Nevada is an American state in the southwest of the United
States. It borders Oregon and
Idaho to the north, Utah to the
east, California to the west, and
Arizona to the southeast.
Nevada has an area of 286,367 km².
With 286,351 km² it is the seventh largest state - behind Alaska, Texas, California, Montana, New Mexico and Arizona - and with 9.43 inhabitants/km² it is the ninth least densely populated, ahead of Nebraska, Idaho, New Mexico, South Dakota, North Dakota, Montana, Wyoming and Alaska, the least densely populated. It was admitted to the Union on October 31, 1864, as state number 36, in the middle of the Civil War; This has earned it the nickname of The State Born in Battle.
Nevada has the highest population growth rates – 66.3% between 1990 and 2000 – in the entire United States, largely thanks to the large immigration of Mexicans. However, most of Nevada is almost unpopulated. The majority of the state's population is concentrated in the urban centers of Las Vegas, Henderson and Reno.
The first European explorers to explore the Nevada area were the Spanish, who gave it the name Nevada, because of the snow that covered the mountains in winter. It was part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain until 1821, the date of Mexican independence, becoming part of Mexico. In 1848, with the end of the Mexican-American War, it became part of the United States.
During the 1870s, large deposits of silver were found in Nevada, earning it the nickname The Silver State. Currently, mining still has a certain importance in its economy, although much less than in the past. In addition to silver, it is a major producer of gold, oil and sand. However, currently the largest source of income is tourism (Las Vegas and Reno).
Nevada West Here you will find Nevada's second largest city, Reno,
Pyramid Lake and Lake Tahoe. Furthermore, in the area you will find
settlements from the time of the gold or silver rush, some of which are
well preserved, such as today's capital Carson City and Virginia City.
Nevada North Sparsely populated area with the larger towns of Winnemucca and Elko. Snowier than the rest of the state in winter.
Central Nevada White Pine County and Lincoln County to the south is the most sparsely populated area in the state with just 13,500 inhabitants and an area of 50,591 km².
Nevada South In the south you will find the gambling metropolis Las Vegas and the Hoover Dam, which dams Lake Mead. About 100 km north of Las Vegas near Mercury on US 95 is the huge former nuclear bomb test area of the USA ("Nevada Test Site", today "Nevada National Security Site"). There are also some old, partly abandoned gold mining towns in the south. Very dry desert climate that gets hotter towards the south.
Carson City - Capital of Nevada
Belmont Ghost Town is an abandoned ghost town situated in Nevada. Belmont was found in 1865 on a site of newly discovered silver deposit.
Gold Point Ghost Town is an abandoned settlement in Esmeralda County of Nevada. It was originally found in 1880's.
Great Basin National Park sits near Baker, Nevada in United States. This nature reserve covers an area of 77,180 acres.
Rhyolite Ghost Town is an abandoned settlement in Nye County, Nevada and was originally found in 1904.
You shouldn't have any problems with English in Nevada, as almost 80% of the population only speaks this language. Relatively few people speak Spanish compared to neighboring states in Nevada, but the Spanish-speaking population is currently increasing rapidly. In metropolises like Las Vegas, in addition to the main language English, there are many other languages, including other European, Asian and above all the languages of the natives of Nevada, mainly the Paiute and the Western Shoshone Indians, who still live in small reservations and "colonies “ live on the outskirts of the cities.
The American airlines American Airlines, Delta Air Lines and United Airlines are easy to get to from German and other European airports with a stopover in the United States to McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas. Condor has direct flights from Frankfurt am Main twice a week.
Nevada is easily accessible by car from all surrounding states, especially California. However, there can be heavy traffic jams, especially on weekends on the way to Las Vegas.
Amtrak currently serves Reno, not Las Vegas. The train arriving in Reno comes from Sacramento, California, and also makes stops in Nevada at Winnemucca and Elko before continuing on to Salt Lake City. Plans have been in place for years to bring passenger trains back to Las Vegas, but have so far remained unrealized.
You can travel the 560 kilometers (350 miles) from Las Vegas to Reno comfortably and quickly by plane, there are several flights daily to Reno Cannon International Airport and back. However, you have to stop at almost every connection, e.g. B. Plan in Salt Lake City. You can also get to the surrounding states without any problems, there are daily direct flights to the largest cities in the USA.
On the highway: When driving through the Nevada deserts, you should
always make sure that there is enough gas in the tank, because it is
usually several miles to the next gas station. You should always pack
enough provisions, especially drinking water, for longer car journeys,
as you may have to wait a long time for help in the event of a breakdown
or an accident. It doesn't make sense to move away from your vehicle.
Take a spare petrol can with you as a precaution.
In the desert: One should not enter the desert alone and without a professionally trained ranger, as it is easy to get lost. Even with a clear view, the starting point quickly disappears on the horizon. You should definitely not leave the roads and stay in the open desert during a sandstorm or extreme heat (which prevails in the desert almost all year round). Animals are also at risk, especially rattlesnakes, and some poisonous species of spiders can also be found in the dry desert. In the event of a sting or bite, instead of running away and panicking, make careful note of the animal and go to the nearest doctor or snake farm. Snake farmers in particular usually have the antivenoms of the animals in the area. In short: Staying in the desert without a ranger and/or at least one partner is life-threatening.
Nevada, as a state rich in gold and silver (state motto: All for our
contry"), is littered with many long-abandoned settlements of miners,
the so-called "ghost towns". The gold and silver mines have contributed
to Nevada's image as an Eldorado for adventurers. Today there are only a
few, tw. to visit dilapidated buildings and constructions from the
heyday of the respective mines. But they still give an almost
unadulterated impression of the rough reality of life in the "Wild West"
between 1860 and 1950. In some of the tw. Ghost towns that are difficult
to find, but easily accessible by normal car, are still inhabited by
people today, mostly loners and hermits, who are nonetheless always
curious about strangers. Worthwhile destinations to visit ghost towns
Rhyolite (at Beatty)
Goldfield (Semi-Ghost Town between Las Vegas and Tonopah; only partially derelict)
Manhattan and neighboring Belmont (northwest of Tonopah)
Tuscarora (north of Elko)
Cherry Creek (north of Ely, still partly inhabited)
Nevada is bordered to the north by Oregon and Idaho, to the west by
California, to the southeast by Arizona, and to the east by Utah. The
border with Arizona includes the Colorado River and the Hoover Dam. The
state is crossed by several mountain ranges that run from north to
south. Among most of them are drainage valleys. Its territory occupies
an area of 286,352 km², whose extension can be compared to that of
Most of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin Desert, a cold desert that experiences warm temperatures in summer and freezing temperatures in winter. Moisture from the Arizona Monsoon sometimes causes summer storms, and Pacific storms often cover the area with snow.
