Michurinsk, Russia

Michurinsk (until 1932 - Kozlov) is a city in the Tambov region of Russia, a science city, located on the right bank of the Lesnoy Voronezh River. The administrative center of Michurinsky district, which is not included. It is a city of regional significance. Forms the urban district of the city of Michurinsk. Population 90 722 people. (2020).

 

Sights

Soviet street

Soviet street. The central street of Michurinsk is distinguished not only by a large number of architectural monuments compared to other streets, but also by a noticeable walking character; The street is not completely pedestrian, but the transit movement of cars on it is limited. In its very central part (between Revolutionary and Karl Marx) the street turns into a boulevard, and a little to the south it adjoins the central city park.

1 Church of Elijah the Prophet, 349 Sovetskaya Street. Built in 1781, allegedly according to the design of one of the capital's architects, and draws attention to itself with unusual proportions: as if every part of the temple was taken from somewhere else. Massive, tall and elongated in plan, the main volume of the church ends with a reduced cupola. The bell tower itself is low, but ends with a spire comparable to it in height and volume. This picture is complemented by a gate and a chapel, which are 100 years younger than the church, and built in the style familiar to those times. Nearby (Militsionnaya street, 10) is the mansion of the merchant Blaznina in the Art Nouveau style.
2 Trade buildings, Sovetskaya st., 296, 298, 337.
3 Women's Gymnasium, Sovetskaya st., 274. Now the Pedagogical Institute is located. Near the mansion in the style of classicism.
4 House of merchant Polyansky, Sovetskaya st., 291. 1908. Now the building is occupied by the city administration.

 

International street

5  Building of a commercial school, 101 Internatsionalnaya st. Now Michurinsk Agrarian University.
6 Grave of I.A. Michurin, International st.
7 House in the style of classicism, International street, 100.

 

South Center

8  M.F. Yurieva, st. Gagarin, 18. The most unusual house in Michurinsk is hiding on a secondary street in one of the most unsightly corners of the historical center. This is a baroque mansion, unusual for the Russian provinces, on which every suitable place is decorated with stucco. No less unexpected is the fact that such a building was built for an art workshop specializing in temple murals. The mansion was under construction for several years and was completed by 1873 (not a typo: much later than the Baroque era), but then the owner of the workshop, M.F. Yuryev for almost 30 years supplemented it with details. Yuriev's heirs, however, were not so sensitive to the mansion and almost immediately sold it to the brewery. Since early Soviet times, the building has been occupied by a school; unfortunately, it is in a shabby state, and double-glazed windows will upset fans of authenticity, but even in this form it is still impressive.
9 Bogolyubsky Cathedral, Gerasimova Street, 86. The grandiose (more than 60 meters high) cathedral of the Tonovsky project was built for 25 years, from 1848 to 1873, and the bell tower for it was never built at all. Due to its location in the lowest point of the city center, the cathedral does not dominate the city, but forms a very surreal perspective of Filippov and Gerasimov streets. Around the cathedral are the contemporary buildings of the former monastery, and across the road is the house-museum of the artist A.M. Gerasimov.

Outskirts
10 Sorrow Church, st. Novy Kvartal (outside the center, near the bus station, on the way to Michurinsk-Voronezhsky station). Cemetery church, built in 1803-1808. The combination of a church form more characteristic of the Baroque and details taken from classicism, such as a portico with columns, is curious. The cemetery around the temple also attracts attention - with colorful iron crosses and the absence of trees.
11 Holy Trinity Kozlovsky Monastery. The Assumption Church of 1672 has been preserved, but in a heavily rebuilt form. In Soviet times, it was used as a museum of the Central Genetic Laboratory located nearby.

 

Museums

Michurinsky Museum of Local Lore (Sovetskaya st., 297g)
The Michurinsk Museum of Local Lore, created on the initiative of the artist S.I. Krivolutsky as an art and industrial museum, is one of the oldest cultural centers in the city. The first exhibition of objects for the museum was held in February 1904 in the hall of the commercial school. During its history, the museum has changed more than one name and experienced repeated changes in the place of storage and display of exhibits. In March 1992, the local history museum moved from the building of the Elias Church to the building of the former house of political education, located in the city center (in house No. 297-g on Sovetskaya Street). This building was built at the expense of the merchant Strelnikov in 1905. The museum opened to visitors in September 1994 and was represented by two departments - the department of the history of Kozlov ‎XVII-XVIII centuries and the art department, which exhibited an exhibition of works by A.V. Platitsyn. The museum has a rich exposition located in the halls of: military glory, the history of the city of Kozlov-Michurinsk, nature, the history of Orthodoxy, the Great Patriotic War, honorary citizens of Michurinsk, and regularly holds various exhibitions.

