Arkansas is a state in the southern United States. The name is of French origin and the pronunciation was regulated by law in 1881. As a result, the pronunciation of Arkansas is incorrect and, curiously enough, illegal (although no visitor is likely to be jailed for it). The state is nicknamed The Natural State, which it owes to its magnificent nature. The eastern border is formed mainly by the Mississippi, which separates Arkansas from Tennessee and Mississippi. Arkansas borders Louisiana to the south, Texas to the southwest, Oklahoma to the west, and Missouri to the north. Arkansas is the only place in the US with natural diamond deposits.
The eastern part of Arkansas is shaped by the fertile river
plains of the Mississippi and right tributaries such as the
To the west it becomes more mountainous, with the low mountain ranges of the
Boston Mountains to the Northwest and the
Ouachita Mountains in the southwest, separated by the Arkansas River.
1 Little Rock - the state's capital and most populous city
2 hot springs
4 Bentonville - in the far northwest of the state. Known as the founding place of the supermarket chain Walmart
5 Pine Bluff
6 Mountain View. Mountain View can easily be considered the capital of traditional country music. Anyone who loves this type of music is in good hands here. From spring through fall, musicians play bluegrass, vintage, and gospel music in public spaces late into the night on Fridays and Saturdays. They play for fun and completely free of charge. The artists often come from far away to meet with colleagues. Everything is very informal and informal. The place is alcohol free. On Sunday evenings, the Barn is recommended by the late Jimmy Driftwood. Amateur musicians, who are often better than professionals, offer a free program (tips are welcome) that lasts over two hours. Events are held Wednesday through Saturday at the Ozark Folk Center's beautiful theater. The entrance fees are very moderate, around US$ 10 to 12.
Buffalo National Park is a picturesque river in the Newton, Searcy, Marion, and Baxter Counties of Arkansas state. Its length is measured at 150 miles.
Hot Springs National Park is the smallest American national park that protects several historic health spas constructed over a century ago.
Nearby Mountain View, the Blanchard Springs Caverns are a
worthwhile destination. The stalactite caves are among the most
beautiful in America.
A Johnny Cash Museum has opened in Dyess featuring the renovated home of his childhood.
The first store of the Wal Mart chain can be visited in Bentonville. Entry to the museum of the 5 - 10 (cents) store is free and interesting.
As a city, Hot Springs is also a national park. The hot springs can be described as a spa.
Eureka Springs is a tourism-oriented town with some spas. The forests and lakes offer a wide variety. Almost all of downtown is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.
The largest airport in the state is the central airport at Little Rock Bill and Hillary Clinton National Airport (IATA: LIT) . Another small airport is Bentonville Municipal Airport wikipedia (IATA: VBT), located northwest of Bentonville.
Out of state but of interest for travel may be Memphis Airport (IATA: MEM) for some eastern parts of the state or Tulsa Airport wikipediacommons (IATA: TUL), Oklahoma, for the northwest.
I30: From Fort Worth via Dallas to Texarkana and Little Rock
I40: From Amarillo via Oklahoma City to Fort Smith and Little Rock and on to Memphis and Nashville
See above under Mt. View.
Arkansas is about average for the US when it comes to crime. This
means a certain amount of caution, especially in the cities, and no open
carrying of valuables.
In summer, storms and even tornadoes can pose a danger. Corresponding safety instructions on site definitely make sense.
The summers are subtropical, muggy and hot, the winters cool, frost is possible. The best travel times are therefore March to May and September to November for those who do not like 35 °C plus. Tornadoes can also occur in summer and become dangerous.
The Mississippi River formed the eastern boundary of Arkansas over
time, while the St. Francis River formed the western boundaries between
Clay County and Greene County. In many places the Mississippi now
meanders away from its original river bed.
Arkansas is characterized by mountains, dense forests and fertile plains. The Northwest is part of the Ozark Plateau and the Boston Mountains; to the south are the Ouachita Mountains, which are divided by the Arkansas River. The southern and eastern areas of Arkansas are referred to as the Lowlands. All mountains there belong to the U.S. Interior Highlands Region - the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains in the west and the Appalachian Mountains in the east of the United States.
The so-called Lowlands are also known by the names of their regions: Grand Prairie and Mississippi Embayment (see Lower Mississippi Delta Region). The Arkansas River Delta is a flat landscape also shaped by the nearby Mississippi River. Both regions mentioned are fertile agricultural landscapes.
