Ethiopia

Ethiopia Destinations Travel Guide

Flag of Ethiopia

Language: Amharic

Currency: Birr (ETB)

Calling call: 251

 

Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, formerly known as Abyssinia, is a landlocked country located in the Horn of Africa. It is the second most populous country in Africa after Nigeria. It borders on the north with Eritrea, on the northeast with Djibouti, on the east with Somalia, on the south with Kenya and on the west with Sudan and South Sudan.

Ethiopia is the only case among African countries that has never been colonized, maintaining its independence during the partition of Africa, except for a period of five years (1936-1941), when it was under Italian occupation. It is also the second oldest nation in the world to adopt Christianity as the official religion after Armenia. However, it was the first kingdom to adopt Christianity, being a monarchy of Israelite origin. In addition, Ethiopia was a member of the League of Nations, signed the United Nations Declaration in 1942, founded the UN headquarters in Africa, was one of the 51 original members of that organization and is one of the founding members of the former Organization for African Unity and current African Union, during the government of negus Haile Selassie I. Its capital, as well as its largest and most populated city, is Addis Ababa. With the independence of Eritrea in 1993, Ethiopia lost its exit to the sea.

 

Travel Destinations in Ethiopia

Awash National Park is a protected reserve in Afar Region in central Ethiopia. It is situated 225 km South of Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia.

Axum is a major city in the Northern Ethiopia and a former capital of the Aksum Kingdom. Ethiopians believe that Chapel of the Tablet in Axum is a last resting place of the Ark of the Covenant.

Bale Mountains National Park is a biosphere preserve in Oromia Region in South Central Ethiopia. You can get here by taking a bus from Addis Ababa, Ethiopian capital, to Robe, largest city in the region.

Blue Nile Falls is a natural formation situated on the Blue Nile River in Northern Ethiopia. It flows 19 miles (30 km) down the stream of Bahir Dar and lake Tana.

Gondar is a historic town and a former old imperial capital in a Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

Lalibela is famous for its monolithic Ethiopian Orthodox churches carved from the solid rock in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

Mago National Park is situated in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region of South West Ethiopia. The largest city of Jinka is located about 35 km North East of the park entrance.

Nechi Sar National Park also known as Nechisar National Park is a protected area in Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Regions in the South West Ethiopia.

Omo National Park is one of the last regions in Ethiopia untouched by the activity of civilization. It protects natural reserve around Omo River valley.

Simien Mountain National Park is a nature reserve in Amhara Region in Ethiopia. This national park is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

 

Etymology

The name of the country in Geez - ʾĪtyōṗṗyā ("Ethiopia") - goes back to other Greek. Αἰθιοπία from other Greek. Αἰθίοψ aitchiops, which means "a person with a burnt / tanned (in the sun) face." At the same time, in early Greek sources, the term Aἰθιοπία could be used to refer to distant lands both in the southeast (in Africa and Asia) and in the southwest (in Africa). In particular, India was often referred to by this term (while India, in turn, could be called Arabia and Ethiopia).

Some 4th-century Aksumite inscriptions already use the term "Ethiopia".

In European culture, including in Russian, Ethiopia has long been known mainly as "Abyssinia". This name of Semitic origin comes from the Arabian epigraphic ḤBŚT ("habashat") and means non-Aksumite subjects of the Aksumite king. In the future, this (including in Arabic) was mainly called the Semitic population of Ethiopia (Amhara, Tigre, Tigrinya; see Habesha), who historically occupied leading positions in the country's elite. At present, names related to the word Abyssinia are applied to Ethiopia in Turkish (Turkish Habeşistan) and Arabic (el-Habash) languages. Until recently, a similar name - Habash - was used in Hebrew. In European culture, the term "Abyssinia" began to fall into disuse after 1945.

 

History of Ethiopia

Prehistoric time
The Ethiopian Highlands has been a habitat for people since ancient times, as evidenced by the remains of Australopithecus in the Omo Valley and the sites of the Olduvai culture in southern Ethiopia.

The Ethiopian Highlands are the alleged center of the formation of the Ethiopoid anthropological type, Cushitic languages ​​and one of the most ancient centers of agriculture.

Ancient history
In the VI - V centuries BC immigrants from various regions of South Arabia, including from the Sabean kingdom, settled on the Tigre plateau. They brought with them writing, Semitic language, the technique of stone building using the dry masonry method and other achievements of civilization. Mingling with the local population, they formed an ancient Ethiopian ethnos.

In the V century BC an independent kingdom of Dʿmt was formed on the Tigre plateau, which disintegrated in the 4th century BC.

In the first centuries AD in the north of modern Ethiopia, the early feudal kingdom of Axum arose. Its main port, Adulis, has become a major trading center on the way from Egypt to India, as well as to the shores of East Africa.

During the heyday of the Axumite kingdom, in the 4th-6th centuries, its hegemony extended to Nubia, South Arabia, as well as vast areas of eastern Sudan, the Ethiopian highlands and the northern part of the Horn of Africa.

From the 4th century, Christianity began to spread in the kingdom of Aksum.

The rise in the 7th century of the Arab caliphate led to the decline in the 8th-9th centuries of the kingdom of Axum.

