Nepal Destinations Travel Guide

Flag of Nepal

Language: Nepali
Currency: Rupee (NPR)
Calling Code: 977

Nepal, whose official name is the Democratic Federal Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. Geographically it is located in the Himalayas, surrounded on the north by the People's Republic of China and on the south by India. It is separated from Bhutan by the Hindu state of Sikkim, by the so-called Siliguri Corridor. It is a country of mountainous nature in whose territory there are, totally or partially, some of the highest peaks of the Earth, highlighting Mount Everest (8848 meters above sea level), as well as seven other so-called eight-thousanders.

The modern Nepalese nation is configured as such since the unification of the regions under the direction and influence of the Gurkha king Prithvi Narayan, on September 25, 1768. Until 2006 Nepal was the only state in the world with Hinduism as the official religion . Since the decline of the monarchy, the country has been transformed into a secular state. Its recent history has been marked by a bloody civil war that ended with the triumph of the Maoist rebels of the PCN-M, the establishment of a government of national unity and the convening of a Constituent Assembly. This last body proclaimed on May 28, 2008 the establishment of a democratic federal republic, which ended more than 240 years of monarchy.

Nepal is considered a multicultural, multilingual and secular state. Despite being a small state, compared to its huge neighbors, the country has a wide and diverse variety of territories, ranging from the humid wooded plains of the Terai, to the highest and iciest peaks of the earth. The Nepalese people are mainly Hindu, despite having an ancient and deep Buddhist tradition, centered in the town of Lumbini, birthplace of Siddharta Gautama. Much of the population is concentrated in the valley and the city of Kathmandu, which is the capital of the State. The official language is Nepalese, the official currency is the Nepalese rupee, and the flag has the peculiarity of being the only one of a State that has no rectangle or square shape.


Travel Destination in Nepal

Chitwan National Park is a nature reserve situated in a Chitean District of Nepal. It covers a total area of 932 sq km.

Mount Everest or Qomolangma (Holy Mother) is situated in Solukhumbu District. It is the tallest peak in the World reaching an elevation of 8,848 m.

Royal Bardia National Park is a nature reserve in Bardia District of Nepal.

Shivapuri National Park is a nature preserve in the districts of Nuwakot and Sindhupalchowk in Nepal.


Getting here

Entry requirements
To enter the country, foreign nationals (except Indians) need a passport that is still valid for six months and a visa, which can be obtained on arrival at the border crossing points in Nepal or at Kathmandu Airport. The fees are graduated depending on the length of stay:
15 days: US$25
30 days: US$40
90 days: US$100

The visa can also be applied for at the Nepalese embassy in Berlin or the Nepalese honorary consulates (there +5 € extra) in Frankfurt, Hamburg, Cologne, Munich and Stuttgart. Here the fees are about the same as at the airport (25/40/100€ for 15/30/90 days).

Children up to the age of 16 need a children's passport with a photo.

Entry must be with a passport that is valid upon entry (a temporary document is also possible).

Visas can be extended up to 150 days. If you exceed the specified length of stay, you will be charged USD 2 per day if you exceed 30 days, USD 3 per day if you exceed 90 days, and USD 5 per day if you exceed 90 days. In addition, a fine may be due.

More information is available from the Nepalese Department of Immigration.

By plane
Kathmandu internet wikipediacommons Airport (IATA: KTM) in Nepal is served by Turkish Airlines, Qatar Airways, Thai Airways, Korean Air, Singapore Airlines and Air Arabia, among others. There are currently no direct flights from Germany. It is also possible to fly to Delhi and travel from there to Kathmandu by bus or flight. Note that Kathmandu Airport does not allow instrument flights. Due to poor visibility, there are sometimes considerable delays.

The second international airport, Gautam Buddha International Airport formerly Bhairahawa, is near Lumbini but has few international connections.

By train
The only existing rail connection to India runs from Khajuri in Nepal to Jaynagar in the Indian state of Bihar. This line is operated by the Nepal State Railways. There are no border controls, i. H. Third-country nationals are not allowed to cross the border by train.

By bus
It is possible to arrive by bus from India. Some services are offered from Delhi.

A border crossing is in the far west at Kakarbhitta. Buses from Kathmandu take 12-16 hours.

car / motorcycle / bicycle
Entry by car or motorbike is possible. Note that the driving behavior in Nepal takes more than getting used to. A Carnet de Passage (available from the automobile clubs in D/A/CH) is required. An international driver's license is also recommended.


Around the country

Mobility is always a problem. In the Kathmandu valley, traffic has increased enormously in the last ten years, so that one often gets stuck in traffic. It doesn't really matter whether you're traveling by tuk-tuk, bus or taxi, depending on your wallet and the desired proximity to other people.

From time to time, overland roads are closed for a while due to protests by the Maoists (so-called "Bandhs"). The vehicles of tour operators (cars and buses) marked as "tourist" or the tourist buses can usually pass. It is possible to get on by domestic flight, which is quite fast, but also significantly more expensive than by bus. It is best to clarify the current political situation on site. Military checks are to be expected on overland trips, especially in the west of the country but also before Kathmandu or Pokhare. However, the tourist vehicles can pass through them.

