Destroyed: August 24th, 79 AD (LXXIX AD) Open: 8:30am- 7:30pm
Apr- Oct 8:30am- 5pm Nov- March Closed: Jan 1, May 1, Dec 25
Tel. 081 857 5347 Entrance Fee: €11 adult; €5.50 EU citizens
Pompeii is an ancient archeological site situated South- East of
modern day Naples, Campania region in Italy. It is one of most
famous Roman cities largely due to its destruction then volcano
Vesuvius erupted and buried it under 20 meters (70 feet) of ash and
pumice thus preserving as it existed on August 24th 79 AD. Unlike
many other ancient cities it was not resettled or covered over by
later structures and most of the city escaped looting after its
accidental discovery in 1748.
Travel Tips You might want to
take sunscreen, water and some food as you go and explore the city.
It is large and deserves a whole day to explore. Keep in mind that
the weather in summer months in Italy are very hot. Keep well
hydrated and cover your head if you can. The only way to travel
around this extensive site is my foot or my getting a bike. Either
way its can be challenging at times to cover an archaeological site
that covers over 163 acres of land.
Pompeii Italy Travel Destinations
Pompeii by regions (regio)
Early archeologists divided Pompeii archeological site
into regions or regio in Italian. These groups of buildings are divided
by the largest streets of Pompeii. Each part of the city has its own
unique set of buildings. It is hard to visit the whole site in one day
so it can be handy to plan your visit by visiting regions of the city.
Pompeii Forum (Regio VII)
Forum of Pompeii was originally the central open space in the settlement. The
city spread and grew in size. By the time of the eruption it was located
in the South- West corner of the settlement. It measured 157 meters by
38 meters. It was lined by commercial, public and religious buildings
important in the daily lives of common Roman citizens. The central plaza
was lined by two rows of colonnade. The bottom row consisted of Doric
columns, while the top row was lined by Ionic columns. Additionally
there were several statues that graced this important part of the city.
Unfortunately many of them were destroyed by an earlier earthquake of 62
AD and were never rebuild. The only thing that reminds of their former
existence are pedestals that were left abandoned. Two main entrances
were located at the north of the plaza with two triumphal arches. The
bigger eastern arch was dedicated to Germanicus, step son of emperor
Tiberius who made his name by defeating Germanic tribes in 12AD just few
years after these tribes under leadership of Arminius dealt a
humiliating blow to the Roman Empire by exterminating three Roman
legions under leadership of Publius Quinctilius Varus in Teutoburg
any other major city in the ancient Roman Empire, Pompeii was
protected by towers and defensive walls. The city walls that
reached 3 kilometers (3220 meters) in length with 12 towers
defended the weakest regions in the defense of the city. Many of
the city’s towers were built back in the 6th and 5th centuries
BC. Later, the Romans rebuilt some of them. As a material for
the construction of the fortress walls, the inhabitants of
Pompeii used tufa (light, porous rock) for the exterior
cladding. The space between the stone walls was filled with
earth. The walls were strong enough, and construction
There were seven gates through
which it was possible to get into the city. These were the Porta
Marina or the Sea Gate, the Herculane Gate, the Vesuvian Gate,
the Nola Gate, the Sarno, the Nuceria Gates and the Stabiae
Gates. Some guides talk about the gates of Capua, but in fact no
evidence about the existence of these gates was found during
archaeological excavations. Between the Herculane and the
Vesuvian Gate, we can see the damage. These are the consequences
of the bombing of Roman siege weapons during the siege of Sulla.
The Vesuvian Gate and the Gate of Sarno are in poorest state
of preservation. A 62 year earthquake caused serious damage to
the entire city. Since the Romans were accustomed to living in a
world without invading barbarians from the North, the municipal
authorities were not in a hurry to repair the military
By planning the streets of Pompeii, you can easily recognize the
original settlement of the Oskan people from the districts of
Pompeii that were added later. As the Roman way of life gradually
became established in the city, the layout acquired the strict
direction of straight streets, which intersected at right angles.
The irregular arrangement of the streets is still evident around the
territory of the Forum, but such chaotic buildings were replaced by
the Roman tradition of building the city. The grid of roads of
Pompeii consisted of streets that went from east to west (Decumani)
and from north to south (Cardi). We will discuss some of the main
streets in more detail here. All street names are modern, but the
ancient names of some Pompeii streets are known.
