Glazov, Russia

Glazov (Udm. Glaz, Glazkar) is a city in the north of the Udmurt Republic of Russia. The administrative center of the Glazovsky district. The city of Glazov forms the municipality with the status of an urban district as the only settlement in its composition.


Getting here

By train
Train Station.
It is better to get from Kirov by train. There are 4 flights: 2 direct and 2 with a transfer at Yar station.

By bus
You can get from Izhevsk by bus Glazov-Izhevsk



Church of the Transfiguration, Svobody Square, 10a. A remake of the church built in 1887.
Museum of Local Lore, Kirov Street, 13. 8 exposition and exhibition halls. Household items, musical instruments, ancient coins, etc. are presented.
Historical and cultural museum-reserve "Idnakar", Sovetskaya street, 27/38. The museum is dedicated to the culture of the Finno-Ugric peoples.
Municipal theater "Paraphrase", Sovetskaya street, 19. Despite the obvious provinciality, it has quite a few awards.



There are several versions of the origin of the city's name. The geographical version arose due to the fact that the geographical features of the city's relief resemble the shape of an eye, when viewed from a bird's eye view or from Soldyrskaya Mountain. According to a toponymic legend, the name of the city was given by Catherine II. The drawing plan of the future county town, presented to the empress, caused her to associate with the All-Seeing Eye (eye), so the city was named Glazov. Meanwhile, the future city was called the village of Glazov long before Catherine's administrative reform in 1780.

According to the version put forward by the local historian M.I.Bunya, the name of the city is a Russian translation of the Udmurt toponym Singurt - literally an eye-village. The word "sin" - the eye of the Udmurts called the place where a spring gushes from the ground.

The most plausible version builds the name of the city to the name (or surname) of its founder. According to A.G. Tatarintsev, the toponym Singurt was invented by local historians themselves, since they were not documented anywhere. The name Glazov was never translated by the Udmurts. It was first mentioned in the Russian census book for 1678, and scribes usually never translated the Udmurt names of villages, writing down either their Udmurt name, or the well-known Russian, or called the village by the name of the founder. So, by the name of the founder, Glazov was also recorded. The truth is not known who exactly was the founder of the repair and what name formed the basis of its name: Russian, Udmurt or Tatar.

In addition to the official name, the unofficial name "Northern Capital of Udmurtia" was also fixed for the city. Glazov received this name in memory of the fact that in 1921 he was the first capital of the Votsk Autonomous Region.



For the first time Glazov was mentioned in 1678 on the pages of the house census of Mikhail Petrovich Voeikov and clerk Fyodor Prokofiev as part of the Chepetsk share of the Karinsky camp of the Khlynovsky district, the “village of Glazov across the Chepseya river” was first mentioned, consisting of 11 Udmurt and 1 Tatar court. The use of the term “village” rather than “repairs”, as well as a significant number of the population, indicates that at the time of the census the settlement had already existed for some time. It is not mentioned in the 1662 census, so it could appear in any year between these censuses. Pochinok, judging by the census data, was founded by people from the neighboring village of Krasnaya Sludka.

After the construction of the wooden Ascension Church in 1748, the village became the village of Glazov. In the XVII-XVIII centuries the population of the village was replenished by the Russians who moved to the Urals.

County town within the Vyatka province
On September 11, 1780, by decree of Catherine II, the village of Glazovo received the status and coat of arms of the city. The population was less than a thousand people. The newly formed city became the center of the Glazovsky district as part of the Vyatka governorship. On May 28, 1781, the city's coat of arms was approved.

In 1793, a stone cathedral named Preobrazhensky was built on the central square of the city. From 1796 to 1818, the mayor of Glazov was Pyotr Fedorovich Tchaikovsky, the grandfather of the composer P.I.Tchaikovsky. Under the mayor Tchaikovsky, Glazov acquired a town hall and the first hospital. From 1797 to 1920, Glazov was the center of the Glazovsky district of the Vyatka province.

Since 1804, the construction of the city was carried out according to the plan of the St. Petersburg architect Ivan Lem, approved in 1784. A rare type of radial-arc layout of the city center has survived to this day. The shape of the central square in the plan is an eye, from which seven eyelash streets radiate, which gives the name of the city a special symbolism. The detailed layout of streets and squares was made in 1804 by F.M. Roslyakov.