There are no railways. Travel within Nepal is almost always done by bus. Since only very narrow roads across high mountains connect the towns and villages, enormous delays must always be expected. Bridges and paths are often partially damaged by falling rocks and can only be used in one lane.

In addition to public buses, tourist buses operate on the main routes. In addition to a seat (in the bus and not on the roof, since they only take as many passengers as there are seats), the tourist buses offer greater safety and better comfort. The vehicles are in good condition and drivers are encouraged to drive passively, i.e. safely.



The official language is Nepali, but there is an unmanageable variety of other languages and dialects in the multi-ethnic state of Nepal. Especially when trekking, you should make sure that your guide speaks the language(s) spoken in the respective region.

As a tourist, you can usually get around the country easily with English, most Nepali know at least a few words to negotiate prices or to offer goods.



The electricity network is now well developed in the tourist centers - if there is electricity. You have to be prepared for hours of power outages in all areas of Nepal at all hours of the day and night. Higher-class hotels usually have their own generator, otherwise it makes sense to carry flashlights. Charge your batteries (photo, mobile phone) whenever possible.



"The kitchen" in Nepal does not exist. The food is Tibetan in the mountain regions, international in Kathmandu + Pokara and Indian in the south. On the famous trekking paths you will always find something delicious to eat in the lodges, whereby the regional and vegetarian cuisine (Dahl Bhat) is recommended with a view to hygiene and environmental protection. Otherwise, the food should always be cooked, fried or peeled. We do not recommend eating salads, as they are washed with tap water and can therefore contain germs.

The national dish is daal baat (daal = lentils; baat = rice). In Nepal there are usually two meals; in the morning (around 9-10 h) Daal Baat and in the evening Daal Baat. In Tibetan and Newari cuisine, momo are offered. Momo are dumplings filled with vegetables or meat (chicken, buffalo) and served steamed or fried.

Breakfast in the European sense is not known in Nepal. The hotels and inns offer an "American" breakfast of eggs (scrambled or omelets), toast, jam, cereal, and buffalo cheese.

Thanks to tourism, almost every dish is now available in the larger cities, pizza, burgers ... Despite everything, the Nepalese stick to the Daal Baat.

The main drink is milk tea / black tea or water. Water should always be bought in capped and sealed bottles! Fruit juices and lassis (yoghurt drinks) are generally discouraged because they are mixed with water.

To avoid misunderstandings: Daal Baat is Dahl Bhat (whereby the spelling follows the German pronunciation). There is more to a good daal baat than just lentils and rice, namely vegetable curry, potato curry, different types of meat, pickles (chutneys), yoghurt. Each is individually seasoned and the Nepalese spice blends are delicious. The rice is unseasoned, so it's not salted either, so you can eat it with all the other things. There is a lot of rice with the meal, much more than we are used to as a side dish.

The milk tea is also seasoned, i. H. Milk and black tea, possibly fresh ginger slices and cardamom are boiled together and finally sugar is added.


Rules of conduct when eating

Most restaurants have knives and forks, or at least spoons. In less touristy places people still eat by hand. Make sure you only use your "right" hand. The left hand is considered unclean and is only used for going to the toilet. Only pass food on with your right hand!

For Hindus, an object touched with the lips (glasses, bottles) is unclean.


Arts and Culture

Nepal stands for a fascinating juxtaposition of neighboring cultures from India and Tibet, e.g. T. also for their merger. In the southern lowlands, in the Terai, you almost feel like you are in India, which is only evident from the place names that sound Indian (such as Biratnagar or Janakpur). Many Terai residents speak the same language as across the border and resemble their Indian neighbors in appearance and dress. The religious sites, which are predominantly Hindu, also show Indian architectural influences.

In the sparsely populated mountainous region, on the other hand, the majority of people live who are close to the Tibetans in terms of language, religion, architecture or cuisine. Thus, most of the people living there speak Sino-Tibetan languages and adhere to Buddhism.

In the Kathmandu valley, on the other hand, a fusion of cultures can be observed, for example in relation to architecture and religion: the famous temples of Kathmandu and Lalitpur, although Hindu, have architectural elements that can also be found in Tibet, in addition to Hindu deities.



In Kathmandu there are some bars and restaurants that are open until late in the evening. The main nightlife area is Thamel, which has numerous pubs, restaurants and also many backpacker accommodations in its winding streets.



There is something for all budgets and desires in the larger cities. When trekking rather simple accommodation. One should be careful in cities, rather to sleep in the direction of the inner courtyard, as loud barking dogs often disturb the night's sleep on the streets at night. Incidentally, many monasteries also offer overnight accommodation.

Hotel Siddhartha, Surkhet Road, Karkandho, Nepalgunj. Price: From US$33.


Calendar and holidays

In Nepal, the most common calendar is the Bikram Sambat. It has 12 months, the length of which varies between 29 and 32 days, and the year has 365 days. The Nepalese celebrate their New Year mainly on Nawa Barsa, the 1st Baishak. According to this calendar, December 25, 2010 is the 10th Poush 2067. Some people groups have a different New Year's date and a different count of the years. The religious holidays are based on the lunar calendar and are postponed in a similar way to our Easter festival.