The Humboldt River flows east to west through northern Nevada and empties into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers flow from the Sierra Nevada to the east, including the Walker, Truckee, and Carson.
The mountain ranges (some of which have peaks exceeding 3,600 metres) are home to lush forests high above the desert plains. Often, the altitude at which the valleys are located does not go below 900 meters.
The eastern parts of the state receive more humidity in summer and have somewhat greener terrain (that's where Artemisia tridentata, the state flower, grows). In that area, some rivers and streams break the monotony of the desert landscape.
The southern third of the state, which includes the Las Vegas area, is in the middle of the Mojave Desert. It receives less precipitation in winter, but is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in summer. The terrain is lower, mostly below 1200 meters, which makes the daytime temperature in summer very high and the nighttime temperature in winter very low, due to the thermal inversion.
Nevada and California share the longest diagonal interstate border, at more than 400 miles (640 km) (there are a few more, though much smaller, diagonal borders in the northeastern states and Washington, D.C.). All other state boundaries are either meridians or parallel, or are irregular and correspond to rivers, mountains, lakes, etc.
The largest mountain range in the south of the state is the Spring Mountains, located immediately west of Las Vegas. The lowest point in Nevada is along the Colorado River, south of Laughlin.
Nevada is usually divided into three physiographic regions:
the Great Basin, which occupies most of Nevada; This geographic region has a great variation in altitude: from 146 meters of altitude in the extreme southeast of the State (next to the Colorado River) to 4,005 meters of altitude (Boundary Peak) in the southwest. These two points are, respectively, the lowest and highest point of the State. The Great Basin is characterized by its rocky and rugged soil. Throughout this region there are various geysers and hot springs.
the Columbia Plateau, located in the extreme northeast of Nevada, whose main characteristics are the presence of deep and narrow valleys, and a slightly rugged soil.
the Sierra Nevada, a mountain range located in the central-west of the state, with many peaks above 3000 and 4,000 meters of altitude.
Nevada has a desert climate, with two well-defined seasons. The
state's winters are long and very cold, while summers are mostly warm.
However, due to its desert climate, the state registers large
temperature variations between day and night. For example, Reno
sometimes records differences between the maximum and minimum
temperatures of a given day greater than 25 °C. The southern region is
the one that experiences the highest average temperatures throughout the
year, thanks to its low altitude and lower latitude in relation to the
rest of the State.
In winter, the lowest average annual temperatures are recorded in northeastern Nevada, and the highest in its southern part. Nevada's average temperature is -4°C in the northeast, -3°C in the north, and -6°C in the south. For its part, the average minimum is 2 °C in the south and -10 °C in the northeast, and the average maximum is 13 °C in the south and 4 °C in the northeast. Extreme temperatures vary between -40°C and 22°C. The lowest temperature recorded in Nevada was -46 °C, on January 8, 1937, in San Jacinto.
In summer, the highest average annual temperatures are recorded in southern Nevada, and the lowest in the highest altitude regions and in the north in general. The average temperature in the south is 30 °C, and 21 °C in higher altitude regions and in the north. The average minimum temperature is 21 °C in the south and 7 °C in higher altitude regions and in the north. The average maximum temperature is 40 °C in the south and 29 °C in the higher altitude regions and in the north of the State. The highest temperature recorded in Nevada was 52°C, measured in Laughlin on June 29, 1994.
Nevada has the lowest average annual rainfall rate in the entire United States. Only the highest altitude regions receive more than 60 centimeters of rain annually. However, most of Nevada receives less than a foot annually. The north in general has an average annual precipitation of 35 centimeters, while the lower altitude regions, which occupy all of the south and much of western Nevada, receive less than 20 centimeters. Average annual snowfall rates in Nevada range from 750 centimeters in the Sierra Nevada to less than 2.5 centimeters in the south.
Nevada has an average altitude of 1,675 meters. The highest point is
Boundary Peak, which rises to 4,005 meters in the southwestern part of
the state, near the border with California. Other peaks include Wheeler
Peak (3,992 m), Mount Jefferson (3,642 m), Charleston Peak (3,633 m) and
North Schell Peak (3,622 m). In addition, there are about 50 peaks above
2,750 meters. The lowest point is 146 meters above sea level, in the
south of the State.
Nevada belongs to the Great Basin, which extends east of California. The relief is formed by an almost parallel succession of mountain ranges. Most of them are about 100 km long. The longest are the Schell Creek Range (210 km), the Toiyabe Range (188 km) and the Ruby Range (165 km). These mountain ranges are framed by longitudinally oriented basins that were filled by alluvial deposits in the Miocene. There are also grabens and horsts bounded by normal faults typical of a distension zone. This topography is the result of intense tectogenesis that creates faults that delimit the grabens. The valleys receive the debris from erosion at the foot of the mountain ranges and their glacis.
At altitudes that sometimes exceed 3,600 meters, the mountains are home to lush forests inhabited by numerous endemic species. Northern Nevada is located in the Great Basin Desert, where temperatures are warm in summer and very cold in winter. The eastern part of the state is wetter. The Las Vegas area is located in the Mojave Desert. It receives less precipitation in winter, but is subject to the Arizona monsoon.
