Oregon is a state on the west coast of the USA. It borders
Washington to the north,
Idaho to the east, Nevada and
California to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Its capital is Salem and its most populated city is Portland. It
is located in the Western region of the country, Pacific
division and borders to the north with the state of Washington,
to the east with Idaho - a large part of this border is formed
by the Snake River - to the southeast with Nevada, to the south
and southwest with California and to the west with the Pacific
Ocean. With 254,805 km² it is the ninth largest state, behind
Alaska, Texas, California, Montana, New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada
and Colorado. It was admitted to the Union on February 14, 1859,
as the 33rd state.
The Columbia and Snake Rivers form most of its northern and eastern borders, respectively. The Willamette River Valley in western Oregon is the most densely populated and agriculturally productive region. The area was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before the arrival of traders, explorers and settlers who formed the self-governing government of Oregon Country in 1843. The Oregon Territory was created in 1848 and became the state of Oregon on February 14. of 1859.
Oregon has one of the most diverse landscapes that includes the windy Pacific coast, with volcanoes, glaciers and rugged mountains of the Cascade Range. It is known for its tall, dense forests that cover a third of the north of the state and half of the south. Other areas include plains and deserts that cover about half of the state in the east and north central, and less dense pine forests in the northeast.
Mount Hood (3,429 m) is the highest point in the state. Crater Lake National Park is the only national park in Oregon.
Cultural visits, parks, gardens, restaurants and much more.
The core area of the state with livestock and forestry.
Spectacular and rugged sections; modest and affordable accommodation.
The Oregon Breadbasket.
This scenic region also includes the Mt. Hood area.
The south is characterized by its mild climate; here is the deepest lake in the state, Crater Lake National Park.
Hells Canyon, scenic hills; even the old traces of the covered wagons that populated the land can still be found here.
Crater Lake was formed about 8000 years ago from melting water and precipitation and was considered sacred by the Klamath tribe.
Golden Ghost Town is an abandoned settlement situated in Josephine County, OR. First community was established here in 1840's.
Hardman Ghost Town is an abandoned community in Morrow County of Oregon. It was originally found in 1870s.
Today, Oregon in a study in contrast and diversity was one of the first
States to give citizens the power to pass laws by initiative and
referendum. Ballot measures in the state run the gamut from very
conservative to very liberal, showing a wide variety of opinions. The
waterfalls both geographically and culturally divide the line between
East and West. In the West Cascades in the Willamette Valley, there are
progressive opinions such as environmentalism that prevail, while in
Eastern Oregon political thinking tends to be rather conservative.
Oregon, however, has a reputation for innovation by being the first state to allow initiative and referendum, was the first state to establish a beverage container deposit law, the first to legalize physician-assisted suicide, one one of the first to legalize medical marijuana.
The vast majority of air travel in Oregon is through Portland
International Airport (IATA: PDX), located on the north side of the city
along the Columbia River. The airport has won several awards for
traveler satisfaction and offers relatively quick entry and exit due to
its moderate size and lack of downtown services. Quick access to
transportation of all types is readily available.
Domestic services are provided by major US airlines, with direct flights available from more western airports. International service is limited to direct flights from Vancouver, Amsterdam, and Tokyo plus seasonal flights from some cities in Mexico.
Oregon has numerous highways in its neighboring state:
•California is the Interstate 5 freeway coming from northern Shasta across the Siskiyou Mountains and into the upper Willamette Valley and most of the state's largest cities. If you are traveling to the Oregon Coast, USA. Highway 101 is a more scenic option connecting the northern California coast with Oregon. On the east side of the Cascades, the U.S. Highways 97 and 395 offer good quality roads to access Central and Eastern Oregon.
•From Washington, the most common is via the Interstate 5 and Interstate 205 bridges in the Portland Metropolitan Area. There are several other crossing points on the Columbia River shared states border for regional travelers, including the Awesome Causeway into the US. Highway 101, at the mouth of the Columbia River in Astoria. Further east, if coming from the Spokane or Yakima areas, Interstate 82 crosses into the state near its northeast corner. A very scenic route also runs along the Columbia River on Hwy 12 (north end) and Hwy 730 (south end). This joins Interstate 84 in eastern Oregon.