Abbondanza (Decumanus Maximus) Via delle Abbondanza was one of
the two main cities of Decumani (the other Via di Nola was almost
parallel to its continuation of Via Dell Fortuna and Via delle
Terme). This street has an orientation from east to west. The street
got its name thanks to the fountain at one of the intersections,
which was mistakenly identified with the personification of the
Plentiful gifts. Abbondanza in Italian means "abundance". Later it
became clear that the image had nothing to do with abundance, and
most likely had a simple decorative purpose. However, the name of
the street decided not to change.
The western part of Via
dell 'Abbondanza connected the streets of Stabiana, Cardo Maximus,
with the Forum, after which the street continued under the name of
Via Marina or Sea Street. The first segment of Via delle Abbondanza
belongs to the very early stage of development of Pompeii, which
grew up around the Forum. As the city continued to expand, the
street was expanded beyond the Via Stabiana until it reached the
This long street linked the most important areas
of the city from the Forum in the west to the Stabina Banya and the
amphitheater with the Great Palestra in the east. The intersection
with Via Stabiana was known as the intersection of Holconius, in
honor of the statue of M. Holconius Rufus, who once stood here. Not
far away was the Holconius Rufus House itself.
Stabiana (Cardo Maximus) Via Stabiana or Cardo Maximus as it was
called by the ancient Romans, is one of the three main roads of
Pompeii, which were oriented from north to south. The rest of the
cardo roads were Via di Mercurio, Via del Foro, Via delle Scula and
Via di Nozera.
The Via Stabiana road in antiquity was one of
the oldest. It led outside the city to the neighboring city of
Stabia and Sorrentum in the South. Hence the modern name of the
street itself. As the city developed, the road became the main
artery with the axis from north to south. The road ran from the
Vesuvian Gate in the north and united the parallel streets of
Decumani Via dell Abbondanza and Via di Noli. These streets thus
form the pattern of the street grid.
Pay attention to the
stones on the roads. These are pedestrian crossings. During the
rains, the drainage system could not cope with all the water and the
streets often flooded. Pedestrians could cross the roads on these
stones without wetting their feet. At the same time, carts and
carriages could pass between the stones.
Via Consolare (Via
Consolare) Via Consolare forms the northwestern boundary of the
street network of Pompeii. Part of the street runs parallel to the
city walls. It was one of the most ancient roads of the city. She
led to the nearby city of Kuma. Its obvious cultural and commercial
significance was complemented by the fact that it led to Salina
Hercules or the salty lagoon. This region was located on the coast
near the town of Torre Annunziata. Here salt was mined for citizens.
Hence the ancient name of the street Via Sarina or Salt Road. By the
way, the Gerkulan’s Gate, through which Via Consolare passes, was
also called Vera Sarina or the Salt Gate.
Around the middle
of the 2nd century BC Via Consolare, like other city streets, was
paved with polygonal basalt blocks. The road stones (cippi), written
in Oscan, testify to this and say that the aedils of the Samnite
period paved this road.
Country Villas in Pompeii
Outside the city of Pompeii (in the north-west) you can see several
villas that belonged to the richest and most influential people in
the city. People who lived here did not want to hustle and walk
through the narrow streets of the city. They preferred to live in
nature. Pax Romana or the Roman world, begun by Emperor Octavian
Augustus, convinced the Romans that their empire was invincible and
that power over the conquered nations and tribes was unshakable.
They were not afraid to settle outside of the defensive walls of the
city of Pompeii. Here you can see the most beautiful frescoes, which
in many ways became a symbol of ancient Roman art. In order to get
here you need to get out of the Gate of Herculanum. On the left were
the Villas of Diomedes and then Villa Cicero.
The painting "The Last Day of Pompeii" by the great Russian artist
Karl Bryullov largely shaped our understanding of the last hours of
the city of Pompeii and its inhabitants. However, the dramatic
canvas has little to do with the historic truth of the last hours of
Pompeii. The fact is that Pompeii was destroyed in almost 24 hours
(for a detailed description of the death of the city, see the link
to the Pompeii Last Day chronology). Those who tried to escape
immediately began to leave the city in the afternoon. They have
escaped and made it to safety. Those who decided to wait out, took
refuge in the houses. They heard with horror how small, light pieces
of pumice fell on the houses, forming a thick layer. Some large
houses could not withstand the weight of rocks and collapsed,
burying all households under the tones of volcanic rocks. It is
worth noting that not all the inhabitants of Pompeii remained at
home. Some decided to visit the local baths in the morning. What
they thought is hard to say. Apparently they tried to keep calm
members of their household and neighbors. The streets of the city
were almost empty. Only some thieves decided to take to the streets
in search of easy prey. Thus, in the house of Menander, a whole gang
of thieves, who, armed with picks, shovels and a lamp, wandered
around Pompeii and were buried by a collapsing building.