Literary and Musical Museum (House of Princes Golitsyns) (Gagarin St., 4a)
In June 1982, the Michurinskaya Pravda newspaper published a letter about the need to create a literary and musical museum in the city, indicating one of the possible addresses - the house of the Golitsyn princes. The author of the letter, which was signed by prominent creative people of Michurinsk, was Professor, Doctor of Agricultural Sciences E. S. Chernenko. In 1991, the restoration of the building began with the simultaneous collection of the collection, which then formed the basis of the exposition. The opening of the literary and musical museum (the house of the princes Golitsyns) took place on June 25, 1995. The museum has a rich collection that tells about the former owners of the mansion, about the literary and musical traditions of Michurinsk (former Kozlov) and the Tambov region. The rarest exhibit among the many musical instruments presented in the museum is the piano "Wilhelm Bizet" of 1771, which, according to some information, was preserved here from the owners of the house. In the old mansion of the Golitsyn princes, exhibitions are organized, performances by artists and young talents are held, and the annual merchant evening is also held here.

Museum-estate of A. M. Gerasimov (Gerasimov street, 88)
The Memorial Museum-Estate of the People's Artist of the USSR A. M. Gerasimov was opened on March 15, 1977. In addition to the house, it includes courtyard buildings - a carriage house and a barn, which housed the artist's studio after 1930. On the territory of the estate, next to the workshop, there is a terrace on which Alexander Mikhailovich liked to work. The museum contains authentic items of the Gerasimov family - furniture, documents and photographs that reflect the entire life of the artist.

In 1981, on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the birth of A. M. Gerasimov, an exhibition hall was built, where the largest collection of the artist's works is exhibited.

House-Museum of I. V. Michurin (on the territory of the nursery)
The museum was founded in 1941 in the house where I. V. Michurin lived and worked from 1900 to 1935. This is a two-story brick building with a wooden veranda, which was built in 1899-1900. I. V. Michurin received prominent statesmen and scientists, famous poets and writers in his house. The exposition of the house-museum consists of personal belongings, books, photographs and documents of the scientist. The house-museum is located on the territory of the nursery and is under the jurisdiction of the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants. I. V. Michurina.

Museum of Achievements of Michurin Science (branch of the Michurin Museum of Local Lore) (on the territory of the nursery)
In October 2015, a branch branch of the Michurin Museum of Local Lore was opened - the Museum of Achievements of Michurin Science, in a two-story wooden building on the territory of the house-museum of I. V. Michurin, where from 1952 to 1957 the famous scientist, student and follower of I. V. Michurin lived, Academician of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences P. N. Yakovlev.

 

Theaters

Michurinsky Drama Theater
The opening of the theater in the city took place in 1897 at the expense of the merchants Zlobins in the rebuilt building of their tobacco factory. The new theater building on Piteynaya (Gogolevskaya) Street was built in 1913 to replace the former one that burned down in 1909. The theater hosted well-known stage directors and actors of the capital's theaters, such as the Adelgeim Brothers, Pavel Orlenev, Mammoth Dalsky, a troupe led by N. Sobolshchikov-Samarin. Writer Ivan Bunin and playwright Chirikov performed on the theater stage. In the theater for seven years (1918-1925), the future President of the Academy of Arts of the USSR A. M. Gerasimov worked as an artist-decorator. In Soviet and post-Soviet times, the theater also received many celebrities. In 1981, for a performance based on the modern play by I. Gladkikh "White Fire", the theater was awarded the State Prize of the RSFSR. K. S. Stanislavsky (for the first time among the small towns of Russia). The theater is a repeated participant of international and regional festivals.

 

Cinemas

Cinema "October"
The cinema was built in 1939 by architect V. Kalmykov. The building of the cinema is an adornment of the city due to its unique appearance with a unique shape and sculptural group. It has three cinema halls for showing films in 3D, decorated and equipped with the latest requirements for design and comfort.