Nevada's main river is the Humboldt (480 km), which flows entirely
within the state in the northern part. It does not flow into any sea,
like many of the rivers in the Great Basin. The Colorado River flows
through the south. The other rivers are tributaries of variable size,
generally fed by the melting of mountain peaks in spring. Three basins
are distinguished: in the west, the Truckee and Carson rivers
originate in the Sierra Nevada and are linked to high-altitude lakes; In
the north, the Owyhee River is a tributary of the Snake River that runs
through the northwestern United States. Finally, the Virgin, White, and
Muddy rivers flow into Lake Mead and join the Colorado River.
The main natural lakes are located in the western part of the state and are high-altitude lakes: Lake Tahoe stretches between California and Nevada. It measures 502 square kilometers and is at an altitude of 1,867 meters. It is the third deepest lake in America and the eighth in the world. Pyramid Lake (487 square kilometers) is an endorheic lake fed by the Truckee River. Lastly, Walker Lake is a 272 square kilometer natural lake. To the south, Lake Mead is the main body of water. It is an artificial lake created by the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River in the 1930s. It is 180 km long upstream of the dam, 640 square kilometers and 885 km of coastline.
Nevada's main problem is aridity. It is especially serious in the
most populated areas, especially in the Las Vegas area, where the demand
for water is high.
The Hoover Dam was built in the 1930s to meet the needs of the city. Built on the Colorado River, the dam created an artificial body of water, Lake Mead, stretching for about 150 kilometers. When the Hoover Dam reservoir became insufficient to supply water to neighboring states, the Colorado River dried up almost completely downstream. The decrease in the supply of fresh water to the Gulf of California (Mexico) is causing an increase in salinity levels that is harmful to marine life. In the arid environment of Nevada, other rivers are drying up due to evaporation and human withdrawals for irrigation.
Parks and nature reserves were created for the recreation of city dwellers and tourists, but also to protect wildlife. Great Basin National Park was created in 1986 and is located in eastern Nevada. It covers 312 square kilometers at the foot of Wheeler Peak. There are also a large number of state parks.
The State of Nevada has a goal of achieving 20% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2015, which includes solar plants in the desert. Nevada Solar One, a 64 MW facility near Boulder City, in the Mojave Desert, is the third largest solar power plant in the world. 14 units produce 1.27 megawatt-hours per year of geothermal electricity (2005) and five new plants are planned. This energy is used in the food industry.
Mining activity causes all kinds of pollution: mercury lost from gold mining is by far the most important source.
The Spanish name "Nevada" was given to this territory by the
Franciscan friar and Spanish explorer Francisco Garcés (1738-1781), the
first non-native to set foot on this land, in 1776, as it was limited at
its western end by the Sierra Nevada mountain range. ("snow-covered
Nevadans typically pronounce the second syllable of their state using the /æ/ vowel in "bad." Many people outside the western states of the country pronounce it with the vowel /ɑː/ of "father" /nəˈvɑːdə/. Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not preferred by local people. The local pronunciation is not [nəˈβɑdə], but [nəˈvædə]. In 2005, the Nevada Tourism Commission issued a special license plate listing the state's name as Nevăda, to help with the pronunciation problem. Notably, George W. Bush made such a faux pas for his campaign for the 2004 United States presidential election. Later vindication came when President Bush campaigned at the Reno-Sparks Convention Center on June 18, 2004. The president opened his speech by proclaiming that "It's great to be here in Nevada /nəˈˈvædə/", emphasizing the correct pronunciation of the letter A. The crowd gave its approval when he joyfully pointed , "You didn't think I'd get it right, did ya?" ("You didn't think I'd say it right, did you?")3 Bush subsequently won the state in the election.
Assemblyman Harry Mortenson has proposed a bill to recognize the alternative (quasi-Spanish) pronunciation of Nevada.
Derived from the expeditions of Father Kino at the end of the 17th
century through the north of present-day Mexico and the south of the US,
Nevada was explored and conquered by the Spanish Crown in the first two
decades of the 18th century - although not fully colonized. -. It was
part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain until 1821, when it was also part
of the First Mexican Empire of Agustín de Iturbide and in 1823 of
Mexico. As a result of the American Intervention in Mexico of 1847-48,
and by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo of 1848, Nevada became part of
the United States of America. In 1850, the United States Congress
established the Territory of Utah, which included the present-day states
of Utah, Idaho, and Nevada. In 1859, important deposits of gold and
silver were discovered in the area, which brought numerous miners,
merchants and other people to the region who sought to become rich.
On March 2, 1861, Nevada separated from the Utah Territory and adopted its current name, an abbreviation of the Spanish name "Sierra Nevada." On October 31, 1864, Nevada became the 36th state of the union.
The state's current boundaries were established on March 5, 1866 by absorbing part of Pah-Ute County into Arizona Territory, west of the Colorado River. The transfer was expedited after gold was discovered in the area and Nevada was considered more prepared to control the territory thanks to the increase in population.
Gambling was common in the mining towns of early Nevada but was declared illegal in 1909 when a nationwide anti-gambling crusade began. The state legalized gambling again in 1931 due to the agricultural and mining crisis that the region was suffering. At that time it was believed that legalization would last a few years, just enough to overcome the crisis. However, making the game illegal again has never been considered.
It is also worth noting that Nevada has been an important nuclear testing area during the last century, with restricted military zones for nuclear experimentation and the well-known army air base called "Area 51".
Native Americans lived in the region where the State of Nevada is
currently located thousands of years before the arrival of the first
European explorers. All the indigenous tribes that lived in the region
were part of the Uto-Aztec family. The first European explorer to
explore the region was the Spanish Francisco Garcés, in 1776, having
left New Mexico in the direction of California. At that time, Nevada was
part of the Spanish colonies in the Americas. With the exception of a
few trading posts for bartering with local indigenous people, no
permanent settlement was established in the region for decades.
In 1821, with the independence of Mexico, Nevada became controlled by this country. However, the Mexicans had little interest in colonizing the region of present-day Nevada, due to its desert climate, which was not conducive to the practice of agriculture. Nevada continued to be inhabited only by local indigenous natives. During the 1820s, various British explorers, mostly merchants under the Hudson's Bay Company, began exploring the lands of Nevada. In 1830, Joseph Walker left Santa Fe, Texas, heading for Los Angeles, California. In the middle of the trip, in the desert region of Nevada, he built a rudimentary road to better orient himself. This road was widely used during the California gold rush of 1848, which attracted thousands of American immigrants from the east of the country to the west. .