•Idaho's Interstate 84 is the primary route into the state, crossing the Snake River in Ontario and continuing through the Blue Mountains and the Columbia Gorge into Portland. Additionally, United States Highways 20 and 26, which enter the state near Nyssa, offer routes through the eastern half of Oregon, crossing the Cascades and the Willamette Valley and ending at the Oregon Coast. Several smaller roads cross the border for local access.
Long-distance rail service is available only along the
Portland-Salem-Eugene-Klamath Falls route. Greater Portland has nearly
62 miles of MAX Light Rail, a hybrid of a commuter rail and streetcar,
and a Western Suburbs (WES) commuter rail system. Furthermore, a few
narrow-gauge railways, each with a few kilometers of track, serve as
tourist attractions (e.g. Mount Hood Railroad, Astoria Riverfront
Trolley), but they do not make any serious contribution to the transport
Apart from that, you have to rely on the car.
The etymological origin and meaning of the choronym "Oregon" is
disputed. The Columbia River was called "Ouragan" (French hurricane,
hurricane, storm) by Native Americans because of the high flow speed,
while the Wisconsin River was called "Ouaricon-sink" on maps (from which
the name Wisconsin came). The Shoshone words for "river of the west"
("ogwa pe-on") or "land of plenty" ("oyer-un-gon") could also be a
source. The name Oregon first appeared in 1778 when explorer Jonathan
Carver wrote of "the Oregon or the River of the West," possibly as a
corruption of the words "Ouragan" or "Ouaricon."
Oregon is nicknamed Beaver State. Forestry, which used to dominate, has lost its strong influence. Today, Oregon's economy is primarily shaped by the technology companies in the so-called Silicon Forest.
TAnother theory is that the name comes from Spanish. The popular history of Oregon relates the term Oregon to Aragon, after King Ferdinand of Aragon. Some authors maintain that the toponym comes from orejón, a name given by Spanish explorers to some indigenous people of the territory, with the mutation of the letter j for g. Another version states that it takes its name from the Spanish oregano, a plant that grows wild in the south of the region. In fact, the place name "Oregón", derived from oregano, exists in Spain, for example the "Arroyo del Oregon", in Campo de Montiel (Ciudad Real), a tributary on the left of the Jabalón River and which passes through Santa Cruz de los Hemp and through Alcubillas. A final version proposes a derivation of the French form ouragan, derived from the Spanish word, which in turn has Taíno origin: hurricane.
West of the Cascades, speed limits on freeways are typically 65 miles per hour outside urban areas, while others are limited to 55 miles per hour. As of March 1, 2016, Interstate 84 east of The Dalles and Interstate 82 now have speed limits of 70 miles per hour and many of the rural roads east of the Cascades now have speed limits of up to 65 mph. Oregon has a reputation for strict speed limit enforcement, especially compared to some other Western states. Fines start at $110 (2014) for exceeding the speed limit by 1 to 10 MPH and increase very sharply from there.
Oregon is bordered to the north by Washington, to the east by Idaho,
to the south by Nevada and California, and to the west by the Pacific
Ocean. With almost 255 thousand square kilometers, it is the ninth
largest American state in terms of area in the country.
The Columbia River forms most of the border between Washington and Oregon. The Columbia and its tributary, the Willamette River, form Oregon's largest navigable waterway system. The Snake River forms much of the border between Oregon and Idaho. In addition to the Columbia, Willamette and Snake, other important rivers are the Deschutes and Hohn Day. The rugged terrain of the Cascade Mountains allows for the formation of several large waterfalls, many of which have a free fall of more than 60 meters in height. height. The highest waterfall in Oregon is Multnomah Falls, which has a free fall of 161 meters, and a second drop of 21 meters, totaling 182 meters.
The state also has hundreds of lakes. One of them, Crater Lake, is the deepest lake in the United States, measuring 589 meters deep. As its name suggests, the lake is located over a volcanic crater, at the top of an extinct volcano.
Oregon's coastline is 476 kilometers long. Much of the state's coastline is rugged, made up of cliffs that end abruptly at the ocean. Forests cover about half of Oregon.
