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Chernihiv or Chernigov

 

 

 

 

Location: Chernihiv Oblast

 

 

 

Chernihiv (Ukrainian: Чернігів) or Chernigov (Russian: Чернигов; Polish: Czernihów) is a city in Ukraine and the administrative capital of Chernihiv Oblast. Its population is estimated at 295,670 inhabitants in 2014 . Chernihiv is a historic medieval city in Northern Ukraine. Although it was first mentioned in Rus- Byzantine Treaty in 907 it is hard to say when was it found.

 

History

Chernigov, is one of the oldest and most important cities of Kiev's Ruthenia . The first mention of the city dates back to 907 in a commercial treaty with Byzantium . The xi th to the xiii th century , it is the capital of the principality of Chernigov . It is taken and sacked by the Mongols in 1239 . From 1370 , it belongs to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania , then it is attached to the principality of Moscow (1503 ).

In 1611 , the city was ceded to Poland (Czernihow), but it returned under Russian sovereignty in 1654 , as part of the Ukrainian state of Bogdan Khmelnytsky . In 1786, the city is a town populated mainly by small Russians (Ukrainians) small craftsmen or traders (2,386), or peasants (1,124), and also Cossacks (164), priests, deacons and their families (141) and monks or nuns (51). There are 705 fireplaces, 4 brickworks , 4 monasteries, 12 churches. Catherine II had three monasteries closed on the four in 1786.

In 1802 , the city became the capital of the Chernigov government of the Russian Empire . Its population is 27,716 inhabitants in 1897 and 35 850 inhabitants in 1913. The streets lit gas are electrified in 1895. At the beginning of the xx th century , there are fifteen hotels in Chernigov, new inns, three taverns buffets, a post office and a telephone exchange (for 138 subscribers in 1912), a bank, three savings banks, a credit union, a pawnshop. The big market is held four times a year and the usual market three times a week on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays. There are 734 shops and stalls in the city in 1910. Secondary education is provided at the beginning of the xx th century by two professional schools, two high schools of commerce, higher agricultural school, a seminary and a religious high school boys. In 1897, 53% of the city's inhabitants can read and write. The first teaching in Ukrainian language is open after the October Revolution in high school.

Bolshevik power settles in Chernigov on 1 st February 1918but the city was taken by the Austro-German army a few weeks later, on March 12, 1918, and it handed power to the Petlura dictatorship at the end of 1918, whose partisans fled from the city ​​on January 12, 1919, after the intervention of the Red Armies.

The census of 1926 has 35,000 inhabitants of which 57% are Ukrainians, 20% Russian and 10% Jews. This year also sees the opening of the Shevchenko Theater , in 1934, it is the turn of the concert hall of the Philharmonic Orchestra and Museum Kotsiubinski and two years later, the stadium.

Since 1932 it has been the administrative capital of Chernigov Oblast (or Chernihiv in the Ukrainian language).

The city is almost completely destroyed during the Great Patriotic War (name of the Second World War in the USSR). The Luftwaffe bombarded Chernigov in August 1941, destroying 70% of homes. The city is occupied on September 9, 1941. Three thousand inhabitants are killed after imprisonment and tens of thousands are shot in the vicinity of the city. In two years of occupation, the number of casualties in the region stands at 52,500. The resistance is organized around Alexey Fyodorov and other supporters. Finally the 13 th Army Central Front of the Red Army , under the command of Nikolai Pukhov , the city releases the September 21 , 1943after three days of fierce fighting. Chernihiv is three-quarters destroyed.

In 1960, Chernigov had 90,000 inhabitants (69% of Ukrainians, 20% of Russians, 8% of Jews, 1% of Poles). In 1970, the number of inhabitants amounted to 159,000 and in 1980 to 245,000.

Travel Destinations in Chernihiv

Chernihiv Kremlin or Detinets (Черниговский Детинец)

The Saviour Cathedral of Chernihiv

 

 

 

Trinity Cathedral of Chernihiv

 

Eletsky Monastery

Pyatnytska (Friday) Church of Saint Paraskevi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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