In 1848, Mexico was defeated by the United States in the American Intervention in Mexico, which had begun in 1846. As a result, the entire Nevada region became part of the United States. In 1850, the Territory of Utah was established, which included the center and north of present-day Nevada. The remainder was part of the Territory of New Mexico, also established in 1850.
American settlers gradually settled in the Nevada region. The first American settlement in Nevada was Virginia City. Early urban settlements were created primarily to serve as a supply center for people from the eastern United States heading west. However, these supplies—food, clothing, weapons, and basic utensils were very expensive, since they were usually purchased in California—until the late 1860s. In 1859, large deposits of silver were found in Virginia City, which It attracted numerous mining companies and thousands of people from California and the eastern United States. The population of the region increased from a few hundred inhabitants in 1850 to 6,857 inhabitants in 1860. In March 1861 the Territory of Nevada was created, which at that time incorporated only the current regions of Nevada that were previously part of the Territory of New Mexico.
In 1861, the Civil War broke out, dividing the country into two: the Union, which was the United States itself, and the rebellious Confederate States of America. The majority of the population of Nevada was in favor of the Union. Abraham Lincoln, the then president of the United States, wanted to approve a series of constitutional amendments that would prohibit slavery in the country, for which the approval of the majority would be necessary. of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The entry of a new state that actively supported the Union would be of great value. At the time, the territory of Nevada had only one-fifth of the population necessary to become a state. In November 1863, a constitutional convention was held to attempt to create a constitution for the future State of Nevada. This constitution contained an amendment that proposed taxing any mineral extracted in the state. Since Nevada's economy at the time was largely based on mining, it was not approved. In July 1864 a second constitutional convention was held, and this time the constitution was approved. Then, the United States Constitution said that only territories with more than 127,381 inhabitants could become States, but Abraham Lincoln ignored the Constitution, and both he and Congress approved the elevation of Nevada to statehood. Thus, Nevada became the 36th State of the United States on October 31, 1864.
In 1866, the US government divided the then Territory of New Mexico
(which included the present-day states of New Mexico and Arizona, as
well as the southern region of Nevada) into three. The Territory of New
Mexico came to occupy only the eastern part. The central part became the
Territory of Arizona, and its extreme northwest was annexed to Nevada,
acquiring its current borders.
The discovery, in 1859, of the Comstock Lode (an immense vein of silver and gold) attracted thousands of prospectors and established the state as a flourishing mining center. Within a decade, the population of Nevada increased from 6,857 inhabitants in 1860 to 42,491. in 1870. However, during the mid-1870s, the American government placed a cap on the use of silver in the country's economic system, greatly decreasing the demand for silver throughout the country. In addition to that, the silver ore that was extracted in the region's mines was of low quality, since it was mixed with other chemical elements. Before restrictions on the use of silver in the country's economy were implemented, silver prices were high, which made it possible to purify the mineral mined in the state. Thus, many of the mining companies went bankrupt, while others were forced to lay off hundreds of workers. The unemployment rate rose dramatically, and much of Nevada's population left to seek employment in other states. Nevada's population would gradually decline until the beginning of the 20th century, when ranching became the state's main economic activity, although harsh winters and the lack of adequate transportation infrastructure prevented it from developing rapidly.
In the 1900s, new mineral deposits were gradually discovered, most notably silver at Tonopah and gold at Goldfield. The silver ore extracted in these mines was of higher quality, and the costs of purification, therefore, minor. Therefore, silver mining once again became an important source of income for Nevada. In addition to that, copper reserves were also discovered in Ely, in 1900. However, the most important of these discoveries took place in 1902 and later in 1903, when large reserves of gold were found. The mining sector flourished again and the construction of various railroads began to transport the mineral extracted in the state to other regions of the country, helping to develop urban commerce and livestock farming in Nevada. During the 1900s, Nevada passed a law allowing anyone to divorce even if they had only lived in the state for six months, with the goal of attracting more people to this depopulated region.
In 1907, the federal government, in partnership with Nevada, completed Nevada's Newlands Irrigation Project, the first large-scale artificial irrigation project undertaken by the US government. This project consisted primarily of the construction of dams along the Carson Rivers. and Truckee, allowing for the generation of electricity and the practice of agriculture in Fallon.
In 1909, gambling was banned in Nevada, at a time when a national "crusade" against this type of gambling was taking place. Nevada had legalized the practice of these games in 1869, but the residents of the state themselves pressured to the provincial government to prohibit this practice. Despite the ban, gaming continued illegally, and compliance with these laws was too expensive.
The United States entered World War I in 1917. By then most of Nevada's gold and silver reserves had already been depleted, although there were still large deposits of copper, as well as tungsten and zinc, metals that They were in great demand during the war. These reserves had been discovered in the mid-1910s, and numerous mines were opened to meet this demand. However, with the end of the war in 1918, demand and prices for minerals generally plummeted, leading to the closure of numerous mines and an economic recession.
In 1927, the Nevada government reduced the time needed for a person to obtain a divorce from six to three months, and in 1931, to just six weeks, causing thousands of people to settle in the state to quickly obtain the contract. of divorce. In 1931, Nevada legalized the practice of gambling, mainly because of the economy, greatly weakened by the Great Depression—which caused the state's agricultural sector to go into decline—and by the mining recession of the 1930s. 1920. Numerous casinos were opened and the economy prospered again.
During the late 1930s, significant reserves of iron, zinc and lead were discovered, bringing about a revitalization of the state mining sector. The outbreak of World War II led to the production of war materiel and other war materials, and caused demand for copper, tungsten, iron, zinc and lead to grow. During this time, the US government built several air bases in the region, including Nellis Air Force Base.
After the end of the war in 1945, the decline in domestic and
international demand for metals caused the decline of Nevada's mining
industry. During the 1950s, Nevada instituted a law requiring every
casino (or any other gambling establishment) to have a license, which
would only be issued after a rigorous inspection and investigation of
the facilities by the State. This law was created with the aim of
reducing cheating, as well as to prevent criminals (especially the
mafia) from entering the gambling market.