Oregon can be divided into six distinct geographic regions:
The Klamath Mountains are located in extreme southwest Oregon. This region is characterized by its dense forests, home to the richest mineral deposits in the state, and its rugged terrain.
The Coast Mountains stretch from the central Oregon coast to southwestern Washington. Most of this region is covered in forests. It is characterized by its rugged terrain and low-altitude mountain range.
The Willamette Plains stretch along the Willamette River valley. It is characterized by its fertile soil and favorable climate, which make this region the most important for the state's agricultural industry. It is also the most populous region in the state, home to about half of the population of all of Oregon.
The Cascade Mountains stretch from British Columbia to northern California and Nevada. It extends immediately east of the Coast Mountains and Klamath Mountains. It is characterized by being a region that has several active volcanoes. The region is characterized by its high altitude, having the highest points in Oregon, including Mount Hood, which, at 3,426 meters high, is the highest point in the state. This mountain range is the main component of the Rocky Mountains.
The Columbia Plateau occupies all of central and eastern Oregon, making it easily the largest of the six geographic regions by area. It is characterized by having altitudes that vary between 150 and 600 meters, surrounded by other regions of higher altitude; and for its relatively uneven terrain, with some notable geographical features, in particular, the deep valleys of the
The Basin and Range Region occupies south-central Oregon. It is characterized by its slightly rugged terrain and high altitude.
Mild, moist winds from the Pacific Ocean give Oregon a relatively
mild climate, much warmer than one would expect for a northern state.
The climate is temperate, with four distinct seasons. The state's
summers are relatively mild, while Oregon's winters are relatively mild,
warmer than any other northern state in the country. Much of western
Oregon has very high rates of average annual precipitation, while the
east has a drier climate.
In winter, average temperatures are higher along the state's coastline with the Pacific Ocean and in low altitude regions. The average temperature is 4°C in the west, 0°C in the central region, and -4°C in the east. The average minimum temperature is 2 °C and the average maximum temperature is 8 °C on the coast. In the central-west region, the averages are -7 °C and 1 °C respectively. Minimum temperatures vary between -32 °C to 11 °C, maximum temperatures vary between -20 °C and 17 °C. The lowest temperature ever recorded in the state was recorded in Ukiah, on February 9, 1933, and in Seneca, on February 10, 1933, where lows of -48 °C were recorded.
In summer, the average temperature varies according to the region, increasing in lower altitude regions and as it moves away from the coast of the Pacific Ocean. The average temperature in summer is 17 °C in the west and central region of the state (which has very rugged terrain), and 23 °C in regions far from the coast, at relatively low altitudes, especially along the east. Minimum temperatures vary between 6 °C and 15 °C, maximum temperatures vary between 17 °C and 36 °C. The average minimum is 12 °C on the coast and in the central region, and 15 °C in the east, while the average maximum is 24 °C on the coast and in the central region, and 29 °C in the east. The highest temperatures ever recorded in the state were recorded in Prineville, on July 29, 1868, and in Pendlenton, on August 10 of the same year, where a maximum of 48 °C was recorded.
Average annual precipitation rates in the state vary greatly from region to region. These averages are very high along the coast, and can exceed 330 centimeters per year (average of 170 centimeters), while in the east, the average is less than 30 centimeters per year, due to the Rocky Mountains, which make the largest part of the humid winds from the Pacific precipitate on the coast. In the Rocky Mountains, the average annual precipitation is 180 centimeters.
Several Native American tribes already lived in the region where the
state of Oregon is currently located thousands of years before the
arrival of the first Europeans in the region. When the first European
explorers landed in present-day Oregon, several Native American tribes
lived in the region, including the Chinook, Clackhama, Kalapuya,
Multormahh and Tillamook in the north and the Mannock, Cayuse, Paiute,
Umatilla and Nez. perce in the south.
The first European explorers to land in present-day Oregon were Spanish explorers, in the 16th century, around 1543. The Englishman Francis Drake possibly landed in Oregon, on his expeditions in search of a northern passage between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. After Drake, the region would remain unexplored for approximately two centuries, until 1778, when British explorer James Cook explored the Oregon coast in detail, naming it Foulweather Bay. In the same year, the British William Broughton would explore the Columbia River at the behest of George Vancouver, having advanced further up the river to the Sandy River, in the current Canadian province of British Columbia.