There were those who tried to escape in the last hours, in the
morning. So in the Garden of the Fugitives, archaeologists found
three groups of runaways who died only meters from the city gates.
By the way, the image of a Christian priest on a canvas is
remarkable. In the section on Christianity (see above) we gave some
evidence about the existence of the Christian church. But that's not
all. In the section on the most interesting facts about Pompeii, you
can find out who among those mentioned in the New Testament perished
The canvas itself can rather be used as an
allegory of unsuccessful relations between Karl Bryullov (in the
picture in the upper left corner with a box of brushes and paints on
his head) and Julia Samoilova. By the way, the artist embodied her
features in three women on the canvas, and her adoptive daughters
were also represented.
Pompeii and the Coliseum
It would seem strange that destruction of Pompeii have anything to
do with the construction of the main arena in Rome and the whole
empire. However, the connection is quite straightforward. New Roman
Emperor Titus ascended (23 June 79) throne just two months before
the eruption. The death of a large city and many small settlements
severely hit the image of the new emperor. Of course, he did his
best to help the surviving inhabitants of Pompeii and other citizens
of the region financially. He also visited the region twice. The
lunar landscape he saw made a heavy impression on him.
improve his personal popularity, he ordered the construction of the
Coliseum to be accelerated. Many private businesses were invited to
complete the lining of the amphitheater. Due to the great haste,
these groups began working without checking their rulers and
measurement units. As a result some layers are uneven. You can see
where these layers meet. These are exactly the places where the
groups of workers met. But the Romans were pragmatic people. They
were concerned about function, not accuracy. Moreover, these
irregularities are not very significant.
People and animals of Pompeii
Pompeii Archeological site is one of the most unique places in
human history. It offers a rear snapshot of lives that people
lived, their clothes as well as various items of everyday life.
Many bodies were destroyed in the process of chaotic eruptions,
however they left empty niches and fragments of the skeletons.
Archaeologists poured plaster inside those spaces to get a shape
of a person that was killed by the volcano. There have been
found over 1000 bodies in the city of Pompeii. Many more are
awaiting their discovery in the regions of the city that are yet
to be uncovered. They tell about appearance of the people, their
last seconds and in some case reveal interesting details of
their personal lives.
Christians lived in Pompeii and one of the graffiti on the wall
of the House of Christians tells us about it. This is the oldest
mention of Christians and Christianity in the Roman Empire. You can
read more in the article at the link above (Christianity).
Therefore, the Christian priest in the picture of Karl Bryullov
"Last Day of Pompeii" is quite realistic. The first Christians in
this region apparently appeared after the preaching of the Apostle
Paul, who visited the neighboring town of Puteoli at the northern
end of the Gulf of Naples.
The Jews also lived in Pompeii. At
least the history has kept us the name of Drusilla, who died with
her son Mark Antony Agrippa. Herod Agrippa’s daughter and wife of
Judea’s prosecutor Anthony Felix, she was the granddaughter of Herod
the Great himself. That same Herod, who tried to find and execute
Jesus Christ shortly after his birth. Herod also restored the Second
Temple. By the way Drusilla herself is also mentioned in the Bible.
Acts of the Holy Apostles (24:24): "Several days later, when
Felix came with his wife Drusilla, who was Jewish, he sent for Paul
and listened to him on the subject of faith in Christ Jesus."
However, archeologists have not yet found any artifacts
associated with Judaism. This is quite understandable. At the time
of the eruption only 9 years have passed since the destruction of
Jerusalem. Therefore, local Jews (if they really were free people,
not slaves) hid and did not flaunt the signs of their religion.
Public Buildings and Crafts of Pompeii
The houses of the ancient Romans did not differ in diversity. It
cannot be said that they were built under one carbon copy, but in
general they followed the same plan. For more information about
everyday life and Roman houses, see the links above (House and
Street) to learn about Roman architecture and general city planning.
Many aspects of the city will become clearer.