At that time, tourism was already an important source of income for the State. Its importance in Nevada's economy increased rapidly during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1970, nearly 15 million tourists visited Nevada. Currently, tourism is Nevada's main source of income.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, the US military conducted various nuclear tests in a completely isolated region of southern Nevada, just 100 kilometers from Las Vegas, the so-called Nevada Test Site. Several nuclear bombs were detonated there.
In 1963, a judicial dispute between Nevada, California and Arizona in the Supreme Court of the United States, lasting more than four decades, ended. This dispute was over the water reserves of the Colorado River, important for the supply of drinking water in Arizona and Nevada (whose climate is mostly desert) and in the southwestern region of California (where the climate is also desert). of the Supreme Court established, for each state, a maximum quota for the amount of drinking water extracted from the Colorado River per year. Priority was given to Arizona. In 1967, a provincial project was created with the goal of finding new reserves of drinking water for Las Vegas, then rapidly growing. This ended in 1983, with the inauguration of a large aqueduct that brings drinking water from Lake Mead.
Since the 1980s, Nevada's economy has gradually become more diversified, and although tourism is still the largest source of income, manufacturing and construction industries have also gained importance in the state's economy. In 2002, President George W. Bush approved the creation of a nuclear waste repository in Yucca Mountain, an isolated region owned by the federal government, which brought protests from the state government and environmentalists. Despite everything, this deposit is expected to come into operation in 2010.
For years, residents of West Wendover, Nevada and Wendover, Utah, neighboring cities but in different states, have pressured their respective state governments to carry out a merger, with which Wendover, Utah would become part of West Wendover , Nevada (which has nearly three times as many inhabitants). Currently, the governments of Nevada and Utah are discussing this merger, which to be completed will have to have the approval of the Legislature of both States and the endorsement of Congress.
According to the 2005 census, Nevada had a population of 2,414,807,
an increase of 81,909 (or 3.5%) over the previous year and an increase
of 416,550. inhabitants (or 20.8%), in relation to the year 2000. The
demographic increase since the last census is due to a natural increase
of 81,661 people (170,451 births minus 88,790 deaths) and a net
migration of 337,043 people in the state . External migrations have led
to a net increase of 66,098 people, while internal migrations have led
to a net growth of 270,945 people.
Nevada is the fastest growing state in the entire United States. Between 2000 and 2003, Nevada's population increased by 12.2%, while the US population increased by 3.3%. On the other hand, between 1990 and 2000, Nevada's population increased by 66.3% compared to 13.1% for the US population.
With its 7.03 inhabitants/km², Nevada is a very sparsely populated state. More than two-thirds of the population lives in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Only seven cities exceed one hundred thousand inhabitants.
As a result of its rapid population growth, Nevada has the highest percentage of residents born outside the state in the entire United States: in 2005, 17.4% of the state's residents (that is, 413,298 people) were not born in Nevada .
According to the 2017 American Community Survey, 28.2% of Nevada's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (any race): Mexican (21.4%), Puerto Rican (0.9%), Cuban ( 1.0%) and other Hispanic or Latino origin (4.8%). The five largest non-Hispanic white ancestry groups were: German (11.3%), Irish (9.0%), English (6 .9%), Italian (5.8%) and American (4.7%).
The distribution of the population by age in 2004 was:
Less than 5 years: 6.8%
Less than 18 years old: 26.3%
Over 65 years: 13.6%
Females make up 50.7% of Nevada's population.
Nevada is a territory where its population is mostly Christian. The
first Christian group that arrived to the place was the Catholic Church
with the Spanish colonization and later various Protestant denominations
of European origin or from other parts of the United States arrived.
Church attendance in Nevada is among the lowest of all US states. In a 2009 Gallup poll, only 30% of Nevadans said they attended church weekly or almost weekly, compared with 42% of all Americans (only four states were found with a lower attendance rate than Nevada).
In 2020, the Public Religion Research Institute determined that 67% of the population was Christian, reflecting a 1% increase in religiosity since Pew's separate 2014 study.
The main religious affiliations of Nevadans were, according to the Pew Research Center in 2014: Protestants of various denominations 35%, irreligious 28%, Catholics 25%, Church of Latter-day Saints 4%, Jews 2%, Hindus less than 1%, Buddhists 0.5% and Muslims less than 0.1%. Parts of Nevada (in the eastern part of the state) are located in the Mormon Corridor.
The largest confessions by number of faithful in 2010 were the Catholic Church, with 451,070; the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, with 175,149; and the Southern Baptist Convention, with 45,535; Buddhist congregations, 14,727; Baháʼí Faith, 1,723; and Muslims, 1,700.54 The Jewish community is represented by the Rohr Jewish Learning Institute and Chabad. According to the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6.2% of Nevadans are faithful, making it becomes the sixth state with the highest percentage in the Union.
Nevada's gross domestic product was $88 billion in 2003, ranking it
19th in the nation. The per capita income in 2004 was $31,910. The
unemployment rate is 4.3%. Its main agricultural products are livestock,
hay, dairy products, onions and potatoes. Its main industrial products
are tourism, mining, machinery, printing and press, food processing and
Nevada's economy depends largely on tourism: it is estimated that in 2000, tourists spent nearly $3 billion at its casinos. The large and luxurious casinos of Las Vegas, Lake Tahoe and Reno attract tourists from all over the world. In the state there are more than 180,000 hotel rooms, that is, one for every 14 inhabitants.
The primary sector corresponds to 1% of Nevada's GDP. The state has
about three thousand farms, which occupy about 12.5% of its surface.
Much of this land is used only for livestock farming. Because of
Nevada's desert climate, farming is impossible without artificial
irrigation. Together, agriculture and livestock comprise 1% of the
state's GDP, and employ approximately 19,000 people. Nevada has large
cattle and sheep herds: as of January 1, 2006, there were 500,000 cattle
and 70,000 sheep in the state. Most of these animals graze in the fields
in summer, while in winter they receive supplementary food. Calves are
usually transported to out-of-state feedlots for fattening. About 90
percent of Nevada's 195,868 acres of cropland are used to grow hay,
mostly alfalfa, to feed livestock. Other products grown are potatoes,
onions and wheat. The effects of fishing and forestry are negligible on
the state economy.
