Tower of Babel

Hanging Gardens of Babylon



The Republic of Iraq (officially: Arabic جمهورية العراق, DMG Ǧumhūriyyat al-'Irāq , Kurdish كۆماری عێراق Komarî Êraq), or Iraq for short, is a state in the Middle East. Iraq is bordered by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria, Turkey, Iran and the Persian Gulf, and includes most of the Mesopotamia "Mesopotamia" located between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, where the earliest advanced civilizations of the Near East emerged, as well as parts the adjacent desert and mountain regions. The northern part of the country is formed by the Kurdistan Autonomous Region, which has its own parliament, its own armed forces and its own official language Kurdish.

With about 38 million inhabitants, Iraq is one of the five largest countries in the Arab world. Its capital and largest city is the metropolis of Baghdad, other megacities are Basra, Mosul, Erbil, Sulaimaniya, Najaf, Kirkuk and Kerbela. Refugee movements in the 20th and 21st centuries led to rapid urbanization in the country. Iraq ranks fourth in the world ranking of most resource-rich countries, and its economy is based primarily on oil exports and to a lesser extent on agriculture.

Today's Iraq emerged in 1920 from the three Ottoman provinces of Baghdad, Mosul and Basra. From 1921 to 1958, consisted Kingdom of Iraq, in 1958 the king was a military coup deposed and proclaimed a republic. From 1979 to 2003, the country was ruled by Saddam Hussein dictatorial, the country waged war against its neighbors Iran and Kuwait. The Irankrieg was supported by the Soviet Union and the USA. A multinational invasion force ("Coalition of the Willing ") led by the United States overthrew regime of Saddam Hussein in 2003, but failed to build stable structures for the post-war era. The infrastructure of the country was largely destroyed.

After the declared end of the war, during the occupation of Iraq in 2003-2011, there were civil war-like conditions, thousands of terrorist attacks, acts of war and violent crime, both of different Iraqi groups against each other and against the Western occupation forces. Above all, they demanded an unknown number of casualties and casualties among Iraqi civilians. In 2010, most of the foreign troops were withdrawn after a relative stabilization of the country had been achieved. The deduction was completed on 18 December 2011. In June 2014, Islamic ISIS militants conquered parts of the national territory as part of the 2014 Iraq crisis. According to the Pentagon, about 55,000 square kilometers were under IS control in January 2015, which corresponds to about 13% of the national territory. In December 2017, the Iraqi government announced that the Iraqi forces had taken complete control of the Syrian-Iraqi border and that the war against ISIS was over.