Dashain, the most important festival for the Hindus, is towards the end of September/beginning of October. It lasts about seven days and is roughly equivalent to a harvest festival.
Diwali is another important festival of the Hindus, the festival of lights has a similar status as our Christmas.
Teej is a three-day festival that women celebrate with fasting and prayer
In addition to the Hindu holidays, there are also Buddhist holidays that are celebrated in the same way, such as Buddha Jayanti, the anniversary of Buddha's birth, which is celebrated on the full moon of May/June.



The political situation in Nepal has eased, but travel to Nepal is still subject to particular imponderables. In particular, the conflict with the Maoists has not yet come to an end, despite an agreement. The Federal Foreign Office provides up-to-date information.



In a country where sewage treatment plants are special, more attention should be paid to hygiene. Everything that can be eaten should be boiled or peeled beforehand. (Cook it, peel it or leave it!) With the exception of the tourist strongholds of Kathmandu and Pokhara, where it is safe to feast, in the remote villages a certain amount of care is recommended when choosing food and dining place.

Another problem is the catastrophically bad air in Kathmandu (Bangkok is nothing short of a climatic health resort!). Here it often helps to live on the edge of the valley (e.g. in Boudha) or even to move to the adjacent mountains. Measures to improve the air quality are always on the political agenda, but little has really been done in recent years.

altitude sickness
Drink a lot (2 liters + 1 liter per 1,000m altitude), slowly gain altitude (preferably no more than 400 meters in altitude per day from an altitude of around 3,000m) and, if in doubt, come down again(!). A lot has already been done with that.


Post and telecommunications

There are Internet cafes in all larger villages and tourist areas, some of which have very good speeds. In Kathmandu in particular, many Internet cafes have broadband connections and it is also possible to make phone calls over the Internet. Cell phone reception is only available in larger cities.



There are several versions of the origin of the toponym "Nepal". According to one of them, the toponym comes from the Sanskrit bases -nipa (“at the foot of the mountains”) and -alai (“dwelling”, “inhabited place”), that is, “dwelling at the foot of the mountain”, which corresponds to the geographical conditions of the country. According to another version, the word "Nepal" comes from the Tibetan "niampal" ("holy land"), which may be due to the fact that Siddhartha Gautama, who became known as the Buddha, was born in Nepal more than 2500 years ago.



The Republic of Nepal is located in Asia between 26° and 30° north latitude and between 80° and 88° east longitude. The length from north to south is about 250 km, and from east to west - about 800 km.

Nepal is located between the two most populated countries in the world, China and India.

To the north of it is Tibet - an autonomous region of China, and along the southern border, from west to east, Nepal borders on the Indian states of Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Sikkim.

From the north, Nepal is bordered by the Great Himalayan Range, which is famous for several peaks above 8000 m, among which Sagarmatha (8848 m) is the highest mountain on Earth.

The lowest point in Nepal is at an altitude of 70 m above sea level. More than 40% of the territory of Nepal is located at an altitude of more than 3000 m, so Nepal is the highest country in the world.


Relief of Nepal

Six sevenths of the country's territory is occupied by the ranges of the Himalayan mountain system.

Along the southern border, a narrow (20–40 km) strip at altitudes of 200–250 m above sea level stretches the Terai.

From the north, the Terai are closed by a gently undulating ridge called Sivalik - these are the foothills of the Himalayas (500-700 m above sea level), the lower step of the Himalayan mountain system.

Further north is the middle step of the Himalayas - the mid-mountain ridge Mahabharat, or the Lesser Himalayas, up to 3000 m high and up to 16 km wide.

Between the Mahabharat and the Main Himalayan Range there is a depression - the inner median region (Midland, or Pahar Khanda). Its width is about 25 km, height - from 600 to 2000 m.

More than 1,300 mountain peaks are covered with snow in the country. In Nepal, there are eight of the 14 peaks in the world that exceed 8000 m. Among them is the highest point in Nepal - Mount Sagarmatha, located on the border with China.

Earthquakes often occur in Nepal. The last series of devastating earthquakes occurred in 2015 and resulted in thousands of victims.

In the eastern part of Nepal, the ridge of the Main Himalayan Range serves as the state border with China.

Natural areas
The territory of Nepal, according to its natural and geographical features, is divided into altitudinal belts, stretching from west to east along the Himalayas.

Southern tropical belt up to 1900 m above sea level (Terai, Sivalik and the lower slopes of the Mahabharata). The average temperature in July is +27…+30°C, in January +15…+17°C. In summer - frequent floods, in winter - droughts. The Terai used to be covered with tropical jungle, but today many of the forests have been reduced to nothing, replaced by cultivated fields. The jungle has been preserved at the foot and on the slopes of Sivalik, especially in its eastern part.
Subtropical mountain belt (1200-1900 m). It is covered with broad-leaved forests (oak, chestnut, maple, hornbeam, elm, as well as magnolias, rhododendrons, camphor and laurel trees, banyan, mountain bamboo, orchids).
Mountain temperate belt (1900-2800 m). Deciduous forests.
Moderately cold belt (3000-4000 m). Deciduous trees are gradually being replaced by conifers (silver spruce, blue pine, larch, juniper tree, Himalayan cedar, fir above).
Alpine meadows (4000-5200 m).
Ice zone (above 5200 m).