The secondary sector corresponds to 16% of Nevada's GDP. The manufacturing industry corresponds to 10% of the State's GDP and employs approximately 103,000 people. The total value of products manufactured in the State is 4.5 billion dollars. The main industrialized products manufactured in Nevada are processed foods, concrete and advertising materials. The construction industry comprises 4% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 48,000 people.
For its part, mining is responsible for 2% of GDP, employing around 13,000 people. Considering the value of the material extracted, gold is by far the most important mineral. In 2004, 6.8 million ounces of gold worth $2.84 billion were mined in Nevada, equivalent to 8.7% of global gold production. Silver is the second most mined mineral, with 10.3 billion ounces with a total value of $69 million. Other minerals mined in Nevada include construction materials, copper, gypsum, diotomite, and lithium. Despite its rich deposits, the cost of mining in Nevada is high and the industry is very sensitive to global raw material prices.
The tertiary sector comprises 83% of Nevada's GDP. About 32% of the state's GDP comes from community and personal services. This sector employs more than 530,000 people. Wholesale and retail trade correspond to 15% of GDP, and employ approximately 246,000 people. Financial and real estate services correspond to about 18% of the state's GDP, employing approximately 125,000 people. Government services account for 12% of GDP, employing approximately 130,000 people. Finally, transport and telecommunications employ around 62,000 people and comprise 8% of GDP.
About 50% of the electricity generated in the state comes from thermoelectric plants, hydroelectric plants and geothermal plants. For their part, wind turbines and solar panels supply small inland communities.
Nevada is one of the few states where there is no income tax or corporation tax. The sales tax in Nevada is 6.5%. Counties have the power to also levy stock tax, bringing the total sales tax rate in some areas as high as 7.75%. The sales tax in Carson City is 7.125%, in Washoe County it is 7.375%, while in Douglas County it is 6.75%.
Tourist areas such as Las Vegas, Reno, Lake Tahoe and Laughlin
attract visitors from all over the country and the world. In fiscal
2008, its 266 casinos (not counting those with annual revenues of less
than $1 million) generated $12 billion in gaming revenue and another $13
billion in non-gaming revenue.
Nevada is by far the state with the most hotel rooms per capita in the United States. According to the American Hotel and Lodging Association, there were 187,301 rooms in 584 hotels (with 15 or more rooms). The state ranks just below California, Texas, Florida and New York in total number of rooms, but those states have much larger populations. Nevada has one hotel room for every 14 residents, well above the national average of one hotel room for every 67 residents.
Prostitution is legal in some parts of Nevada in licensed brothels, but only counties with a population under 400,000 have the option to legalize it. Although prostitution is not a major part of Nevada's economy, employing about 300 women as independent contractors, it is a highly visible activity. Of the 14 counties allowed by state law to legalize prostitution, eight have chosen to legalize brothels. State law prohibits prostitution in Clark (where Las Vegas is located) and Washoe (where Reno is located) counties. However, prostitution is legal in Storey County, which is part of the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area.
In areas of the state outside the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan
areas, mining plays an important economic role. By value, gold is by far
the most important mineral mined. In 2004, 6,800,000 ounces (190,000,000
g) of gold worth $2.84 billion were mined in Nevada, and the state
accounted for 8.7% of global gold production. Silver is a distant
second, with 10,300,000 ounces (290,000,000 g) worth $69 million mined
in 2004. Other minerals mined in Nevada include construction aggregates,
copper, gypsum, diatomite and lithium. Despite the richness of its
deposits, the cost of mining in Nevada is generally high, and production
is very sensitive to global raw material prices.
Gold mining in Nevada is a major industry, and one of the largest sources of gold in the world. In 2018, Nevada produced 5,581,160 troy ounces (173.6 tons), representing 78% of US gold and 5.0% of world production. Total recorded gold production in Nevada from 1835 to 2017 amounts to 205,931,000 troy ounces (6,405.2 t), with a value of $322.6 billion in 2020 values. Much of Nevada's gold production comes from large open pit mines using leach recovery. in batteries.
Nevada's mining industry supported an average of 14,787 direct employees in 2018, with around 75,000 additional jobs related to providing goods and services needed by the mining industry. The average salary of mining industry employees during this time was $97,600 per year, the third highest average private employment sector in the state.
Silver mining in Nevada began in 1858 with the discovery of the Comstock Lode, the first major silver mining district in the United States. Nevada calls itself the "Silver State." Nevada is the second largest producer of silver in the country, after Alaska. In 2014, Nevada produced 10.93 million troy ounces of silver, of which 6.74 million were as a byproduct of gold mining. The largest by-producers were the Hycroft mine (1.82 million ounces), the Phoenix mine (1.65 million ounces), the Midas mine (1.49 million ounces) and Round Mountain (0.58 million ounces) .
The government of the state of Nevada has a division of powers:
executive, legislative and judicial. The governor of Nevada is Steve
Sisolak (Democrat). The two senators are Catherine Cortez Masto and
Jacky Rosen, both (Democrats).
The chief executive officer of Nevada is the governor. He is elected by the population through state elections, for a term of up to four years. The same person can only hold this position twice. Since 2019, the governor of Nevada is Steve Sisolak of the Democratic Party.
The Nevada Legislature is bicameral, that is, it is made up of a Senate and an Assembly. The Senate is made up of 21 senators, while the Assembly has 42 members. Nevada is divided into 21 legislative districts. The voters of each district elect a senator and two members of the Assembly, who will represent said district in each chamber. The term of office of the senators is four years, and that of the members of the Assembly is two. Like the governor, a given person can serve as senator only twice. For members of the Assembly, this limit is six terms. Currently, the Senate is controlled by the Republican Party, and the Assembly is controlled by the Democratic Party.