 

Festival venues, exhibitions

In Michurinsk, since 2005, the All-Russian exhibition "Gardener's Day" has been held annually, the participants of which are scientists, production workers, managers and leading specialists of horticultural and nursery farms, amateur gardeners from different parts of Russia and from abroad. The exhibition demonstrates the latest achievements of the industry, introduces new technologies in horticulture, exchanges production and scientific experience, and attracts investments.

For many years, the city has been hosting a regional festival of author's tourist songs in memory of Irina Konstantinovna Belyaeva, a teacher at the Station of Young Tourists, who tragically died in one of the campaigns in 1998. From a modest cultural event, first organized in 1999, the festival has grown to the level of a city holiday for tourists.

In the autumn of 2018, as part of the annually celebrated City Day, the festival of "heavy" music - "Rock-Yabloko" was held for the first time, which is planned to be made annual. The legendary band Legion with their vocalist Alexei Bulgakov, members of the famous band Kachalov's Dogs - Max Ilyin and Alexander Bardin, the rock band Mavrin with their founder and leader Sergei Mavrin, the legendary vocalist Artur Berkut, group "Znaki".

 

How to get here

By plane
The nearest airport with regular (but not too frequent) flights is in Tambov.

By train
Michurinsk is a railway junction on the main line from Moscow to the south (within the city, a line to Tambov and Saratov branches off from it); all trains passing through it stop in the city. From Moscow they go from 4.5 to 9 hours, the fastest and most convenient is the Voronezh double-decker express (2 times a day). To Voronezh 2-3 hours, to Saratov - 7-8, to Rostov-on-Don or Volgograd - at least 10.

Electric trains run infrequently: three or four times a day to Tambov (1.5 hours), twice a day to Gryaz (1.5 hours), Ryazhsk (2 hours) and Ranenburg (Chaplygin, 1.5 hours).

There are two stations in Michurinsk, each train (except for some electric trains) stops at only one of them. Michurinsk-Uralsky is a dead-end station, where trains turning towards Tambov call in (and it is also the starting point for all electric trains), all the rest pass through Michurinsk-Voronezhsky. Between stations a little more than 4 km.

1 Michurinsk-Voronezh, st. Kirsanovskaya (western outskirts of the city, minibuses 2 and 15 go). A freshly renovated small station with minimal infrastructure - a waiting room and a toilet; There is a grocery store near the train station. For its passenger traffic is frankly small.
2 Michurinsk-Uralsky, pl. Privokzalnaya (slightly north of the city center). around the clock. There is the basic infrastructure laid down by a major train station. There are two supermarkets near the station. The city center is within walking distance, but you can also get there by bus.

By bus
There are buses from Tambov with an interval of half an hour or an hour, on the way 1.5 hours. In the morning they start running quite early, but they finish early in the evening: as of winter 2022, the last bus from Tambov to Michurinsk leaves at about 19 hours, and from Michurinsk to Tambov is about 17 at all. When traveling from Tambov, you can not go to the Michurinsky bus station, but get off in the center on International Street.

Other routes: 4-5 times a day you can go to Gryazi (1.5 hours), three times - to Lipetsk (1.5-2 hours). Buses going along the highway past Michurinsk (for example, from Moscow to Tambov or Volgograd) usually do not call into the city.

3 Bus station (bus station), Lipetskoe sh., 12 (to the west of the center, most city buses pass). ☎ +7 (47545) 5-23-04, +7 (47545) 5-15-95. 5:30 - 17:00. The waiting room is very small, however, there was a place for a buffet with tea and cakes. The cashier does not accept credit cards.

By car
A few kilometers from the city passes the highway P22 "Caspian" Moscow-Volgograd (according to the old numbering M6). From Tambov - about 70 km of a four-lane road, but in the direction of Moscow (400 km) to the Moscow region itself, a two-lane highway. There are three roughly equivalent routes to Lipetsk (90 km); all of them involve at least some segment on local roads.

 

City transport

Buses and minibuses, most of the routes intersect at Glory Square. The fare is 22 rubles. in cash and 20 rubles. by bank card (2021).