National parks

Sagarmatha National Park is located in the northeast of the capital Kathmandu. The status of the National Park was granted in July 1976. The territory covers 1148 km² of the ecological zone of the Himalayas. The park is UNESCO World Heritage Site No. 120. Sagarmatha is the local name for Mount Everest, which lies on the northern border of the national park. The easiest way to get to the park is by flying from Kathmandu to Lukla. To stay in the park, you must pay a fee of $10. From the top of Kalapatar, a panorama of Everest opens up.
Annapurna National Park is located in the central part of Nepal, 180 km west of Kathmandu. On the territory of the park are the highest peaks - Annapurna and Dhaulagiri, separated by the deepest Kali Gandaki valley on the planet. The valley itself is geologically older than the Himalayas, and shellfish fossils can be found at its bottom. In the Kali Gandaki valley, Jomsom apples are grown, highly valued for their taste. These apples are exported to England for the Queen.
The Royal Chitwan National Park is located 200 km from the capital Kathmandu. The park, UNESCO World Heritage Site No. 284, was the hunting grounds of kings until the 1970s and was carefully guarded, and therefore avoided the destruction of the fauna by poachers. The park is interesting because Asian rhinos (almost completely exterminated in neighboring India), Bengal tigers, crocodiles (mashmaga is the local name for a crocodile), caimans and other interesting animals live on its territory. An elephant safari is organized in Chitwan (this word today in Nepal means not hunting, but just a trip) on elephants. This makes it possible to enter the impenetrable jungle and approach the rhinos at a distance of less than 10 m.



Population statistics from 1911 to 2020
Population - 30,430,267 people (2014 estimate)
Annual increase - 1.4% (fertility - 2.5 births per woman)
Average life expectancy - 64.6 years for men, 67 years for women
HIV infection - 0.5% (2007 estimate)
Urban population - 17%
Literacy - 62.7% of men, 34.9% of women (according to the 2001 census)

In cultural and ethnic terms, Nepal is a mixture of about a hundred nationalities and castes. Caste boundaries, as a rule, are transparent, and belonging to one or another caste also depends on the accepted tradition of the observer. The people of Nepal speak seventy different languages ​​and dialects.

Nepalese, Nepali:
the name of all citizens of Nepal.
self-name spread among the peoples of Nepal

The peoples of Nepal are predominantly speakers of the languages ​​of the Sino-Tibetan (Tibeto-Burmese group) and Indo-European language families.

Many nationalities are refugees, conquerors or settlers. Thus, the Bahuna people fled to Nepal from the south from the Muslim invasion around 1300, and the Sherpa people fled from the north from the Mongols about 500 years ago.

The origin of some ethnic groups is unclear, such as the Newari or the Tharu.

In addition, mention should be made of such nationalities as the Gurungs, Sherpas, Limbu and Rai.

For 49% of the population (according to the 2001 census), their mother tongue is Nepali. Other spoken languages: Maithili (12.4%), Bhojpuri (7.6%), Tharu (5.9%), Tamang (5.2%), Newari (3.6%) and Magars (3.4%).



According to official figures, 80.6% of the population professes Hinduism. According to independent estimates, the actual number of adherents of Hinduism is only 70%, or even less. This discrepancy is due to the fact that there are many peoples who, although formally declare their belonging to Hinduism, in reality practice animism or Buddhism. It is often difficult to draw a clear boundary, so it is impossible to speak about the accuracy of estimates. But anyway, Hinduism is the dominant religion in Nepal.

Approximately 10.7% of the population identify themselves as Buddhists, especially in the Kingdom of Mustang. There are also minorities who practice Islam, Kirant Kirant (mandham - an ancient belief of the Kirat people) and Dainism and belong to separate animistic beliefs.

The Nepalese caste system developed in parallel with the Indian one. It is known that the historical Buddha Gautama Siddharta (born 563 BC) belonged to the Kshatriya varna, the warrior varna. Indian influence especially increased in Nepal during the Gupta dynasty (320-500); Nepal then had the status of a "neighboring kingdom", but subordinate to Samudragupta.

Later, from the 10th century, many Hindus (as well as numerous Brahmins) migrated from India to Nepal, mainly to escape the Arab invasion and the introduction of Islam, especially from northeastern India. At the same time, the refugees sought to preserve the original culture and rituals.

To understand Nepalese caste relations, let us consider schematically the various caste systems.



A significant part of the population of Nepal are peasants living in the mountains and rural areas. The urban population of Nepal is only 14%, the proportion of the urban population is one of the lowest in the world. In recent years, however, the number of urban residents began to increase, by about 3.5% per year.

Until the early 1990s, Nepal was governed exclusively from the center. With the development of democracy and decentralization, the communes received self-government.

All cities except Kathmandu lack resources, which makes revitalizing local governance more of a problem than a benefit. The structures of land administration are in fact even more centralized, which is in conflict with communal self-government.