The highest court of the Nevada Judicial Branch is the Nevada Supreme Court, composed of seven judges. These judges are elected by the people of the State for a term of up to five years. Nevada is one of the few US states without an intermediate appellate court system, and it is the Nevada Supreme Court that hears all cases and appeals. This court lacks discretionary review power, so Nevada's court system is extremely congested. Nevada also has nine district courts, which employ a total of 51 judges, elected by the people of their respective judicial districts for terms of up to six years.
The current Nevada Constitution was adopted in 1864. Amendments to the Constitution are proposed by the Nevada Legislature, and to be approved, they must first be ratified by at least 51% of the Senate and Assembly, in two successive votes. , and then by 51% or more of Nevada's voting population, in a referendum. The population of the State can also propose amendments to the Constitution through petitions, which require the signature of at least 10% of the people who voted in the last referendum or in the last state elections for governor held in the state. If this petition has a minimum of 10% signatures, the amendment is then reviewed by the Legislature, and put to a vote in a referendum, where it must obtain the vote in favor of at least 51% of voters in two consecutive referendums. If this amendment is ratified by 51% or more of the voters in both ballots, the amendment is automatically approved. Amendments can also be proposed and introduced by constitutional conventions, which need to receive the approval of at least 67% of the votes of both houses of the Legislature and 51% of the State's electors in a general election, or 51% of the state's electors in a referendum.
Due to the tremendous growth of Las Vegas in recent years, there is
an evident divide between the politics of northern Nevada and that of
the south. The North has long maintained control of key positions in
state government, even though the Las Vegas area's population is much
larger than the rest of the state. This has fostered some resentment as
the north sees the south as a potential threat, and the south sees the
north as the "old guardian" attempting to rule as an oligarchy. Most
people from out of state are not familiar with this rivalry.
Distribution by parties:
The state is not dominated by either of the two main political parties. Republicans won Nevada three times in the 1980s. Democrat Bill Clinton won the state in the 1992 and 1996 presidential elections, and Republican George Bush won here in 2000 and 2004. In 2004, George Bush won the state by a narrow margin (2 percentage points, with 50.5% of the votes cast). Clark County, home to the vast majority of the state's population, was the only county to vote Democratic, although results show that all but five of Nevada's counties, including Clark and Washoe counties, the state's two largest , they tend to vote for this party.
Nevada is divided into 16 counties and one independent city, Carson
City. Counties are governed by councils made up of three, five or seven
members. Most Nevada cities are governed by a mayor and a city council.
Nevada counties are as follows:
Churchill County, with capital in Fallon.
Clark County, with capital in Las Vegas.
Douglas County, with capital in Minden.
Elko County, with capital in Elko.
Esmeralda County, with capital in Goldfield.
Eureka County, with capital in Eureka.
Humboldt County, with capital in Winnemucca.
Lander County, with capital at Battle Mountain.
Lincoln County, with capital in Pioche.
County of Lyon, with capital at Yerington.
Mineral County, with capital in Hawthorne.
Nye County, with capital in Tonopah.
Pershing County, with capital at Lovelock.
Storey County, with capital in Virginia City.
Washoe County, with capital in Reno.
White Pine County, with capital in Ely.
Area 51 is near Groom Lake, a dry salt lake bed. The much smaller
Creech Air Force Base is in Indian Springs, Nevada; Hawthorne Army
Depot, Hawthorne; the Tonopah Proving Ground, near Tonopah; and Nellis
Air Force Base, in the northeast part of the Las Vegas valley. Naval Air
Station Fallon in Fallon; NSAWC, (pronounced "EN-SOCK") in western
Nevada. The NSAWC consolidated three Command Centers into a single
Command Structure under one flag officer on July 11, 1996.
The Naval Strike Warfare Center, based at NAS Fallon since 1984, joined the Navy Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN) and the Airborne Early Warning Weapons School, which moved from NAS Miramar as a result of a decision of Base Reorganization and Closure in 1993, which transferred that installation back to the Marine Corps as MCAS Miramar. The Seahawk Weapons School was added in 1998 to provide tactical training for Navy helicopters.
These bases host various activities, such as the Joint Unmanned Air Systems Center of Excellence, the Naval Air Warfare and Strike Center, the Nevada Test and Training Range, Red Flag, the United States Air Force Thunderbirds, the United States Air Force Warfare Center, the United States Air Force Weapons School, and the United States Navy Fighter Weapons School.
Several United States Navy ships have been named USS Nevada in honor of the state. These include:
Nevada (screw frigate of 1865)
USS Nevada (BM-8)
USS Nevada (BB-36)
USS Nevada (SSBN-733)
The Nevada government began planning a statewide public school system
in 1861, when Nevada was still a territory. Four years later, in 1865,
already elevated to state status, the Nevada Legislature established a
state system of public schools, and the first school districts in the
State began to be defined. However, Nevada initially had to endure great
difficulties in the area of basic education, due to its small population
and the presence of vast regions where small towns and rural communities
were isolated from the rest of the state. Schools existed in these
areas, although they generally only served three to ten students. These
students, for their part, often lived far from schools, and were forced
to travel long distances to get to class. The lack of budgets was
constant. In 1900, the State opened its first secondary school.
Currently, all educational institutions in Nevada must follow certain rules and standards dictated by the Nevada State Board of Education. This board directly controls the state's public school system, which is divided into several school districts. The council is made up of 11 members elected by the population. In cities, the responsibility for managing schools falls to the municipal school district, while in less densely populated regions, this responsibility falls to the school districts operating in the county. Nevada allows the existence of "charter schools" - independent public schools, which are not managed by school districts, but which depend on public budgets for their support. Schooling is compulsory for all children and adolescents over seven years of age, until the completion of secondary education or until the age of fifteen.
In 1999, the State's public schools served approximately 325,610 students, employing approximately 17,400 teachers. For their part, private schools served nearly 13,900 students, employing approximately one thousand teachers. The State's public school system used about $1.738 million, and public school spending was approximately $5,900 per student. In 2000, 80.7% of the state's residents over 25 years of age had a high school diploma. Another 18.2% had a bachelor's degree or higher.