 

 

City `s history

The first settler in these places is the hermit Joseph, who settled here in 1627. Other hermits began to flock to Joseph, who formed a community and built the Church of the Holy Trinity. In 1635 the community was renamed the Kozlovsky Trinity Monastery.

Kozlov was founded on the Kozlov tract by the sovereign decree of Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich, dated September 5, 1635, as a fortified point (earthen town) for the defense of the Ryazan principality, as well as Shatsk, Ryazha and Dankovsky places from the raids of the Crimean and Nogai Tatars.

The construction of the fortress, on the banks of the Lesnoy Voronezh River, near the Kozlovsky Trinity Monastery, was led by the governors I. Birkin (Burkin) and M. Speshnev. In their "Reply" they described the newly founded fortress as follows ... and on Kozlov, the tract, by your sovereign decree, asking God for mercy ... a prison, which should be instead of a city, was overlaid on October 11th. And the room, sire, is about three hundred and seventy sazhens <...> And the bridge will be on the prison along the policeman with oblams, and the towers will be two passers-by, and eight towers are deaf, and the tower is near the hiding place, and there will be a ditch near the prison ... and the hiding place will be brought - from the tower to the Voronezh River at the guard walls to the Voronezh River twenty-one sazhens, and the well of the sovereign in the city to your servants, there is no one to dig, there are no craftsmen and tackle wells ... And the church ... was overlaid in the name of the Most Holy Theotokos of the honest and glorious Intercession of October on the 18th day.

The toponym "Kozlovo tract", in turn, has two versions of its origin, both of which were assigned to the area at the end of the 16th century. According to one version, the area has been famous since ancient times for its pasture meadows, where there were many wild goats. Another version comes from the name of Simeon Kozlov's own - the guardsman of Ivan the Terrible and the first settler of these regions.

From January 1647 until the summer of 1648, Roman Fedorovich Boborykin was the governor in Kozlov.

In 1708 the city was assigned to the Azov province. From the 18th century, Kozlov developed as a major trading center in an agricultural region. Academician Falk, who visited Kozlov in 1769, found that it was larger and more populous than Tambov, but it was built worse and its inhabitants were engaged in more rural crafts, although there were 1,064 merchants in it. In 1779, Kozlov received the status of the county town of the Tambov governorship.

In the 19th century, trade in bread, cattle, silk, cloth, fish, salt flourished in the city, and there were also handicrafts. In the second half of the 19th century, the processing of agricultural raw materials arose (mills, slaughterhouses, distilleries and fat-burning plants, tobacco factories, an elevator). By the end of the century, there were two iron foundries, a bell factory, and large railway workshops in Kozlov. At the same time, the architectural appearance of Kozlov was formed, which has largely been preserved to this day.

In 1909, about 43,000 inhabitants of both sexes lived in the county town of the Tambov province. There were 30 factories and plants, with a production of 1,025,000 rubles, mills, a railway junction station and near-station railway workshops were operating. A huge shipment of bread was made: especially rye and wheat flour. There was a significant trade in meat (meat products).

On November 27 (December 10), 1917, after a month-long confrontation with the City Duma, Soviet power was established in Kozlov. On January 6 (19), 1918, a large demonstration in support of the Constituent Assembly was shot. On June 16, 1918, an uprising of the Kozlov garrison against the Reds broke out, suppressed by the Latvians. From September 1918 to August 1919, the headquarters of the Southern Front was located in the city. On August 22, 1919, after a stubborn battle, Kozlov was occupied by the Cossacks for several days during the horse raid of General Mamantov, while the city suffered significant damage during the fighting.

On February 23, 1932, in honor of the breeder I. V. Michurin (during his lifetime), the city of Kozlov was renamed Michurinsk.

On November 6, 1957, the first batch of products was produced by the Progress plant, which later became the main industrial enterprise of the city.

In 1985, Michurinsk was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honor.

 

Shopping

The main brand of Michurinsk is apples, and thanks to underground fruit storages, they are sold all year round. The easiest way is to buy them on the market (but it is better to specify their origin there), there are also stand-alone stalls with apples, and just people selling their own harvest. Sold in the city and other agricultural products, which are rich in black earth. Also in Michurinsk, seedlings are actively traded, but those who come from outside the Chernozem region should be especially careful about buying them - they may not be suitable for your climatic conditions.