In 1811, the merchant of the 2nd guild Ivan Seliverstovich Volkov was the acting head of the city.

On October 7, 1823, the city was visited by Emperor Alexander I. He stayed in the Lyapunovs' house and presented the mistress with an expensive ring.

In 1826, participants in the Decembrist uprising were brought to Siberia through Glazov. In 1837, the future emperor Alexander II stopped in Glazov on his way to the Urals. He was accompanied on this trip by the Russian poet Vasily Andreevich Zhukovsky. In honor of this event, a chapel of Alexander Nevsky was built in the city (at present, it has been restored according to original sketches).


By 1856 Glazov became the main trade center of the district. Bread, flax, leather, hemp, bacon were exported abroad through the port of Arkhangelsk. In the second half of the 19th century, along with many other cities of the Russian Empire remote from the capitals, Glazov was a place of exile for members of various political and social movements. In 1879 V. G. Korolenko was exiled here, who later described Glazov in his essay "The Fake City" (1880). In 1867 there were 44 exiles in Glazov, in 1870 - 78, in 1873 - 93 people.

In 1868, O. L. Knipper-Chekhova was born in Glazov in the family of a process engineer.

In 1876, a women's gymnasium was opened in the city, which at the beginning of the 20th century became a full-fledged secondary educational institution. Soon a men's gymnasium appeared in the city. Since 1877, the construction of the Transfiguration Cathedral begins on Cathedral Square. On September 24, 1879, the unfinished cathedral collapsed. An emergency commission from Vyatka revealed errors in the builders' calculations. After 8 years, according to corrected drawings, everything was restored with great care, taking into account the strength and beauty of the brickwork. On June 15, 1887, the revived temple was consecrated. Since 1889, the city housed the Glazov Vicariate of the Vyatka Diocese.

Since 1890, handicraft enterprises began to appear in Glazov. Brick, sawmill, shoe production, soap factories began to work. The production of gingerbread and dryers has developed significantly. In 1901, a glass factory was built.

In 1898, the Trans-Siberian railway passed through the territory of the Glazovsky district. Until 1917, a small provincial town was dominated by one-story and two-story log buildings and a few brick buildings.

Revolution and Civil War
During the First World War, marching companies and battalions for the active army were formed in Glazov; there were two hospitals for the wounded. The city was overflowing with revolutionary-minded soldiers. On March 4, 1917, the Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies was elected in Glazov under the chairmanship of A.I.Shultz. The Bolshevik Soviet of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies actually became the political power in the city and district even before the armed uprising in Petrograd. Having received the message about the overthrow of the Provisional Government, the executive committee of the Council officially declared its autocracy.

On January 20-24, 1918, the Glazov District Congress of Workers', Peasants' and Soldiers' Deputies announced the transfer of power to the Soviets. I. Ya. Shubin was elected chairman of the county council. In the summer of 1918, large anti-Bolshevik uprisings swept through Svyatogorsk, Bykovskaya, Afanasyevskaya and some other volosts of the Glazovsky district. They were brutally suppressed by the Red Army units stationed in Glazov.

In May-June 1919, the Eastern Front of the Civil War passed through the city. In connection with the difficult situation for the Red Army, Stalin and Dzerzhinsky came to Glazov. On June 3, 1919, the city was occupied by the Siberian army of Kolchak (the group of General Pepeliaev), but already on June 15, it was again taken under the control of the 3rd Red Army. In both cases, there were no battles in the city.

Soviet years
Due to the proximity of Glazov to Vyatka and the Udmurt population that predominated in the city, it became the administrative center of the formed Votsk Autonomous Region on November 4, 1920. In February 1921, the Udmurt Regional Revolutionary Committee headed by I.A.Nagovitsyn was created in Glazov. In late June - early July 1921, the regional administration was transferred to Izhevsk. By 1923, the population of the city reached 4397 inhabitants.

In the mid-1930s, the first master plan of the Soviet Glazov was developed. The architect of the project, Emmanuel Mekler, preserved the “rays” of I. Lem, while simultaneously planning the development of the main building to the west. In the late 1930s, the construction of a flax mill began.