Nevada has nearly 80 public libraries, managed by 21 different public library systems, which move an average of 5.1 books per capita annually. Most of them are concentrated in Las Vegas and Reno. The first institution of higher education in Nevada was the University of Reno, founded in 1874. The State currently has 14 institutions of higher education, of which 6 are public and 8 are private. The largest institutions of higher education are Sierra Nevada College and the University of Reno. The Nevada Community College and University System is the State's system of public universities and colleges, which controls various institutions of higher education throughout Nevada.
Amtrak's California Zephyr train uses the original Union Pacific
transcontinental rails in daily service from Chicago to Emeryville,
passing through Elko, Winnemucca, Sparks and Reno. Amtrak Thruway
Motorcoaches provide fast, regular service specializing in link Las
Vegas with the train stations of Needles, Los Angeles and Bakersfield,
The Union Pacific operates some railroad lines in the north and south. Greyhound Lines supplies some bus services.
Interstate 15 passes through the tip of southern Nevada, connecting Las Vegas and other communities. It has two branches, I-215 and I-515. Interstate 80 crosses the northern part of the state, coming from Utah in the east to California in the west, passing through the city of Reno. It consists of a branch, I-580. Several federal highways also connect the state: US-6, US-50, US-93, US-95 and US-395, in addition to 189 Nevada State Highways. Nevada is one of the few states in the US that does not have a continuous interstate highway connecting its main population centers: Reno, Carson City and Las Vegas.
Nevada is one of the few in the country that allows three-trailer tractor-trailers to circulate. They are smaller versions, partly because they have to ascend and descend fairly steep mountain passes.
Las Vegas has an extensive bus network and an expanding monorail system. Harry Reid International Airport in Las Vegas is one of the busiest airports in the United States. Reno-Tahoe International Airport is the other major airport in Nevada. The city of Elko has a small airport with regular commercial services.
Citifare operates a network of bus lines in the Reno-Sparks Metropolitan Area. Some counties, especially the most depopulated, have very limited public transportation services, such as Eureka County.
The first newspaper published in Nevada was the Territorial
Enterprise, in the town of Genoa, in 1858. In 2002, the state had four
morning newspapers, four afternoon newspapers, and four Sunday
newspapers. The leader is the Las Vegas Review-Journal, with a daily
circulation of 165,754 and a Sunday circulation of 217,419. The Reno
Gazette-Journal, with a daily circulation of 66,919 and a Sunday
circulation of 84,981, is the most influential newspaper in the northern
half of the state. The regional interest magazine Nevada is published
six times a year. Several newspapers are printed in Spanish, in view of
the large Hispanic community that resides in the state.
Nevada's first radio station opened in Reno in 1928. In 2003, the state had 27 radio stations (of which 7 were AM and 20 were FM—several of them with programming in Spanish) and 8 television stations, 88 the first of which was founded in 1953, in Las Vegas.
In 2001, 95.2% of Nevada households had at least one telephone. That year, 72,183 Internet domains were registered in the state.
Nevada has developed a thriving solar energy sector over the years.
An independent study conducted in 2013 found that solar energy users
generated a net benefit of $36 million. However, in December 2015, the
Public Utilities Commission allowed the state's only electric company,
NV Energy, to charge higher rates and fees to solar panel users, causing
an immediate collapse of solar panel use in the roofs.
In December 1987, Congress amended the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to designate the Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository as the only site designated as a permanent repository for all of the nation's highly radioactive waste.
Nevada had a total summer capacity of 11,938 MW across all of its power plants, and net generation of 39,890 GWh. The corresponding electric power generation mix was 6.9% coal, 64.6% natural gas, 12.1% solar, 9.8% geothermal, 5.6% hydroelectric, 0.8% wind and 0.2% biomass.
Small-scale solar, including customer-owned PV panels, supplied an additional net 680 GWh to Nevada's power grid in 2019. This was seven times less than the amount generated by the state's utility-scale PV plants. Nevada ranks second in the nation as a producer of geothermal resources and fourth as a producer of solar resources.
Nevada is one of the few states in the country where sports betting
is legal. To avoid fraud, the major leagues have decided not to have
teams there. However, some teams have temporarily
played in Las Vegas, for example the Utah Jazz of the National
Basketball Association in 1983/84, the Los Angeles Lakers of the NBA in
1992, and the Oakland Athletics of Major League Baseball in 1996. This
veto on professional franchises has been broken by the creation of a
franchise, the Vegas Golden Knights, based in Las Vegas, which will
begin to compete in the NHL in the 2017/18 season.
Meanwhile, the state has hosted the 2007 NBA All-Star Game and the NBA Summer League since 2004. In addition, the Las Vegas Quicksilvers played in the North American Soccer League in 1977, with Eusébio as a star.
Las Vegas is known as the capital of professional boxing. Numerous fights have taken place there between stars such as Muhammad Ali, George Foreman, Ron Lyle, Sugar Ray Leonard, Thomas Hearns, Evander Holyfield, Mike Tyson, Óscar de la Hoya, Floyd Mayweather and Manny Pacquiao. Starting in the 1990s the city has hosted numerous mixed martial arts bouts, particularly the Ultimate Fighting Championship.
The Las Vegas Grand Prix was a motorsport race held on temporary circuits, scoring for Formula 1 and CART. Meanwhile, the Las Vegas Motor Speedway oval has hosted NASCAR Cup Series, CART and IndyCar Series races.
The Shriners Hospitals for Children Open is a golf tournament that has been part of the PGA Tour since 1983. The US Sevens, a rugby tournament of the IRB Rugby World Series 7s, has been played in Las Vegas since 2010.
In terms of college sports, the UNLV Rebels and the Nevada Wolf Pack are rival teams in the Mountain West Conference. The Rebels have excelled in men's basketball, where they achieved 13 conference championships, one national championship and four national semifinals. At the same time, the MWC men's basketball final and the Las Vegas Bowl for American football are played in Nevada.
In 2017, the only professional Las Vegas Soccer team called Las Vegas Lights FC was founded, which has been playing since 2018 in the USL Championship, the second most important league in the United States.