Depending on the economic condition, there are three levels of commune self-government. In the highest competence lies mahanagarpalika, only Kathmandu belongs to this category. The next level is upmahanagarpalika, which includes such cities as Lalitpur (Patan) or Pokhara; on the lower level there is a nagarpalika.

The three largest cities are in the mountains, but most of the communes are in the Terai. The remaining communes in the mountains are grouped around small mountain towns, which, due to the inclusion of nearby villages in their line, have a population of 20,000 people.

A significant part of the population of Nepal is concentrated in the south, below, on the border with India, in the Terai. Since there is a lot of flat surface in this zone, it is there that new cities and towns grow.

The Kathmandu-Lalitpur agglomeration is located in the Kathmandu valley, the smaller city of Bhaktapur is nearby, and around are small cities that also carry the traditional Newar culture - Thimi, Kirtipur, and in a small distance Banepa, Dhulikhel and Panaoti. In general, the valley is inhabited very randomly and densely, the total population of the valley is more than one and a half million people.

The second most populous mountain conglomerate, whose population is constantly growing, is the Pokhara Valley with the cities of Pokhara and Leknat, whose population has already exceeded two hundred thousand people.

In addition to these two valleys, there are many smaller towns in the mountains. Their list (from east to west):

Eelam, Dhankuta, Bhimeswar, Tansen, Putalibazar, Ghorakhi, Tulsipur, Birendranagar and Deepayal-Silgadhi.

The following larger cities are located in the Terai zone (from east to west): Mechinagar, Biratnagar, Dharan, Itahari, Rajbiraj, Triyuga, Janakpur, Birganj, Hetauda, ​​Bharatpur, Ramgar, Butawal, Siddharthanagar, Nepalganj, Gularia, Tikapur, Dhangadhi and Mahendranagar .

It should be borne in mind that recently many cities have changed their name. So, the famous city of Gorkha is officially called Prithivinarayan, and the old city-kingdom of Patan became officially called Lalitpur. Nevertheless, the old names continue to be actively used.



ancient period
Once the valley of Kathmandu lay at the bottom of a huge mountain lake. After the earthquake, the water of the lake came down (according to the legend, the Bodhisattva Manjushri cut the water with a magic sword, according to another legend, it was Krishna, who, with the help of a staff, formed the Chobar Gorge, through which the water left), and the valley was inhabited by numerous people from the surrounding regions, who formed the Newari people. The valley was distinguished by high fertility, and the population - by great talents in art and crafts, and became famous throughout East Asia.

Nepal has gone through periods of prosperity and decline. Even before our era, Buddhism came to Nepal, and Nepal was a stronghold of Buddhism throughout the Himalayan region, as well as an important transit point on trade routes between India, Tibet and China.

Kingdom of Nepal
The heyday of Nepal occurred during the Newar Malla dynasty in the 13th-17th centuries, which left the most noticeable mark on the history of Nepal with an abundance of magnificent architectural monuments that have survived to this day, which largely shaped the face of the country in the eyes of the rest of the world. It is not for nothing that the era of Mull's reign is called the "Golden Era".

In 1768, King Prithvi Narayan Shah of Gorkha conquered the Kathmandu valley and moved his capital to the city of Kathmandu. Thus was the beginning of the reign of the Shah dynasty in Nepal. Although in the traditional Russian translation the title of the rulers of Nepal has always been translated as “king”, in the original it sounds like “shah-in-shah” (a shah among shahs) - similarly to the traditional title of the rulers of Iran and other countries of the East.

1814-1816 - Anglo-Nepalese war. The peace treaty basically defined the modern borders of Nepal, and made the state dependent on the British crown.

On September 15, 1846, conspirators led by Jang Bahadur, a young, ambitious and cruel aristocrat from the Chhetri caste in western Nepal, carried out a bloody palace coup, called the “Kot Massacre”.

For more than a century, the Rana dynasty of prime ministers ruled the country, and although this time is characterized by the isolation of the country and stagnation in almost all areas of life, Nepal managed to maintain its independence, falling into the position of a semi-colony of the British Empire. On January 1, 1923, a treaty of "friendship" was concluded with Great Britain, the country received formal independence.

At the end of 1950, King Tribhuvan left his palace, taking refuge in the Indian Embassy, ​​from where he then fled to India. At this time, supporters of the newly created political party, the Nepalese National Congress (NNC), seized power in most of the Terai and formed an Interim Government in the Indian border town of Birganj. In Nepal, clashes began between the supporters of the NNK and the Rana dynasty, during which not a single force achieved a decisive advantage. Then India intervened, and the proposed settlement plan was accepted by both sides. In accordance with this plan, King Tribhuvan returned to the capital in 1951 and formed a new government, including both Ran supporters and representatives of the NNC. The centuries-old isolation of the country was over: Nepal established relations with many states of the world.