Romans, Pompeii underwent an extensive process of urban development,
especially during the period of Augustus. Public buildings include
an amphitheater, a palestra with central sodium (cella natatoria) or
a swimming pool and an aqueduct providing water for more than 25
street fountains, at least four public baths, and a large number of
private houses (houses) and businesses. Modern scholars have called
the amphitheater a model of sophisticated design, especially in the
area of crowd control.
In addition to the forum, many other
service areas were found: Makellum (excellent grocery market),
Pistrinum (mill), Thermopolium (fast food place serving hot and cold
dishes and drinks) and cauponae (small cafes) with a bad reputation,
habitat for thieves and prostitution services. An amphitheater and
two theaters were found, along with Palestra or the gymnasium
(sports complex). Hotel (1000 square meters) was found near the
city; It is now called the Grand Hotel Muretsin. Geothermal energy
is supplied with channel heating for baths and houses. At least one
building, Lupanar, was dedicated to prostitution. First floor had
small rooms for common citizens. While the second floor was more
open and held lavish sex orgies. Unfortunately second floor is
usually closed to tourists.
Modern archaeologists excavated
gardens and urban areas to identify the main agricultural products
in the economy of Pompeii. Pompeii was fortunate to have a fertile,
fertile patch of soil for collecting various crops. It was found
that the soil around Vesuvius, prior to its eruption, has good
water-holding properties, which means access to productive
agriculture. Winds from the Tyrrhenian Sea provided soil moisture,
despite the hot and dry climate. Barley, wheat and millet were
produced together with wine and olive oil, abundant for export to
Evidence of the importation of wine from
Pompeii at the national level in the most prosperous years can be
found from artifacts found, such as wine bottles in Rome. For this
reason, the vineyards were of great importance for the economy of
Pompeii. The agricultural politician Columella suggested that every
vineyard in Rome should produce a quota of three sorts of wine per
yagerum, otherwise the vineyard would be uprooted. Nutrient-rich
lands near Pompeii were extremely effective in this regard and could
often exceed these requirements by a wide margin, thus creating
incentives for local wineries. While wine was exported for the
economy of Pompeii, most other agricultural commodities were
probably produced in quantities corresponding to the consumption of
The remnants of large formations built wineries
were found in the forum Boarium, covered with cemented casts from
the eruption of Vesuvius. It is assumed that these historic
vineyards are strikingly similar in structure to modern vineyards
Charred remains of food plants, roots,
seeds and pollen have been found in the gardens of Pompeii,
Herculaneum and the Roman villa in Torre Annunziata. They found that
wheat, Italian millet, common millet, walnuts, pine nuts, chestnuts,
hazelnuts, olives, figs, pears, onions, garlic, peaches, carob,
grapes, dates, and more were consumed here.
Toilets, pipes and everything related to water and sewage
Undoubtedly, the Romans were gods of engineering. They managed to
build entire underground labyrinths to supply water to the city, as
well as the drainage system (pictured above) in order to drain this
water from the city. Surprisingly, the system of Pompeii still
works. It is also almost surprising that Roman roads have been used
for over 2000 years and there are no potholes in them, but Roman
roads are a separate topic.
If you go home to private shops
in Pompeii, you will notice that there is a small room in all of
them. It is usually far away at home or under the stairs. They did
their business in the toilets in the houses. Separate underground
system brought these impurities out of the city. By the way, these
moves became an interesting source of knowledge about the diet among
the inhabitants of Pompeii.
The largest public toilets on the Pompeii Forum.
Restaurants in Pompeii
Citizens of Pompeii lived in a large metropolis for its time.
Unlike rich families, poor people huddled in small houses in which
there were no kitchens. Fires were frequent, and homeowners
sometimes simply did not want to risk their homes for the sake of
the comfort of those who “had come.” Therefore, they did not allow
anything to be fried or cooked at home.
The Romans were an
enterprising people and many taverns or thermopoly (Greek: "warm
city") prepared cheap food for the citizens of Pompeii. The food was
cooked in large kitchens, and stored in large amphoras, which kept
warm. When visitors came, the host put out a meal on the "tavolta
calda" or a hot table in front of the guest.
In more detail you can get acquainted if you pass to the detailed
description of these or those buildings.