1  Central market, st. Filippova, between the Soviet and International streets. Open except Mon, active mostly until noon. It takes about 2 blocks and tries to spread even further.
There are enough supermarkets and grocery stores both in the center and on the outskirts.

 

Eat

1  City cafe "Teapot"  , st. Sovetskaya, 300. ☎ +7 (47545) 5-08-28. Mon–Thu 10:00–23:00, Fri 10:00–24:00, Sat 12:00–24:00, Sun 12:00– 23:00. Cozy city cafe on the main street. A menu with an emphasis on pizza and other dishes of mass-Italian cuisine in its Russian sense.
2  Cafe "Pizza"  , st. International, 87a. 10:00–23:00. The leader in the non-originality of its name and at the same time a good cafe with service and a full menu, and not just pizza at all.
3  Coffee house "Wheel"  , Sovetskaya st. 304. 9:00–21:00. Western-style coffee shop, i.e. no hot food, only desserts. A narrow hall where tables stand along a window or wall and are more conducive to sitting alone.
4 Bakery "Khlebushki", Sovetskaya st. 309. 8:00–21:00. Bakery with pies of all kinds. There are several tables.
5  Dining room at home, Internatsionalnaya st. 86. Mon–Fri 8:00–16:30.

 

Night life

1  Pub&Shop 52.40  , Sovetskaya st. 292a. Mon–Thurs 17:00–24:00, Fri 17:00–2:00, Sat 16:00–2:00, Sun 16:00–24:00. Michurinsk is a city so advanced that it even has its own small craft bar. The name may evoke associations with some Caucasian peak, but in fact it is the geographical latitude and longitude of Michurinsk.

 

Short trips

Around Michurinsk

1  Snezhkov's estate, state farm named after Michurin. In Michurinsk, everything is connected with the name of Michurin - even such a romantic place as an abandoned estate with an old park, where guests are first of all greeted by a bust of a breeder in a cowboy hat. Michurin acquired a plot in the suburb of Kozlov, near the Turmasovo settlement, in 1888 - it was his first "capital" nursery. But after a few years it became clear that the soils on the site were too fertile, and therefore not very suitable for breeding. By 1900, Michurin moved his plantings to another site (where his house-museum is now located), and the land was acquired by Vasily Snezhkov, the leader of the district nobility, later a deputy of the State Duma. The new owner built an unusual manor house, most of all resembling a small Mediterranean villa and laid out a park. In Soviet times, the estate building was used for various needs of the national economy (the technical school occupied it for the longest time), and in post-Soviet times it simply stands abandoned. Entrance to the territory is free, but the manor house is locked
2 Church of St. John the Evangelist in Izosimovo. An infrequent wooden church in the Tambov region, and even built in 1783, although later rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century. In Soviet times, it was not closed and retained the original interior.
3 Urlyapov shaft.

 

North of Michurinsk

4 Church of Michael the Archangel in Staroseslavino. Built in 1887 according to the project of Feofil Svirchevsky, whose efforts many Tambov churches look so neat and elegant. Svirchevsky relied on traditional, "mass" projects in the Russian-Byzantine style, but every time he embellished them a little. In Staroseslavino, he managed to achieve a remarkable harmony of round windows and "creeping" tiers of the bell tower. The church was returned to believers already in 1947; murals and authentic iconostases have been preserved inside.
5  Church in New Kozmodemyanovsky. Another fantasy on the Russian-Byzantine theme is the church of 1890 with a large semicircular arch, reminiscent of an old Seslav church and containing intricate stone carvings in the manner of either Russian or Gothic.
Pervomaisky is an urban-type settlement and regional center, better known to travelers as Bogoyavlensk by the railway station, which retained its “politically incorrect” name even in Soviet times. The Ryazhsky and Paveletsky lines converge here, and therefore almost all trains of the southern direction follow, and many even make a short stop. The station does not have a great transit value, although it is closer than others to the R-22 highway and allows you to jump from car to train if you are hitchhiking. The village itself was built up in the post-war period, there is even a “German quarter” here, but built not by captured Germans, but by GDR specialists who arrived in the 1980s to design and maintain a compressor station on the nearby Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhgorod gas pipeline. Despite all the gas wars, the pipeline is still working properly, and Pervomaiskoye is now Gazprom's training center.