In 1955, King Tribhuvan died (in particular, the capital's airport is named after him), and his son Mahendra took the throne. He proclaimed a new constitution that established a parliamentary system in Nepal in 1959. However, 3 years later, in 1962, King Mahendra recognized this "experiment" as a failure and dissolved the parliament. On May 16, 1962, a new constitution appeared, according to which Nepal again passed to an absolute monarchy. As a result, the prime minister and members of parliament were arrested and subjected to repression, and absolute monarchy was maintained in Nepal for the next 18 years.

In 1972, King Mahendra died, and his son Birendra succeeded to the throne, having received an excellent education at Eton and Harvard. Pro-democracy movements among the students pushed the new king to decide to hold a referendum in May 1980, which would ask about the nature of the future Nepalese government. The Nepalese were offered 2 options: the preservation of the absolute monarchy while carrying out democratic reforms and the transition to a multi-party system. Then the monarchy won the referendum, but the advantage was small.

At the same time, the population, which for the most part expected an immediate improvement in life after the introduction of democracy, quickly became disillusioned with the ruling party, riots began again in the country, and the government was forced to call early elections in 1994. This election was won by the United Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) under the leadership of Man Mohan Adhikari. A unique political situation was created: a government formed by the communists under a theocratic monarchy (Nepal is one of the few countries in which Hinduism is proclaimed the state religion). However, this situation did not last long: already in September 1995, the communist government received a vote of no confidence and was forced to resign, and a three-party coalition of the NNC, the right-wing Rastriya Prajatantra party and the pro-Indian Nepal Sabdhavana party came to power.

Fall of the monarchy
On February 13, 1996, the "People's Nepalese Army" (in fact, extremely few and poorly armed guerrillas), the armed wing of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoists), launched the so-called "prolonged People's War" (a specific Maoist term). However, the Maoists received the support of local peasants, who began to join the partisan detachments by the hundreds. The rebel movement expanded, capturing more and more territories.

Political instability in the country has especially intensified since June 2001, when Crown Prince Dipendra shot his entire family and shot himself, killing King Birendra and almost all members of the royal family. The reason for the tragedy was that Dipendra had been in a love affair with Devyani Rana since 1990, whom he met while studying in London. Traditionally, the family of Nepalese aristocrats, Rana, until 1951 gave hereditary prime ministers of the country and was a rival of the royal family for power in Nepal, and the royal family was categorically against this marriage. The brother of the murdered king Gyanendra, who was very unpopular in the country, took the throne. Rumors spread throughout the country that it was he who allegedly was involved in the tragedy. Immediately after the change of power, mass riots began in the country, exacerbating an already difficult situation.

In an attempt to stabilize it, Gyanendra resorted to a series of unpopular measures, including the banning of political parties and the dissolution of the government, interspersing active military action against the Maoists with negotiations. Meanwhile, the Maoists took control of a significant part of the territory of Nepal, while government troops firmly held the Kathmandu valley, the outskirts of Pokhara, the most populated part of the Terai and areas of the main tourist routes in the vicinity of Everest and Annapurna.

In 2005, the king effectively dissolved parliament.

In connection with the intensification of hostilities, the tourist flow began to decline and by 2005 it had fallen five times, which hit the economy of Nepal. At the same time, the Maoists emphasized that they were not waging war against tourists. For all the time of hostilities, not a single foreign tourist was killed. Moreover, the Maoists encouraged foreign tourism in the territories they controlled. At the entrance, tourists paid a "revolutionary tax", approximately two dollars a day per person, they were given a receipt. In the event of a hike delay when leaving the territory, they paid the difference for additional days in excess of the dates noted on the receipt.

Opposing the king's authoritarian measures, the leading political parties formed an alliance with Nepal's Maoists.

In April 2006, a general strike began in the country.

On July 11, 2006, the Nepalese parliament stripped King Gyanendra of his right to veto laws and bills. A month before, the deputies unanimously took away the post of supreme commander of the army from the king, deprived him of immunity (it became possible to put him on trial), and also ordered him to pay taxes. Thus, the parliament completely excluded him from the political system of the country. In addition, the deputies decided from now on to consider Nepal a secular state, thus taking away the title of "the incarnation of the god Vishnu" from Gyanendra. A coalition government was formed.

On November 21, 2006, the seven-party government made peace with the Maoists, announcing the end of the civil war. Under the terms of this deal, the Maoists agreed to lay down their arms in exchange for their integration into the ranks of the regular army and government administration. For this, Prime Minister Girija Prasad Koirala, who became the main figure in the country in May 2006, promised to give the Maoists 73 out of 330 seats in the new parliament.

Republic period
On January 14, 2007, the parliament adopted an interim constitution, according to which the king lost his head of state status and power functions were transferred to the prime minister. At the same time, the Maoists achieved an increase in representation in parliament to 83 seats, became the largest opposition party and received seats in the cabinet. The Nepalese National Congress, led by the Prime Minister, won 85 seats.


Elections to the Constitutional Assembly were scheduled for June 20, 2007 in the country. The Nepalese Congress Party - supporters of Prime Minister Koirala - believed that Nepal should be a constitutional monarchy, and the king should be placed under indefinite house arrest for suppressing popular demonstrations. At the same time, in the north of Nepal, the armed groups of the Maoists handed over their weapons to special storage facilities, which were controlled by international observers. The acceptance of weapons was carried out by a special commission, which is made up of UN employees and veterans of the British special forces from the Gurkhas.