Before the discovery
of Pompeii, information about Roman painting was scarce and
fragmented, and rare examples were limited to fragments of frescoes
found in isolated cases. However, the discovery of the city with its
rich, picturesque heritage made it possible to begin a new
discussion on the whole question of Roman art. Based on the research
and classification made by Vitruvio, the paintings are usually
divided into 4 styles: 1 style: known as "inlay" or "structural"
style. This was a common occurrence between the 2nd century and the
middle of the 1st century BC. This is a simple and modest painting
style: thanks to the use of plaster and colors, which are dominated
by black, yellow and red, it tends to imitate marble panels. 2
style: it existed until the middle of I century AD. It is known as
perspective architecture or simply architectural because, in
addition to artificial marble facings, it reproduces colonnades,
arches and buildings that are visible in perspective. The result is
an imaginary space with increasing or decreasing effects. The great
cycle of the Mysteries in the eponymous villa belongs to this
period. At its most advanced stage, glimpses of the countryside are
drawn between imaginary buildings. 3 style: called "real
painting" and refers to the I century AD. He sees a return to a
simpler style. The background becomes flat and displayed in one
color: the figures are decorated, and the decorative elements are
underlined. Painting III style is also known as "Egyptian", as the
ornament often resembles the ancient Egyptian motifs. 4 style:
known as “architectural illusionism” or “ornamental”. Its
characteristics resemble a picture of the second period, but the
composition is becoming increasingly exaggerated and unreal. It was
an attempt to expand the walls by creating imaginary spaces.
Mosaic in Pompeii
Mosaic ornaments were widely used in decorating houses in Pompeii
and saw different stages of development. The oldest examples are
works made with simple motifs, using a tesser from coarse work and
modest material; on the other hand, those that were in later eras
demonstrate sophistication in their composition, taste, color and
jewelry used by tesser. In the first period, the works are
characterized by repetition of simple geometric motifs or repetition
of pictorial drawings of the second, third and fourth stages.
Mosaics are often used as floor coverings. There are several
remarkable examples: the famous Canum Canem, installed at the
entrance to many houses, is perhaps the most famous of many that
survived. Literally, it means "beware of the dog." Sometimes it was
written simply "hello" in Latin. The panel depicting the Battle of
Alexander, located in the Archaeological Museum in Naples and
originating from the House of the Faun, is, however, one of the most
important and magnificent examples.
Sculpture in Pompeii
The sculptures that have been preserved show that in Pompeii
there was a preference for small statues, given that they were
designed for decorative purposes in order to be built into rooms and
gardens, for the decoration of fountains, atriums or table-rails.
Large statues, those that had a memorable function, were mainly
located on the Forum. The favorite material was bronze, although
there are many small masterpieces of marble, tuff and terracotta.
“Dancing Faun”, “Drunk Silen” and “Wild Boar Under Attack” are some
of them that combine refined craftsmanship with the freshness and
immediacy of their design. Particular mention should be made of
"Dorifor", an excellent copy of the magnificent Greek sculpture.
There are various fragments of statues originating mostly from the
Forum area and from the temples dedicated to the Capitoline Triad.
Unlike our statues, the Romans painted their statues in bright
colors. Just over time, the colors were erased so that our imitation
of Roman culture turned out to be somewhat inaccurate.
Graffiti in Pompeii
The walls of houses in Pompeii are often covered with
inscriptions: these are election campaign messages that encourage
citizens to vote for one candidate or another. Sometimes whole
categories of workers (jewelers, bricklayers, bakers, blacksmiths)
supported the candidacy. In other cases, the novice judge nominates
his candidacy for a specific position. They are written in red or
black and mostly in capital letters. They were made by professional
scribes, who also dealt with official reports, court sentences,
buying and selling slaves, and public decisions.
there are about three thousand electoral inscriptions, and most of
them can be dated to the last year of the city, given that it was
decided to erase the old inscriptions in order to make room for new
Graffiti, on the other hand, are messages that were
made by scratches on the walls of houses: they relate to the most
diverse topics and paint an extremely vivid and frank picture of
modern public life: they include risky jokes, comments on a
particular person or event, caricatures on famous people, thoughts
of love, as well as grateful remarks about a beautiful woman or
pleasure, experienced in the solitude of one of the rooms in a
brothel. In addition, there are several that are associated with the
purchase and sale of materials or livestock, as well as with the
calculation of goods. Many refer to recreational activities offered
in the city, or praise the champions experienced in gladiator games.
In the description of each building a more detailed description
of these graffiti.
The objects of Pompeii, buried underground, have been well
preserved for nearly 2,000 years. The lack of air and moisture
allowed objects to remain underground with virtually no damage.
