Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (in
English Republic of Uganda, in Swahili Jamhuri and Uganda) is a
sovereign country located in East Africa. Its form of government is
that of a presidential republic, whose territory is composed of 111
districts. Its capital and most populated city is Kampala with
1,208,544 inhabitants (2002). The country borders on the southeast
with Lake Victoria, on the east with Kenya, on the north with South
Sudan, on the west with the Democratic Republic of the Congo and on
the southwest with Rwanda and Tanzania. Uganda takes its name
from the vanished Kingdom of Buganda that encompassed the southern
portion of the country, including the capital, Kampala.
Ugandan natives were hunter-gatherers until 1,700 to 2,300 years
ago, when Bantu-speaking populations colonized the region.
Kidepo Valley National Park in Uganda is a
large expanse of savannah that are inhabited by numerous species
of wild animals. Due to isolation of the region wild life saw
little effect from illegal poaching.
History of Uganda
On March 1, 1962, Great Britain granted Uganda
self-government, and on October 9, 1962, complete independence.
Uganda was proclaimed a unitary state, but at the same time 4
kingdoms (Buganda, Bunyoro, Toro, Ankole) and the territory of Busog
received autonomous status.
The government of Uganda was led
by Obote, Milton, the leader of the Uganda People’s Congress Party.
Since 1963, he also held the posts of ministers of defense and
foreign affairs. The King of Uganda Mutes II was appointed President
Immediately after independence in Uganda, problems
arose - inter-ethnic clashes, riots in the army, the mass departure
of Europeans. Obote introduced state economic planning, expanded the
state and cooperative sectors.
In early 1966, Obote ousted
King Mutesu from power, arrested several ministers, and appointed
himself president of Uganda. September 8, 1967 Obote proclaimed
Uganda a republic, abolished all the kingdoms and the power of
tribal leaders. Obote conducted nationalization in the economic
sector, and created “collective farms” in agriculture. To carry out
these reforms, Obote created the paramilitary “National Youth
Service” in 1968.
In December 1969, at the conference of the
ruling party of the NKU, the "Charter of the Common Man" was
announced - the program for building communism in Uganda. In August
1970, officially, by a decision of the Uganda People’s Congress, a
one-party regime was established.
On January 25, 1971, when
Obote was traveling abroad, the Ugandan army carried out a coup. The
military dismissed the parliament, dispersed local councils in areas
of the country. The head of state was the 45-year-old Major General
Idi Amin Dada of the Kakva tribe, a professional military man who
had served in the colonial forces of the British Army since 1946 and
had been involved in suppressing the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya.
In August 1972, Amin announced the course of "Ugandanization."
First, the property of immigrants from Asia was requisitioned, and
then the property of Europeans. People of Indian and Pakistani
origin living in Uganda who did not have local citizenship (60
thousand people) were expelled from Uganda.
Uganda's foreign policy. In 1972, Amin broke off diplomatic
relations with Israel. Amin began to make friends with the Arab
states, as well as with the USSR, from which he began to receive
significant financial assistance. In 1973, Amin defiantly sent a
group of Ugandan officers to participate in the next war of Egypt
and Syria against Israel. In 1976, Amin broke off diplomatic
relations with Britain.
In 1972, armed clashes broke out on
the Ugandan-Tanzanian border. Amin made territorial claims against
Tanzania and Kenya.
At the same time (in 1972-1975) the army
was tripled, a large number of weapons were purchased (from the
USSR). Due to increased government spending, Amin froze wages in the
public sector, cut funding for social programs and medicine. The
discontent of the population became widespread. Amin launched
widespread repression. Among the physically destroyed were army
officers and even ministers.
In 1975, Amin appropriated the
title of Field Marshal, and in 1976 declared himself lifelong
In October 1978, Amin’s troops invaded Tanzania.
However, the Tanzanian army, armed with Chinese weapons, expelled
the invaders and transferred hostilities to Uganda. In March 1979,
anti-Amina groups formed the Uganda National Liberation Front. The
armed units of the Front began to work together with the Tanzanian
army. Amin’s troops were defeated, in April 1979, Tanzanian troops
occupied the capital of Uganda, and the Front created an interim
In Uganda, a power struggle has unfolded; over
the course of the year, two presidents were replaced - Y. Lule and
G. Binais. In May 1980, the military junta of the Front took power.
She allowed activities in the country of parties, trade unions,
In December 1980, parliamentary
elections were held. Obote won the party, and he again became
president of Uganda. Soon, ethnic conflicts in Uganda escalated,
anti-government protests began, organized by various groups. The
so-called People’s Resistance Army, led by Museveni, launched a
guerrilla war in the west of the country.
In July 1985, a
military coup was made, a military junta led by General Basilio
Olara-Okello came to power. The parliament was dissolved, the
constitution was suspended.