in less densely populated regions, this responsibility falls to the school districts operating in the county. Ohio allows the existence of "charter schools" — independent public schools, which are not managed by school districts, but which depend on public budgets for their support. Schooling is compulsory for all children and adolescents over six years of age, until the completion of secondary education or until the age of sixteen. In 1999, the state's public schools served approximately 1,837,000 students, employing approximately 116,200 teachers. For their part, private schools served approximately 254,500 students, employing approximately 16,200 teachers. The state's public school system used about $12.207 billion, and public school spending was about $7,300 per student.
The state's first library was founded in 1804, in Belpre. Cleveland's public library system is one of the largest in the United States. The state currently has 250 public library systems, which annually move an average of 13.8 books per inhabitant. Ohio's first institution of higher education, Ohio University, was founded in Athens in 1804. Ohio currently has 179 institutions of higher education, of which 61 are public and 118 are private. The state's system of public higher education institutions is the University System of Ohio.
Ohio, since it became a state in 1803, has been an important
crossroads between the eastern and west-central United States. Numerous
railroads and interstate highways cross the state. Ohio's main road
center is Columbus, while Cleveland is the main rail, port, and airport
The state's busiest airport is Cleveland International Airport, followed by Columbus, Dayton, Toledo, and Cincinnati international airports. In 2002, Ohio had 8,417 kilometers of railroad tracks.
Ohio has a highly developed network of highways and interstate highways. In 2003, the state owned 198,789 kilometers of roads and highways, of which 2,530 kilometers were part of the federal interstate highway system.
Ohio's first newspaper, The Centinel of the North-Western Territory,
was first printed in 1793, in Cincinnati.60 The country's first
abolitionist newspaper, The Philanthropist, was printed in Ohio in 1817,
in Mount Pleasant. Currently more than 330 newspapers are published in
the state, of which 80 are daily newspapers.
Ohio's first radio station was founded in 1922, in Cleveland. That same year, Ohio University created the first radio station for educational purposes, in Columbus. The first television network was founded in 1947 in Cleveland. Currently, Ohio has about 297 radio stations (of which 106 are AM and 191 are FM) and 44 television stations.
Many inventors and pioneers are natives of Ohio. They stand out among
Wilbur Wright. The Wright Brothers would conduct numerous test flights in Ohio before making what is considered by many to be the first successful airplane flight, on December 17, 1903, at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, not far from Ohio.
Charles F. Kettering, inventor of the automobile ignition system.
Charles M. Hall, author of the aluminum refining process.
John Glenn, first American to orbit in space.
Neil Armstrong, first person to step on the Moon.
Ohio has professional teams in the major North American leagues: the
Cincinnati Reds and Cleveland Guardians of Major League Baseball, the
Cincinnati Bengals and Cleveland Browns of the National Football League,
the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association, the
Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League, and Columbus Crew
with Football Club Cincinnati of Major League Soccer.
In college sports, the Ohio State Buckeyes have excelled in football and men's basketball, and the Cincinnati Bearcats in men's basketball.
The Mid-Ohio speedway has hosted races in the CART, IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series, Can-Am, American Formula 5000, IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series and Rolex Sports Car Series. Between 1982 and 2007, the CART Cleveland Grand Prix was held at the city's airport. Some of Ohio's most notable drivers have been Ted Horn, Bobby Rahal, Sam Hornish Jr. and Tim Richmond.
The WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and Memorial Tournament are PGA Tour golf tournaments played in Ohio. For their part, the Inverness and Firestone golf courses have hosted several editions of the United States Open and the PGA Championship.
The Cincinnati Masters is a tennis tournament of the ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and the WTA Premier 5.
of the state of Ohio are:
Tree: Ohio Buckeye (Aesculus glabra, False Ohio Buckeye)
Drink: Tomato juice
Mother of Modern Presidents (unofficial)
Flower: Dianthus caryophyllus
Motto: With God all things are possible
The heart of it all, displayed on state license plates between 1991 and 2001. (unofficial)
So much to discover, adopted as part of the state's bicentennial. (not official)
Mammal: Odocoileus virginianus
Song: Beautiful Ohio, "Ohio is for lovers" (UNOFFICIAL)
Bird: red cardinal
Gemstone: Ohio Flint
Reptile: Coluber constrictor.