The first Americans to land in Oregon were members of an American merchant fleet, led by Robert Gray, in 1788, prior to the explorations of Cook, Vancouver, and Broughton. Gray and the members of his fleet were the first Americans to navigate the Columbia River, having named the river its present name in honor of their ship, the Columbia. In 1805, Americans Meriwether Lewis and William Clark became the first people to undertake a transcontinental journey on land, reaching the west coast at the mouth of the Columbia River, now Oregon.
The first attempts to create permanent settlements in the region of present-day Oregon were organized around 1811, when American John Jacob Astor and his company, Pacific Fur Trade, created a trading post in Oregon - the first permanent settlement in Oregon, which is currently the city of Astoria. However, with the War of 1812, the British would conquer Astoria.
In August 1818, a ship (U.S.S. Ontario) sent from Washington landed on the Columbia River, through which the USA took possession of the Oregon territory. The British Empire had granted sovereignty, but the Russian and Spanish Empires also claimed the area.
Astor and his company continued to operate in Astoria and the region, but the company was merged in 1821 by the British Hudson's Bay Company, which controlled the region for about 20 years. The company, led by John McLoughlin, would encourage settlement in the region during this period. McLoughlin would later become an American citizen, and would continue his efforts to bring more settlers to the region. Thanks to his efforts, McLoughlin would become known as the "Father of Oregon." The first American settlement in Oregon would be founded in 1834 by Methodist missionaries. The first large wave of settlers would come in 1843, when 900 Americans settled in Oregon. These same settlers installed Oregon's first government, on a provisional basis.
American expansion westward resulted in increasing numbers of American settlers settling in the region beginning in the 1840s. The United States began to claim all land south of the 54º 40' meridian and west of the Rocky Mountains . The British demanded that the border would be the 49th meridian, and this border would continue southwards, following the course of the Columbia River, west of the Rocky Mountains - in this case, much of the west of the current State of Washington would be under British control . In 1846, the United States and the United Kingdom reached an agreement, which delimited the border between the United States and the British colonies in the region along the 49th parallel. Therefore, the region where Oregon is located definitively came under American control.
In 1848, under pressure from American settlers installed in the northwest of the United States, the American government created the Oregon Territory, and implemented a government in the region. This territory incorporated all of the current states of Oregon, Idaho and Washington. The capital of this territory was originally Oregon City, but was moved to present-day Salem in 1851. Population growth in the region was then very low but gradual. This growth would increase dramatically with the discovery of gold in southwestern Oregon in the early 1850s. Thousands of people began to settle in Oregon. In 1853, Oregon would acquire its current territorial limits, when the Washington Territory was created. Oregon's population would continue to grow rapidly, thanks to the Gold Rush and the Land Grant Act. This last act specified that any male person over the age of 18 who had settled in Oregon before December 1850 would be entitled to 129 acres of land if he cultivated the land for at least four years. If this person had a wife, she would also receive 129 hectares in her name. Between December 1850 and December 1855, requirements changed the minimum age to 21, and the amount of land to be received to 65. Because of the large population growth, Oregon would be elevated to statehood on February 14, 1850. 1859, thus becoming the 33rd American state.
Oregon's first years as a U.S. state were difficult. The state was
shaken by successive wars between Native American tribes and American
inhabitants. These attacks began two years before the creation of the
Oregon Territory, in 1847, when Native Americans killed 14 American
settlers in northern Oregon, near the current city of Walla Walla,
Washington, causing the start of the Cayusa War between American
settlers. and the Native American Cayusa tribe, which would last until
1848, plus the massacre of five Cayusa natives found guilty of the
massacre. The discovery of gold in the early 1850s and subsequent
drastic population growth only increased conflicts between indigenous
people and American settlers. In 1852, a war between Oregon miners and
the Rouge Indian tribe began, and would last until 1856, resulting in
the defeat of the indigenous people, who were confined to an Indian
Oregon would not suffer any attacks from Confederate forces during the American Civil War, although it increasingly suffered from attacks by Native Americans. Tensions between the white population and the indigenous people rose throughout the 1860s, and in November 1872, the Modoc War began, which would last until May 1873, being the last major war between indigenous people and native Americans. Caucasian. The indigenous people would continue to carry out small attacks until the mid-1880s, although they were never a threat again, having been confined to small indigenous reservations in isolated regions of the state.