The delta region is divided by an unusual geological structure, Crowley's Ridge. A narrow band of smaller hills between 65 and 170 m high divides the plain. These hills were probably originally an island between the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers.
Arkansas has a large number of natural caves, such as B. the Blanchard Springs Caverns, and near Murfreesboro has the only natural occurrence of diamonds in the USA. The highest point is Mount Magazine in the north of the state at 839 meters.
Worth seeing are the Hot Springs National Park and the Blanchard Springs Caverns, a limestone cave of national importance.
The eastern border of Arkansas is the Mississippi River, which
separates Arkansas from Tennessee and Mississippi. Arkansas borders
Louisiana to the south, Texas and Oklahoma to the west, and Missouri to
The US state of Arkansas is divided into 75 counties (districts).
Arkansas is characterized by a humid temperate subtropical climate
bounded by the humid continental climate of the northern highlands. Even
though the state does not directly border the Gulf of Mexico, it is
still within its climatic sphere of influence. In general, the climate
is characterized by very hot and humid summers and dry and mild winters.
In Little Rock, for example, average summer temperatures are around 32°C
and winter temperatures are around 10°C. The annual amount of
precipitation is between 1000 and 1500 millimeters with local
deviations, whereby it is somewhat drier in the south than in the north.
Snowfalls are quite common, but not very productive with an average of
Despite its subtropical climate, Arkansas is known for its sometimes extreme weather: Located between the Great Plains and the Gulf of Mexico, up to 60 thunderstorms are recorded there every year. Tornadoes do occur in Arkansas as part of Tornado Alley; some of the strongest tornadoes have also hit the state. However, Arkansas is far enough from the coast to avoid the direct effects of Atlantic hurricanes. On the other hand, the heavy rainfall of a hurricane system and smaller tornadoes occur more frequently.
The first signs of human population in Arkansas date back to 10,000
BC, with remains found on the Ozark Plateau and on the banks of the
White River; Traces of groups related to the Toltecs have also been
located southeast of the city of Little Rock.
The lands of the current state of Arkansas have been inhabited by the Quapaw, Caddo, Osage, Choctaw and Chickasaw tribes. The Cherokees who resided in Arkansas were originally from Mississippi, from where they were expelled by federal authorities and assigned to reservations in this territory at the beginning of the 19th century.
The Spanish were the first Europeans to explore the lands of Arkansas, when Hernando de Soto arrived in 1541. Already in the 17th century, French explorations began in the region of the Mississippi and Arkansas rivers. The Jesuit missionary Jacques Marquette and the fur trader Louis Jolliet contributed, in 1673, to making Europeans aware of both the geography of this state and the hostility of the Indians who inhabited it. In 1680, La Salle explored part of the territory when he sailed down the Mississippi River on his way to the Gulf Coast of Mexico. These expeditions culminated in the French claim to the Louisiana Territory in 1682, which included the present-day state of Arkansas. From then on, French settlements began, as the settlement of the southern area of the Mississippi Valley began, along the Arkansas and White rivers.
For thirty-seven years Arkansas was under Spanish government since in 1763, after the Seven Years' War, France ceded Louisiana (and therefore this territory) to Spain. Between 1769 and 1777, Governor Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga 'le Conciliateur' encouraged the exploration and colonization of the territories of the Arkansas River, then under the jurisdiction of the extensive province of Louisiana, since it meant, on the one hand, the reinforcement of the border region of the Mississippi River against a possible British attack and, on the other hand, improved connectivity between the city of San Luis de Illinueses (recently founded in 1767 by the merchant Gilbert Antoine de St. Maxent) with San Antonio de Béjar in Texas; For this, Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga would have Athanase de Mezières as commander of the Charles III of Arkansas Post or Arkansas Post, who would be his agent in affairs with the Caddo tribes (see San Luis de los Cadodachos) and with the Quapaw, Osage and Tunica Amerindians, with whom Unzaga would manage to maintain good commercial and neighborhood relations, to the point that, during the secret help that Luis de Unzaga y Amézaga provided to the North American colonists between 1775 and 1777, these tribes served as allies of King Carlos III and the Bourbon interests in the alliance between France and Spain (along with some territories of Italy) against England to favor the birth of the United States.