 

Around Staroyurevo

Staroyurevo is a large village northeast of Michurinsk, a typical Tambov district center. In the surrounding fields they grow the same Tambov potatoes, a guarantee of local prosperity. In summer, the Shushpan Pike Festival is held here with mass cooking of fish soup and a sport fishing competition at the nearby Shushpan reservoir.

6 Museum of A.N. Verstovsky, Staroyurevo, st. Communal, 3a. The now forgotten character is the composer A.N. Verstovsky (1799-1862), the same age as Pushkin, author of many operas and vaudevilles, popular in secular circles in the middle of the 19th century. His "Askold's Grave" is still being erected today. The museum carefully collected information about the life of Verstovsky and even related items from the family collection. Along the way, the museum performs the functions of a regular local history museum.
7  Novikov's estate (Novoaleksandrovka). The publicist and zemstvo activist Alexander Novikov (1861-1913) lived in a village near Staroyuryev, to whom the Kozlovsky district owes, among other things, the creation of new schools. In his native village, Novikov equipped not only the second-class "parochial" school, usual for that time, but also a teacher's school, that is, a school for training teachers, from which an agricultural technical school later grew, which, by the way, is still operating to this day - an infrequent case in the village , which is not even a regional center. Both school buildings - a half-stone second-class school and a two-story red-brick building of a technical school - are well preserved, along with fragments of the manor park and Novikov's own house, converted into a club. In addition, Novikov was one of the initiators of the construction of a dead-end railway to Staroyuryevo and Sosnovka, which also miraculously survived: in the summer months, a commuter train still runs in Staroyuryevo.
8  Shushpan reservoir. The reservoir on the Shushpanka River, a tributary of the Lesnoy Voronezh, is often called the "sea" - for its size (the largest in the Tambov region) and considerable depth. It is here that fish are caught during the Shushpan Pike festival.

 

Towards Tambov

9  Ekaterininsky arboretum.

 

Science city

Michurinsk is the all-Russian center of horticulture, the city is home to the I. V. Michurin All-Russian Research Institute of Horticulture, the I. V. Michurin All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Genetics and Selection of Fruit Plants (former I. V. Michurin Central Genetic Laboratory (CGL), Michurinsky Michurinsk State Agrarian University, Michurinsk State Pedagogical Institute (attached to the Agrarian University in autumn 2011. In addition, the city has a local history museum, A. M. Gerasimov's estate museum, an exhibition hall, a drama theater. The editorial offices of two city newspapers are located in Michurinsk : "Michurinskaya Pravda", "Michurinskaya Thought" and the editors of the regional newspaper "Our Word".

Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 4, 2003 No. 1306 “On the assignment of the status of a science city of the Russian Federation to the city of Michurinsk, Tambov Region”, the first and only science city in Russia in the agro-industrial complex, approved the main directions of scientific, scientific, technical and innovative activities, experimental development, testing and personnel training, which are a priority for Michurinsk - science city of the Russian Federation:

fundamental research in the field of genetics, breeding, biotechnology, physiology, biochemistry, ecology of fruit, berry and vegetable crops, identifying mechanisms for stabilizing the stability and productivity of horticultural and vegetable agroecosystems;
development of experimental, environmentally friendly technologies for the production, long-term storage, transportation and processing of fruit and vegetable products with a high content of biologically active substances;
scientific and technical innovation, experimental development and testing in the field of production of technical means, obtaining environmentally friendly raw materials, new types of food products for health, treatment and prevention, functional and other purposes; training of personnel for work in the agro-industrial complex, in the fields of scientific, humanitarian and innovative activities.
Gudkovsky Vladimir Alexandrovich was elected Chairman of the Scientific and Technical Council of the city of Michurinsk-Science City of the Russian Federation.

In 2010, the administration of the Tambov region and the administration of Michurinsk-science city took the initiative to create an agrotechnopark in Michurinsk, the creation of which was enshrined in the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated December 27, 2010 No. 2393-r. The Green Valley project focuses both on the processing of agricultural raw materials directly at the enterprises of the agrotechnopark, and on its cultivation. It is supposed to produce plant foods for a healthy diet with predetermined properties at the level of genetics, processing, and packaging.