By June 1941, 16,906 people lived in Glazov. At the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, enterprises and institutions were evacuated to the city from the western regions of the country. These were mainly defense factories with equipment and people. The tobacco factory and the 2nd Leningrad Infantry School evacuated from Leningrad and the 2nd Leningrad Infantry School, as well as the cartridge plant No. 544, built on the territory of the linen factory and equipped with the equipment of the cartridge factories evacuated from Podolsk and Kuntsevo, worked for the needs of the front.


In the post-war years, construction of a backup plant for plant No. 12 began in the city. On the basis of cartridge plant No. 544, the Prikamsk office of Glavgorstroy PGU was created - an enterprise for the production of uranium (the future Chepetsk Mechanical Plant). To the west of Glazov, the construction of the factory workers' settlement began. In the first years of construction, the village was built up with wooden and filled two-storey houses, as well as Finnish houses. In 1947, the first brick apartment buildings were built in the area of ​​Parkova and Shkolnaya streets. Since 1948, the workers' settlement began to be built up according to a new general plan with standard brick two and three-storey houses. In addition to residential buildings, in the first years of the construction of the new factory settlement, kindergartens, a hospital campus, a school, a canteen, a cinema, a House of Culture, etc. were built. To build a new production, CMP and the village, all available construction forces were involved. including the repressed Russian Germans. New energy services were designed and urgently put into operation, electrification and heating of the city were carried out.

By the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of October 21, 1949 and the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of January 2, 1950, Glazov was assigned to the category of cities of republican subordination.

Since the late 1950s, the construction of the so-called "Khrushchevs" began in the city. The workers' settlement of the plant began to be actively built in the eastern direction, towards the old, pre-war buildings of Glazov.

During 1960-1962, the destruction of the Transfiguration Cathedral on Freedom Square took place, despite the fact that in 1945 the cathedral was recognized as an architectural monument of the Ukrainian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. The formal basis for the demolition of the temple was the approved project of a new reinforced concrete bridge across the Cheptsa River, the route to which is located on the site of the demolished cathedral. In 1962, the last temple of the city was demolished - the St. George Church.

In 1965, the first nine-story houses in Udmurtia were commissioned on Lenin Street.

In the late 1960s, a new master plan for the city was developed. In the coming decades, the development of the city was planned in the south-west and north-east direction, on the site of the old wooden buildings. The first stage of construction involved the development of a large residential area south of the railway. Twenty thousand people were to settle in the southwestern residential area; a pond was planned on the Syga River. The northeastern residential area was planned to be built in the second stage due to the high cost of construction, the need for soil reclamation and the demolition of old wooden buildings. In 1970, due to the discovery of sand pits near the city, it was decided to transfer the construction of the northeastern residential area to the first stage of construction. In the 1970s, microdistricts V, I, K and L. were built.

In the early 1980s, construction began on a large residential area, Left Bank-1, northeast of the historic part of the city. Residential and public buildings were designed especially for the district in various Moscow design institutes. At the end of the 1980s, construction began on a large instrument-making plant belonging to the All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics and Automation.

In 1987, celebrations were held in Glazov on the occasion of the birth of a hundred thousandth resident.

Since the 1990s, it was planned to start building three large residential areas in Glazov at once. In the northeastern direction, the planned area was Left Bank-2. In the southern direction, it was planned to build up almost the entire territory of private buildings. To the west, the Khimmash plant developed a project for a residential area on the site of the village of Vayebyzh.



Before the reforms in the 1990s, the quality of life of the population in Glazov was significantly higher than the all-Russian level. In the current political and economic situation, the highly urbanized Glazov, closely connected with the military-industrial complex, found himself in a difficult situation. The decline in production caused by a drop in demand for products caused an outflow of qualified personnel. Since the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of the economic crisis, the volume of industrial products produced by the city's enterprises has sharply decreased. Some enterprises, unable to withstand market competition, have ceased or suspended their activities. The instrument-making plant was never completed. Housing construction was practically not carried out.

Since 2000, the economic situation has improved, some enterprises are increasing their production volumes, and the construction of residential buildings has resumed.

In 2007, the city lost its 100,000th status.

In the first decade of the 21st century, large-scale works were carried out to improve the Freedom Square and reconstruct the historical ensemble of buildings. A new Transfiguration Cathedral was built on the site of the Ascension Church.