In 1800 France recovered Louisiana to sell it three years later to the United States. In 1806, the District of Arkansas was created as part of the Louisiana Territory. The United States Congress, which exercised governing power over the dependent territories, later decided to reorganize the administration of these territories, after which Arkansas became part of the Missouri Territory. In 1819, Arkansas finally acquired Territory status, the first step in beginning negotiations for its admission as a sovereign state into the Union. The process of acquiring Arkansas statehood depended, however, on the admission of another state since the Missouri Compromise established that new stars would only be added to the flag if the balance between slave states and state states was prevented from being upset. free. Following the admissions of Maine (free) in 1820 and Missouri (slave) in 1821, no new states were admitted to the Union until June 15, 1836, when Arkansas was admitted as a slave state, followed by Michigan in 1837 as a free state. .
At the outbreak of the Civil War, Arkansas joined the Union, a contradiction that was later corrected when Lincoln tried to get Arkansas to recruit troops and his representatives decided to support the Confederacy. After this change of loyalties, several battles took place in the territory for control of the Mississippi Valley, the most important in the northwest of the state, at Pea Ridge. In 1863, Unionists took Little Rock; From then until 1865, Arkansas remained physically and humanly divided between Confederates and Unionists until the end of the war, in 1865.
The state's economy grew during the final decades of the 19th century, thanks to the railroad and the discovery of bauxite deposits. Later, in the 1920s, the discovery of oil managed to complement its agrarian economy, based mainly on the cultivation of rice and soybeans. The economic crisis of the 1930s and the continuous droughts had a devastating effect on the state, which nevertheless managed to recover thanks to the Second World War creating a great demand for its primary products, both mining and agricultural.
With the end of the world war, the process of racial desegregation began, which was especially conflictive in some southern states: one of the most momentous moments in the Civil Rights Movement in the United States occurred in Arkansas, when the President Eisenhower had to send troops to prevent Arkansas Governor Orval E. Faubus from using the National Guard to prevent black students from entering legally desegregated schools, as the Supreme Court had stipulated in 1958.
Arkansas' economy grew after World War II thanks to the work of financier and later politician Winthrop Rockefeller, who attracted numerous industries before and after he was elected governor in 1966. However, the biggest milestone from the economic development in recent decades was the launch in 1970 of the Arkansas River Development Program, which has made navigation from this river to the Mississippi possible.
The most outstanding character in Arkansas in its entire history has been Bill Clinton, who governed this state for two terms. Clinton left his position in 1992, upon becoming president of the United States, a position to which he was re-elected in 1996.
According to data from the United States Census Bureau, the estimated population of Arkansas was 2,949,132 as of July 1, 2012, an increase of 1.1% since the 2010 census. The urban population of this state is estimated at 48.3% (1996), well below the national level (79.9%). 25.8% of Arkansas residents are under the age of 18, and 14.3% have reached the age of 65. The infant mortality rate is 0.93%, well above the United States rate, making it the third state with the highest mortality in the population under one year of age.
Little Rock has been the capital city of Arkansas since it replaced
Arkansas Post as the capital of Arkansas Territory. The state capital
was moved to Hot Springs and later to Washington during the Civil War,
when Union armies threatened the city in 1862 and the state government
did not return to Little Rock until after the war was over. Today, the
Little Rock-North Little Rock-Conway metropolitan area is the largest in
the state, with a population of 709,910 in 2011.
The Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers metropolitan area is the second largest in Arkansas, growing at a faster rate due to an influx of businesses and the growth of the University of Arkansas. The state has eight cities with a population greater than 50,000 (based on the 2010 census).
In terms of race and ethnicity, the state is 80.1% White (74.2%
Non-Hispanic White), 15.6% Black, 0.9% Amerindian and Native American.
Alaskan, 1.3% Asian, and 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanics or
Latinos of any race make up 6.6% of the population.
In 2011, 39.0% of the population under the age of 1 in Arkansas was from an ethnic minority.
The first public school opened in Arkansas in 1868. Today,
approximately half a million students are enrolled at the compulsory
education levels (minimum schooling is set at age 15).
Arkansas has thirty-four institutions of higher learning, ten of which are public. The first university in Arkansas, the University of the Ozarks, was founded on Cane Hill (now Clarksville) in 1834. The largest of all, the University of Arkansas, was founded in 1871 and today has a campus in Fayetteville, Little Rock, Monticello and Pine Bluff. Other notable universities are: Arkansas College, founded in 1872 and based in Batesville; Arkansas State University; Arkansas Baptist College, created in 1884 in Little Rock; Harding University, in Searcy; Henderson State University in Arkadelphia and Hendrix College in Conway.