The elections were rescheduled for November 22, 2007. At the first meeting, the deputies of the Constitutional Assembly would have to decide the fate of the monarchy in Nepal. Although an amendment was adopted in the interim constitution in April 2007, allowing it to be done directly by parliament before the elections to the Constituent Assembly, in case the king interferes with their holding. After that, the deputies of the Constitutional Assembly had to develop the text of the new fundamental law of the country. The Maoists insisted on the final transformation of Nepal into a parliamentary republic. In September, the Maoists put forward a demand for the proclamation of a republic and the replacement of the mixed voting system with a proportional one at an extraordinary session of the interim parliament on October 11, 2007. On October 5, elections to the Constitutional Assembly were once again postponed for an indefinite period. Voting on the issue of declaring a republic and replacing the electoral system due to the intervention of pro-monarchist forces (the Nepalese Congress, the United Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Nepal) was postponed three times: first to October 14, then to October 16 and the last time to October 29, 2007. On November 4, the extraordinary session ended. By a majority vote, it was decided to instruct the government to develop a draft amendment to the constitution that would allow proclaiming Nepal a republic, as well as change the electoral system from a mixed (50% + 50%) to a proportional one, for consideration at the regular session of parliament, which opened on November 19, 2007, but through 11 minutes after the opening, the next meeting was adjourned until 29 November.

Despite the adoption at the congress on September 22-23, 2007 by the Nepalese Congress party of the decision to vote in the Constitutional Assembly for the establishment of a republic, this party, led by Prime Minister Girija Koirala, was an obstacle to the establishment of a republican system in the country. Some members of the party have openly stated that they will ignore the decisions of the November 4, 2007 extraordinary session of parliament on the development of legislation to proclaim a republic in the current session of parliament. The Maoists, on the other hand, put the issue of a republic and a proportional electoral system at the forefront - as long as the "Nepalese Congress" will prevent the proclamation of a republic and change the electoral system, the Maoists will prevent the issue of calling elections to the Constituent Assembly.

On December 28, 2007, the interim parliament proclaimed Nepal a democratic federal republic. The decision was subject to approval by the Constitutional Assembly. Until then, the king of Nepal, Gyanendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev, deprived of real power, continued to live in the royal palace.

On April 10, 2008, elections were held to the Constituent Assembly, which, being a provisional body of power (parliament), was supposed to prepare a Constitution in two years, on the basis of which it was planned to hold subsequent elections. The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) won 220 out of 601 seats, and its leader Pushpa Kamal Dahala (better known as "Comrade Prachanda") led a government that included the Maoist Communist Party, the Communist Party (United Marxist-Leninist) and deputies from " Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum".

On May 28, 2008 at 23:26 local time, the Constituent Assembly of Nepal by 560 votes to 4 (members of the monarchical Rashtriya Prajantra Party) proclaimed Nepal a federal democratic republic. It was established that the prime minister would head the executive branch. The former royal palace is now a museum.

Soon, Pushpa Kamal Dahal resigned, the reason for which was the violation of the peace agreements by the commander-in-chief of the Nepalese armed forces, General Rukmangud Katawala - he refused to integrate the former Maoist guerrillas into the army.

The new coalition government was formed by the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist), which had the third largest faction in Parliament (103 seats out of 601), and it, in turn, resigned in June 2010. However, for a long time, the parliament failed to elect a new prime minister, and the government continued to function as "acting". On February 10, 2014, Sushil Koirala was elected as the new Prime Minister.


In May 2010, a 2-year period expired, for which it was planned to prepare the Constitution, which was not done. Therefore, the term of office of the Constitutional Assembly was extended. In June 2015, political leaders reached an agreement on a new constitution for Nepal.

Distribution of seats in Parliament (Constituent Assembly/Constitutional Assembly) as of 2013.

In 2015, an earthquake occurred in the country, which caused numerous destructions.

In the fall of 2015, representatives of the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist) took over the key posts of President and Prime Minister. In August 2016, the Chairman of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), Pushpa Kamal Dahal, took over the government.

In the parliamentary elections in November-December 2017 to the House of Representatives and February 2018 to the National Assembly, the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist) won. After the February 15 elections, the Chairman of the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist) Khadga Prasad Sharma Oli led the government.

On July 14, 2021, Sher Bahadur Deuba, chairman of the Nepalese Congress, took over the government.


State structure

According to the interim constitution of 2007, Nepal is a parliamentary republic.

According to the Constitution of 2015, Nepal is proclaimed a state focused on the construction of socialism.

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, the country in 2018 was classified on the Democracy Index as a hybrid regime.

House of Representatives
Nepalese Communist Party -ML 95
Nepalese Congress 63
Nepalese Communist Party -MC 49
Nepalese Communist Party -O 25
People's Socialist Party 21
Independent 5

National Assembly
Nepalese Communist Party -ML 18
Nepalese Congress 10
Nepalese Communist Party -MC 16
Nepalese Communist Party -O 9
Independent 5

Executive branch (as of 2015)
President and Vice President
The head of state is the president. The current president, Bidhya Devi Bhandari, who served as vice chairman of the ruling Communist Party, was elected in October 2015 by the Nepalese parliament with 327 votes, her rival Kul Bahadur Gurung received 214 votes.