After the excavations, the site provided a variety of source
materials and evidence for analysis, detailing the life of
Pompeians. However, after exposure, Pompeii is exposed to both
natural and man-made forces, which are quickly aggravated. For
example, during the war, American planes bombed the ancient city.
Weathering, erosion, exposure to light, water damage, poor
excavation and reconstruction methods, introduced plants and
animals, tourism, vandalism and theft - all of this somehow damaged
the object. Two thirds of the city was excavated, but the remains of
the city are deteriorating rapidly.
Concern for the
preservation of constantly troubled archaeologists. The ancient city
was incorporated in 1996 by the World Monuments Observation World
Monuments Fund, and again in 1998 and 2000. In 1996, the
organization declared that Pompeii "is in desperate need of repair,"
and called for a general plan for restoration and interpretation.
The organization supported the preservation in Pompeii with the
financial support of American Express and the Samuel H. Kress
Today financing is mainly aimed at preserving
Pompeii; however, due to the magnitude of Pompeii and the magnitude
of the problems, this is not enough to stop the slow decay of
materials. An estimated $ 335 million is needed for all the work
needed on Pompeii. A recent study recommended an improved strategy
for interpreting and presenting an object as a cost-effective method
for improving its conservation and preservation in the short term.
In June 2013, UNESCO stated: “If restoration and conservation
work does not bring significant progress over the next two years,”
Pompeii may be included on the List of World Heritage in Danger.
Information about Pompeii PompeiIn email@example.com +39
3284134719 offers several itineraries in ancient Pompeii lasting
from 1 hour to 6 hours. The guides are local, licensed and graduated
in archeology; they are able to provide children and visits adapted
for the disabled, and with their vast knowledge of ancient history
and society they are able to make ancient Pompeii come to life. The
most outstanding aspects of the city are covered, such as the Forum,
the Baths, the brothel, the bakeries, the House of the Faun and the
House of the Tragic Poet, the amphitheater, the theaters, the Villa
of the Mysteries, the cemeteries and The fortifications of the city.
Geographical overview of Pompeii The city of Pompei rises on a
volcanic plateau 30 meters above sea level, on the southern side of
Vesuvius, and a short distance from the mouth of the river Sarno.
The excavations in Pompeii Pompeii was first discovered
between 1592 and 1600 during the construction of the Sarno Canal
that had to bring the river's waters to the nearby Torre Annunziata.
However, the official beginning of the excavations took place only
in 1748, under the reign of Charles of Bourbon, ten years after the
first investigations in the soil of Herculaneum. Initially the
excavations were carried out in a non-systematic way, with the
simple objective of recovering valuable objects and decorations. It
was only in 1763, when an inscription bearing its name was found in
Porta Ercolano, that it was certain that those remains belonged to
the ancient Pompeii and not, as some hypothesized, to Stabia. With
the French domination, in the middle of the Enlightenment period,
the research was aimed at reconstructing the topography of the city
through extensive excavations. With the return of the Bourbons, the
excavations continued especially in the north-western part of the
city, where there were sensational discoveries such as the House of
With the Unity of Italy Giuseppe Fiorelli was appointed
superintendent, and the excavation works had a fundamental change.
The city was divided into regiones and insulae, the cast technique
was introduced that allowed, pouring liquid plaster into the voids
of the ground, to fix the last moments of life of men and animals.
In the twentieth century with Amedeo Maiuri the extension of the
excavations reached 44 hectares, and numerous facilities were built
to facilitate the tourist use of the site. Following the terrible
earthquake of 1980, the cataloging of the decorative heritage
Costume and society The peculiarity of the
site of Pompeii lies in the possibility of reconstructing with
certainty the life in Roman times, along roads, visiting public
buildings and private homes, entering the markets, and magnificent
paintings, mosaics and everyday objects.
The rhythm of the
sun marked the daily actions of the inhabitants of ancient Pompeii,
the shops opened at dawn, and the Forum was filled with travelers
and buyers, we went to the baths, also accessible to slaves, and
frequented taverns, very numerous, for a hot meal or a game of dice.
The amphitheater was the major attraction in the city, although
fights between residents of Pompeii and their neigbours was a source
of civil unrest. Widespread were also the lupanari, places dedicated
to sexual pleasure, located in different parts of the city, to
satisfy both the inhabitants and foreigners passing through. The
cosmopolitan environment dictated by the presence of an active
commercial port, led to the mixture of different religious beliefs,
from oriental cults to Jews and even first Christians.