Arkansas, like most southern states, is part of the Bible Belt and is predominantly Protestant. The religious affiliations of the inhabitants are as follows:
No religion: 545,519
Other religions: 90,919
The largest denominations by membership in 2000 were the Southern Baptist Convention with 665,307; the United Methodist Church with 179,383; the Catholic Church with 115,967; and the American Baptist Association with 115,916.
The most important activities in Arkansas are industry, commerce,
farming and mining. The sectors that employ the most people are, in this
order, services, commerce and industry. In terms of gross domestic
product (GDP), this state experiences growth of 4.6% per year
(1995-1996). The largest increase in GDP has occurred in the
agricultural sector (9.1%), while the least dynamic sector has been
40% of the land in Arkansas is farm, with a median size of 117 hectares. A third of the production of these farms is dedicated to cultivation, mainly rice (the largest producer in the United States) and cotton (the sixth largest producer in the country), although they also produce soybeans, wheat and sorghum. Arkansas is one of the nation's top producers of chickens, turkeys, and eggs, and has a significant herd of beef cattle. Its fish farms, where mainly barbel and carp are produced, bring a large income to the state.
Arkansas has a forest area that covers half of its territory, and is heavily exploited for lumber production, especially softwoods (it is the tenth largest producer of lumber in the US).
Its most important mining resources are natural gas and bromine, in addition to having the only diamond mine in the United States.
Its most prominent industries are the processing of food products (especially rice), electronic equipment, wood treatment, and the production of paper and derivatives.
With a labor force of 1.21 million people, its unemployment level is low, since Arkansas has an unemployment rate of 4.9% (1998). The median annual per capita income is $18,053 (1998), and $27,665 per family unit, some $11,000 below the national median, making it the state with the lowest median family income in the United States. Despite this, the rate of the population living below the poverty rate is 14.8%, which places it in the twelfth state with the highest number of official poor. Despite these results, the situation has improved over the last decade since in 1990, Arkansas ranked fourth in the United States, when almost 20% of Arkansans lived below this index of marginality.
The most outstanding museums in Arkansas are the Arkansas Arts Center
(located in a magnificent mansion from before the Civil War), the
Arkansas Territorial Museum and the Old State House State History
Museum, all of them in Little Rock; the University of Arkansas Museum,
in Fayetteville; the Southeast Arkansas Arts and Science Center in Pine
Bluff and the Arkansas State University Museum in Jonesboro.
Historical and cultural attractions include The Mountain City 1890, a restored town in Bull Shoals. The conservation of this city is part of the interest in preserving and disseminating the cultural and artistic manifestations of the communities that inhabited the Ozarks region. In said City of the Mountain, music and dance exhibitions, workshops and exhibitions of ceramics, jewelry, basketry and wood carving are organized. Other attractions in Arkansas include the Fort Smith National Historic Site, a park and museum that contains an 1817 fort, and the Arkansas Post National Memorial, which houses the remains of the first French settlement in the lower Mississippi basin.
The most important artistic institutions of this state are the Arkansas Symphony Orchestra, the Arkansas Children's Art Center Theater, the Arkansas Opera House and the Arkansas Repertory Theater, all of them based in the capital, Little Rock.
This state has a great journalistic tradition since the Arkansas Gazette, published since 1819 in Little Rock, is the oldest newspaper that saw the light west of the Mississippi River.
Mark Twain wrote several works inspired by Arkansas, including Life on the Mississippi (1883) and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), a book that reflects the dialect used by poor blacks and whites in this southern part of the United States. .
The state's premier sports team is the Arkansas Razorbacks, who
compete at the collegiate level in the Southeastern Conference. In
American football they have won four Cotton Bowls, one Sugar Bowl and
one Orange Bowl. Meanwhile, the Arkansas State Red Wolves play in the
Sun Belt Conference.
Arkansas hosted a PGA Tour golf tournament from 1955 to 1963, and the LPGA Tour since 2007. Meanwhile, the Arkansas RimRockers played in the NBA D-League from 2004 to 2007.
Prominent Arkansas athletes include baseball players Dizzy Dean and Bill Dickey, basketball player Scottie Pippen, and racing driver Mark Martin.