Under the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution, the President, Vice President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Constituent Assembly, and Vice Chairman are elected on the basis of "political understanding". During the 2008 presidential election, the parties failed to agree on candidates for the position of vice president, but the elections were declared valid. Parmanand Jha of the Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum was elected Vice President with the support of the Nepalese Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist).

The head of government is the prime minister. On February 10, 2014, Sushil Koirala was elected as the new Prime Minister. The election of Koirala became possible as a result of an agreement reached between the Nepalese Congress and the Communist Party of Nepal (United Marxist-Leninist), which agreed to support the candidacy of the leader of the centrists. As Koirala said, “Nepal's main task now is to adopt a constitution. We will try to complete it within a year." Koirala's candidacy was approved by 405 out of 575 deputies of the 2nd Constituent Assembly. Since February 15, 2018, the new Prime Minister Oli, Khadga Prasad Sharma. The government includes representatives of communists and socialists.

Judicial branch
In accordance with Article 101 of the Interim Constitution of Nepal, the following courts operate in the country:
Supreme Court;
appellate courts;
district courts.

In addition to the above, special courts, judicial institutions or tribunals may also be established to deal with special categories of cases, but no court, judicial institution or tribunal shall be established to deal with specific cases.

The highest judicial body in Nepal is the Supreme Court, headed by the Chief Justice. The Chief Justice of the Supreme Court is appointed by the President of the country on the recommendation of the Constitutional Council. The Chief Justice, in turn, on the recommendation of the Judicial Council, appoints other judges of the Supreme Court, which cannot be more than 14. If this number of judges is not enough, ad hoc judges may be appointed for a certain period.


Foreign policy

Nepal is landlocked and lies between its two major neighbors, the People's Republic of China and India. In the north of the country, the Himalayas form a natural and almost impassable border with China. In the south, east and west, Nepal is surrounded by India. Having no access to the sea, Nepal became dependent on India due to the transit of goods through its territory. During the existence of British India (1858-1947), Nepal followed a policy of isolationism. Such a policy was formed due to the fact that the country partially avoided colonization expansions and retained its independence. Since the middle of the 19th century, when the British Empire finally conquered India, and the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) in China was in decline, Nepal managed to conclude contractual relations with London on the best terms for itself. By maintaining autonomy in domestic politics, Nepal received a guarantee that the British Empire would protect it in the event of external aggression. In return, London received units of Gurkha soldiers from Nepal, who came to play a vital role in maintaining order in British India.



Nepal is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. GDP per capita (in 2009) - 1.2 thousand dollars (159th place in the world according to the IMF). The unemployment rate is 46% (in 2008).

The main branch of the economy is agriculture (76% of employees, 35% of GDP) - rice, corn, cereals, sugar cane, jute, root crops. Meat and dairy farming - buffaloes.

Industry (6% of employees, 16% of GDP) - processing of agricultural products (jute, sugar, tobacco, grain), carpet production, brick production.

Service sector - 18% of employees, 49% of GDP.

The main source of foreign exchange earnings is foreign tourism.

International trade
Foreign trade is almost completely focused on India, and Kathmandu's dependence on New Delhi only grew in the 2000s: if in 2005 India accounted for 53.7% of Nepal's exports and 47.7% of the imports of the Himalayan country, then in 2011 these the figures were 66.4% and 65.2%, respectively. Export - 804 million dollars (in 2017) - textile and weaving goods, including clothes - 317 million dollars, food products, including fruit juices - 138 million dollars, agricultural raw materials (tea, nuts, spices, etc.) .) - 95 million dollars, metal products - approx. $70 million

The main buyers are India (54%), USA (11%), Turkey (6.7%), Germany (4.1%).

Imports - $9.56 billion (2017) - petroleum products, manufactured goods, machinery and equipment, vehicles, semi-finished metal products, gold, electronics, medicines.

The main suppliers are India (63%), China (12%), Germany (2%).



Nepal remains quite isolated from the world's main transport routes. At the same time, air communication within the country is quite developed: there are 47 airports, 11 of which are concrete-paved, the frequency of flights corresponds to the needs. The northern two-thirds of the country is mountainous, making road construction and maintenance difficult and costly. In 2007, the length of asphalt roads was 10142 km, unpaved roads - 7140 km. In 2018, there were two railway lines in the south of the country with a total length of 34 km.

More than a third of Nepal's population lives within two hours' walk of any all-weather road. Only recently roads connected all the administrative centers with the capital Kathmandu. In 2009, about 60% of the roads were country roads and impassable during the rainy season. Maritime communication with Kathmandu is carried out through the port of Indian Calcutta. Due to the poor condition of the roads, Nepaleses have difficulty accessing markets, schools and hospitals.


Mass media

The state television company, Nepal Television, includes the TV channel of the same name, the state radio company Radio Nepal includes the radio station of the same name.