The American Civil War and the wars against the Indians encouraged Oregon's large population growth between 1860 and 1890, as many American soldiers sent westward against the Confederates and Indians settled in the state. The opening of the first railroads in Oregon, connecting the state with the rest of the country, was also another primary factor. These factors caused the state's population to grow from 52,465 inhabitants in 1860 to 317,704 in 1890. The importance of mining in Oregon would gradually decline, and the timber industry and agriculture would become very strong industries in the state.
In 1902, the Oregon government adopted the initiative and referendum process, political procedures that allowed the state's population to pass laws without the approval of the Oregon Legislature. In 1912, Oregon granted women the right to vote. With the Great Depression of the 1930s, the governments of the United States and Oregon provided funds for the construction of several hydroelectric plants on the Columbia River, such as the Bonneville and Owyhee, which employ thousands of workers, increasing Oregon's arable area by western region of the state, and improved navigation in the region.
Oregon would prosper economically with the United States' entry into World War II, given its strategic location on the American West Coast, close to the American battlefront with Japan. The manufacturing industry became a major source of income, and hundreds Factories were built in the state, starting to manufacture war material, sent to the American battle fronts in the Pacific or as supplies for the Soviets, thus attracting thousands of people from other American states.
After the end of the war, Oregon would install several hydroelectric plants in the state. Two were opened in the 1950s, and five more in the 1970s, on the Columbia River or Snake River, which began to provide low-cost energy, encouraging the growth of the manufacturing industry, which in turn, accelerated the process of urbanization of the state. In the 1960s, for the first time in the state's history, more people lived in urban areas than in rural areas. This urbanization process was also caused by changes in the state's agricultural industry. Prior to the World War II years, most farms were subsistence farms. After the end of the war, many of the farmers turned to the food processing industry, which, combined with urbanization and the modernization of the agricultural industry, decreased the number of farms and people living in rural areas and increased the size average of the state's farms.
In the 1960s, the Oregon government passed laws that forced companies in Oregon's timber industry to reforest areas deforested for logging, increasing these companies' operating costs. The state government also adopted other measures aimed at protecting Oregon's natural features.
In the 1980s, Oregon was hit by a major economic recession, the worst since the Great Depression. This recession was caused primarily by the relocation of several companies connected with the timber industry to other states where operating costs and anti-deforestation laws were lower, as well as the decline in the real estate industry in the state. Oregon's economy would recover in the late 1980s, with the increasing diversification of the state's economy. Tourism, high-tech manufacturing and finance have become the state's main sources of income, while Oregon's timber industry continues to decline.
The current Oregon Constitution was adopted in 1857. Amendments to
the Constitution can be proposed by the Oregon Legislature, and to be
approved, they must be approved by at least 51% of the state Senate and
House of Representatives, in two successive votes, and then by 51% or
more of Oregon's voting population in a referendum. Amendments can also
be proposed and introduced by constitutional conventions, which must
receive the approval of at least 67% of the votes of both chambers of
the Legislature and 51% of the state's voters in a referendum. A third
method is the initiative and referendum process, where the state's
population can approve laws without the consent of the Legislature,
where the amendment to be made is proposed by a given number of
inhabitants - through a petition - and then placed for voting in the
state, in a referendum, where the amendment, to be approved, must
receive the support of at least 51% of voters, in a referendum.
The top official in Oregon's executive branch is the governor. This is elected by the state's voters for terms of up to four years in length. The state's population also elects a number of officials, such as the Secretary of State, the Oregon Labor and Industries Commissioner, and a treasurer, also for terms of up to four years in length. There are no limits on the number of terms a given person may serve in any state government position.
The Oregon Legislature – officially called the Oregon Legislature – is made up of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate has a total of 21 members, while the House of Representatives has a total of 42 members. Oregon is divided into 30 legislative districts. Voters in each district elect a senator and two representative members, who will represent that district in the Senate and the House of Representatives. The term for senators is four years, and for members of the House of Representatives, two years.
