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Description of Onega
Onega is a city (since 1780) in the Arkhangelsk
region of Russia. It is the administrative center of the Onega
district. Onega is located in the north-west of the European part of
Russia in the Arkhangelsk region at the mouth of the Onega river, 7
km from the Onega Bay of the White Sea, opposite the mouth of the
Most of the city is located on the right bank of
the Onega River (which has a width of 800–1100 m here), the smaller
part is on the left bank (the villages of Ponga and Legashevskaya
Zapan). The city stretches for 7 km along the river, except for the
left settlements, it icludes the villages Lesozavod (OLDK),
Shalga, Gornyi, Dalniy. The part of the city with predominantly
private buildings to the east (upstream) of the modern center is
called the Verchovie (Upper River); it has a rectangular layout preserved from
pre-revolutionary times, consisting mainly of three avenues parallel
to the river and streets crossing them. It is the upper reaches of
the historical Onega (together with the present central part, as
well as the now inactive left-bank timber mill in the mouth of the
Pongi) that most other parts of the city arose or became part of it
Kiy Island, located in the White Sea opposite the
mouth of the Onega River, is also included in the city.
History of Onega
The Pomor village of Ust-Onega (Усть-Оне́га) was first mentioned
in Novgorodian documents in the 14th century. It was chartered on
August 19, 1780, after Pyotr Shuvalov had sold his rights to fell
timber to English industrialists who built several sawmills there.
Since 1784, Onega was the administrative center of Onezhsky Uyezd.
Onega is a minor port on a bay on the White Sea, which routinely
freezes in winter. The town is also served by the
Arkhangelsk–Murmansk rail line, which branches off in Obozerskaya
railway station from the railroad between Moscow and Arkhangelsk and
runs west to Onega and Belomorsk where it joins the railroad between
Petrozavodsk and Murmansk. The railroad was built during World War
II to secure the transport of goods from the harbor of Murmansk to
Onega is connected to Severodvinsk by a road.
There are no all-seasonal roads on the left bank of the Onega River.
The Onega is navigable downstream from the selo of Porog; there
is regular passenger navigation. There is also limited passenger
service on the Onega Bay.
The Onega is served by the Onega
Airport which has weekly passenger flights to Arkhangelsk and to the
selo of Purnema on the Onega Peninsula. Close to the town, there is
also an uncompleted military air base, Onega Andozero.