Hours from 1 November to 31 March: every day from 8.30 am to
5.00 pm (last admission at 3.30 pm) from 1 April to 31 October:
every day from 8.30 to 19.30 (last entry at 18.00)
to Pompeii Port Marina (Marine gate) Piazza Anfiteatro
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Free admission for
MIBAC staff, ICCROM Members, ICR, ICOM, ISIA, Mosaic Restoration
School of Ravenna, Pietre Dure Opificio of Florence + Central
Institute of Restoration of Rome. Disabled people UE + guide.
Journalists registered in the Italian national register. Citizens of
states with special agreements of reciprocity (Law 27.6.1985, No.
332) as indicated by the agreement itself.
Free and reduced
tickets can only be issued upon presentation of a valid identity
For the visit to the Archaeological Excavations of
Pompeii it is advisable to rely on an authorized guide
firstname.lastname@example.org +39 3284134719
Audio guides available either at the InfoPoint train station or
at the official entrance of € 6.50, € 10 for two people, ID is
required. They are not available at the east side entrance of the
Amphitheater - which is the entrance closest to the center of the
city today, if you are walking. Unofficial audio guides offered at
one of the market stalls near the entrance. Take into account that
the audio guide maps are not the same and the official audio guide
comes with more audio points of interest. It is a good idea to
review the two options before deciding. Pompeii can take several
hours to explore, so be sure to ask about the duration of the audio
guide's battery before your purchase. Tour guides are also grouped
near the entrance and offer their services. It is a good idea to
speak with one for a couple of minutes before deciding, to make sure
that you can understand their accent when they speak English. You
can join a group of tourists with the InfoPoint train station for €
12 (ticket not included) or € 10 at the official ticket.
One of the easiest ways to get to Pompeii is by hopping SITA bus from
Naples, Italy. It costs from €1.80 to €3.20 to hitch a ride here.
You can travel to Pompeii by taking a train via Circumvesuviana
Napoli-Sorrento line from Naples or Sorrento, Italy. The ride is
fairly short. It takes about 30 to 40 minutes to get here. Its
price ranges from €1.80 to €3.20. Get familiar yourself with a
map of the train route to make sure you don't miss "Pompei
Scavi" stop station, where you need to get off to reach Pompeii
Archaeological Site. You can also leave your bags here for a low
price of €1.5. As you get off station you can visit Tourist
Information Center (50 meters away from station) to get more
information about the site. Taking a map might be helpful if you
don't want to get lost in this large settlement.
You can also travel to Pompeii from the Italian capital of
Rome, Italy. You
need to take a train from Termini to Naples. From there you need to
changed trains by taking the escalator to the Circumvesuviana
Napoli-Sorrento line. It costs €10.50 to get from Rome to Naples in one
direction and another €1.80 to get from Naples to Pompeii itself.
If you travel to Italy on a cruise you can take boat to the shore and
then get a bus shuttle to Pompeii. Most of tourists who travel here by
boat usually include visit to the ancient site as part of the travel
Mobility inside the Archaeological site of Pompeii
Pompeii is assessible by foot. However, walking on the ancient
Roman roads is tiring, especially in the heat of summer. For
strollers and wheelchair users, as well as people with mobility
problems, the visit of Pompeii is only partially suitable. Disabled
travelers should aim to enter the Piazza Anfiteatro, where the
entrance has been designed to meet the needs of visitors with
reduced mobility (and parents with strollers, too). Be careful with
the main entrance to the Marine Gate, as it has a lot of stairs.
There are some bikes to rent, but surfaces that are very
impractical. Keep in mind that walking the ancient Roman stone roads
can be very tiring, especially in the summer heat with a lot of
other tourists around. Everyone is going to walk on cobbled and
irregular streets. The temperature ranges between 32 and 35 ° C in
the summer. Be sure to drink plenty of water and watch your step as
the old roads have slots in them where the cars ran. It is advisable
to wear good shoes, sunscreen and a hat. There is a lot to see and I
could take all day to see everything.
When buying your
ticket, you should receive a map of Pompeii and a brochure that
lists the main places of interest. However, these can sometimes be
out of print or you may find that the only book available is in
Italian. A site map is essential if you want to see a large amount
in the shortest possible time. Even with a map visiting Pompeii is a
bit like a trip to a labyrinth. Many of the roads, apparently open
according to the map, become blocked by excavations or repairs, or,
as happened in 2010, because a building collapsed. You might think
that it is heading towards the exit, but then they have to turn
around and retrace their steps to find another path.