The highest court in the Oregon Judiciary is the Oregon Supreme Court, which is made up of seven justices. The state's second main judicial court is the Court of Appeals, made up of ten judges. All Supreme Court and Court of Appeals judges are elected by the state's population for terms of up to 6 years in length. Oregon also has 19 district courts, each employing one or more judges, elected by the population of their respective judicial districts for terms of up to 6 years in length. Each county and all primary cities also have their own judicial courts. All judicial candidates cannot have political affiliation.
About 50% of Oregon government budget revenue is generated by state taxes. The rest comes from funds received from the federal government and loans. the state does not collect income tax from its inhabitants. In 2002, the state government spent 18.029 billion dollars, having generated 14.815 billion dollars. Oregon's government debt is $7.668 billion. The per capita debt is $2,178, the value of state taxes per capita is $1,467, and the value of government spending per capita is $5,122.
Politically, the Republican Party has dominated Oregon since its creation as a territory in 1848 until the mid-1970s. However, the Democratic Party has gained increasing strength in the state since the 1950s, and elections have been held in the state in recent times have been very heated. Oregon is divided into 36 counties. These counties are governed primarily through a council and an administrator. Most Oregon cities with more than 5,000 residents are governed by a city manager and city council.
According to the 2000 national census, Oregon's population in 2000
was 3,421,399 inhabitants, an increase of 19.9% compared to the state's
1990 population of 2,853,733 inhabitants. An estimate carried out in
2005 estimates the state's population at 3,641,056 inhabitants, an
increase of 27.5% in relation to the state's population in 1990, 6.4% in
relation to the state's population in 2000, and 1 .4% in relation to the
estimated population in 2004.
Oregon's natural population growth between 2000 and 2005 was 75,196 inhabitants - 236,557 births minus 161,361 deaths - population growth caused by immigration was 72,263 inhabitants, while interstate migration resulted in a gain of 77,821 inhabitants. Between 2000 and 2005, Oregon's population grew by 219,620 inhabitants, and between 2004 and 2005, by 49,693 inhabitants. 309,700 inhabitants were born outside the country (8.7% of the state's population), of which it is estimated that 90,000 are illegal immigrants (2.5% of the state's population).
Oregon's motto is Alis volat propriis / ella She flies with her own
wings, referring to the days of independence.
The official state tree is the Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii).
The official animal is the beaver (Castor canadensis).
The official flower is the Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium).
The official nut is the hazelnut (Corylus avellana). Oregon produces more than 99% of the United States' hazelnuts, and is the only state with an official nut.
Among the state's universities are the University of Oregon and
Oregon State University.
Many movies have been filmed in Oregon. Among others, The Goonies, Kindergarten Cop, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles III, Short Circuit, Free Willy and The Ring were filmed in Astoria, in Portland Twilight (Twilight, 2008), in Salem Replay and in Eugene, Stand by Me.
The Disney series Gravity Falls is set in a town of the same name, in Oregon.
The video games Life is Strange and Life is Strange: Before the Storm are set in a fictional town in Oregon called Arcadia Bay.
It is the birthplace of the popular screenwriter and cartoonist Matt Groening, who is a native of the city of Portland.
The city of Portland has two sports teams in the major professional
leagues: the Portland Trail Blazers of the National Basketball
Association since 1970 and the Portland Timbers of Major League Soccer
since 2011. In 2015 it won its first title after beating Columbus 2-1.
Crew in the 2015 MLS Cup. The Trail Blazers won an NBA title in 1977.
The two major college sports teams are the Oregon Ducks and the Oregon State Beavers, rivals in the NCAA Division I Pacific-12 Conference and winners of the Rose Bowl.
Portland International Raceway hosted motorsports races for CART, the IMSA GT Championship, the American Le Mans Series and the NASCAR Truck Series.
Portland has hosted the 1946 PGA Championship, 1947 Ryder Cup and US Veterans Open, as well as the PGA Tour's Portland Open Invitational and currently the LPGA Tour's Portland Classic.