Information about Pompeii is available at the entrances
Porta Marina, Piazza Esedra and Piazza Anfiteatro .
The wild running dogs belong to the excavation area of
Pompeii, they can be sponsored, but the dogs are not
Weather in Italy can be difficult to bear in summer months.
It can easily reach 40C on hottest day. Keep this in mind
and make sure you take plenty of water. Additionally you can
cover your head and take sun tan to avoid sun burn.
The closest ATM to the site of Pompeii is that near Pompei
Scavi train station. There is no way to get cash once you
enter the site so take as much cash as you might need while
you travel to the site.
Plan your visit in advance in Google Maps or Google
Earth, or relive it later. There is Streetview coverage of
part of the city and there are 3D models of many of the
buildings. Bing Maps also offers very detailed oblique views
of the city.
Buy a guide. Get the official guide (Pompeii: guide for
the site, edited by Electa Napoli) in the bookstore on the
site next to the box office. A lot of guides and maps are
available, but this one perfectly combines the two.
Visit also the National Museum of Naples, where most of
the best preserved mosaics and found elements of Pompeii are
Visit also the site of sister Herculaneum, is that only a
Circumvesuviana set aside and suffered a fate similar to
Pompeii. Although it is a smaller site that was covered by a
pyroclastic surge (instead of the ash and lapilli that
covered Pompeii). This allowed some second plants to
Take a look at random villas outside of Pompeii, as
sometimes even small side rooms have incredible frescoes
Do not miss the "Garden of the Fugitives" in the
south-east part in plaster casts of several victims
(unfortunately, including children) are on display in which
they sank The plants in this garden have been reconstructed
to match with the ancient growth, based on the study of
gypsum models of the roots of plants.
Walk outside the gates of the city to the Villa of the
Mysteries, one of the largest houses to come to us since
ancient times. Even on a very hot day, it's worth the walk.
Insert a large memory card into your camera. There are
hundreds of opportunities to take photos in Pompeii.
On the way to the station, the official store entry
charges try to sell things at very expensive prices, but
the food is not exceptional. Drinks, especially freshly
pressed orange and lemon juice, however, are fantastic,
especially in the heat, although a bit expensive (€ 3.00
for a glass) You can get a very good panino (stuffed
bread bun) in some of the stands. The one on the closest
end of the Porta Marina has fantastic ones. There is
also a cafeteria and a restaurant in the excavation
area, north of the Forum. Not surprisingly, this is
quite expensive and not very good. However, it is a good
place to take a break and recover, especially with your
air conditioning. If you do not have time to rest you
can grab € 3 ice cream from a service window that faces
the street. The restaurant has toilets, apparently the
only ones on the site.
Al Gamberone Location: Via Piave 36 Tel. 081 850 6814
Open: Wed- Mon
Canteen Location: Via di Mercurio
President Location: Piazza Schettini 12
www.ristorantepresident.it Tel. 081 850 7245 Open:
Tue- Sun Closed: Mondays and late Sundays Nov- March,
2 weeks in Jan
Go out and drink Remember to bring enough water to drink as it
is quite hot in the dusty streets. Keep the bottles empty to fill,
as there are occasional water taps from the entire dispensing site
instead of strange-smelling water that, however, appears to be
drinkable. Lemon and granita orange purchased from outside the
site are a tasty way to cool off.
Mount Vesuvius is an active volcano and can explode at any time.
Scientists have devised a system to detect impending eruptions,
though, so feel free to navigate the ruins of Pompeii and fearlessly
see falling ash and lapilli (pumice). It is more likely that you
should be trying to protect yourself from pickpockets. The site
attracts a large number of international visitors every day, and
this money attracts thieves, in order to keep their valuables
protected, especially near the entrances and the train station.
If you come by car, bear in mind not to park in the parking lot
near the entrance to the archaeological zone. It's a trap for
tourists! Although there is no price that appears at the entrance of
the parking, you will be surprised to learn that it costs € 2 per
hour when it comes to leaving, and you can not leave unless you pay.
This means that if your visit to Pompeii lasts a whole day (which a
site like this undoubtedly deserves) you may end up paying up to €
20 or more. You do much cheaper parking a few hundred meters up the
hill in the city, and if you stay in one of the Pompeii hotels that
usually have free parking.