Middle Ages
From the 9th century, Islam began to spread in the northern outskirts of the Ethiopian Highlands. The Muslim principalities that arose there monopolized foreign trade.

In the first half of the 11th century, the kingdom of Axum fell apart. On the territory of present Ethiopia, many principalities arose: Muslim, Christian, Jewish, pagan.

In the XII century, the Christian principalities united under the rule of Flippers. The kingdom established ties with Egypt and Yemen, and the rise of the economy and culture began. In 1268 (or 1270), the Solomon dynasty came to power, claiming to be descended from the biblical king of ancient Israel, Solomon. Its founder was Yakuno Amlak (1268–1285). Emperor Amde Tsyon I (1314–1344) subjugated the Christian, Jewish, pagan and Muslim principalities of the Ethiopian highlands and created a vast power.

Emperor Yishak (1414-1429) imposed a tribute not only to Muslim states, but also to pagan kingdoms in the south of the Ethiopian Highlands. Emperor Zara Yaikob (1434-1468) during his reign waged a struggle to strengthen the central authority, replaced all vassal princes and replaced them with imperial governors of their daughters and sons, and then replaced them with officials. In 1445, Zara Yaikob defeated the Sultanate of Yifat, several other Muslim principalities, establishing hegemony in this part of North-East Africa. Relations with Egypt and Yemen were strengthened, and contacts were established with Western Europe.

Around 1487, the Portuguese expedition, due to the large number of Christians (mostly Orthodox), recognized Ethiopia as the legendary "kingdom of presbyter John", rumors of which circulated throughout Europe since the 12th century.

At the beginning of the 16th century, the eastern neighbor and old enemy, the Adal Sultanate, began a fierce war against the Ethiopian Empire. Imam Ahmed ibn Ibrahim, nicknamed Gran (Left-handed), proclaimed jihad and between 1529-1540 conquered almost the entire territory of the Ethiopian Empire. But after the death of Emperor Lebne-Dyngyl, his son Emperor Galaudeuos (1540–1559) managed to unite the forces of large Ethiopian feudal lords and expel Muslims. The Ethiopians also helped the Portuguese. Ahmed Gran was killed in battle, and the Sultanate Adal ceased to exist. In 1557, the Turks captured Massawa and other ports on the Red Sea. In the same period, an offensive against the weakened Ethiopia of the Cushite Oromo tribes begins.

In the same period, Jesuits appeared in Ethiopia. Their penetration, together with the desire of the emperors to create an absolute monarchy on the European model, led to several religious wars, especially when the emperor Susnyos (1607-1632) adopted Catholicism. These wars ended with the reign of Emperor Fasiledes (1632–1667). He expelled the Jesuits from Ethiopia and ended relations with the Portuguese.

Emperor Iyasu I the Great (1682-1706) again subjugated the rebel vassal princes, tried to reform the government, and streamlined the system of customs and duties for the development of trade.

However, from the end of the 18th century, feudal fragmentation intensified in Ethiopia. Each large (and even medium) feudal lord had his own army. The feudal lords took taxes from peasants who lived in a communal way. Craftsmen were considered a lower caste, and the merchants (mainly Arabs, Turks, Armenians) were associated with higher feudal strata of clientele relations. The middle strata included military settlers, parish clergy, and wealthy citizens. The nobility had servant slaves, and slavery was also widespread in the nomadic communities.

 

XIX century
In the middle of the 19th century, the small feudal lord Kassa Hailu from Quara began the struggle for the unification of Ethiopia. Relying on small-scale feudal lords, he defeated the race Ali in 1853, then defeated the ruler of the Tigre region, race Uybe, after stubborn battles. In 1855, Cassa proclaimed himself emperor under the name Theodros II.

Theodros II waged a decisive struggle against feudal separatism. A regular army was created, the tax system was reorganized, the slave trade was banned, part of the land was taken from the church, the remaining possessions were taxed. The number of internal customs was reduced, the construction of strategic military roads began, and European experts were invited to Ethiopia.

However, the introduction of taxes on the clergy led to a conflict with the church, which raised the feudal lords to fight against the emperor. By 1867, the power of Theodros II extended only to a small part of the country. In the same year, a conflict arose with Great Britain, provoked by the arrest in Ethiopia of several subjects of the British crown. In October 1867, a corps of British troops numbering more than 30 thousand people landed in Ethiopia, including support personnel from the Indians. The army of Emperor Theodros II numbered by this time no more than 15 thousand people.

The only battle between the Ethiopians and the British in an open field took place on April 10, 1868: 2 thousand British defeated 5 thousand Ethiopians due to superior discipline and armament. After that, Theodros II tried to make peace, freeing the arrested and sending a lot of cattle as a gift to the British. However, the British rejected the world and began the assault on Makdela fortress, where the emperor was. Not wanting to surrender, Theodros II committed suicide. The British took Makdela, destroyed all Ethiopian artillery, took the imperial crown as a trophy, and in June 1868 left the territory of Ethiopia.

After the death of Theodros II, the war for the throne began. Thekle Guyorgis II (1868–1871) was defeated by Johannes IV (1872–1889). In 1875, the troops of Egypt invaded Ethiopia. In November 1875, the Ethiopians managed to defeat the main group of Egyptian forces at the Battle of Gundet. However, in December 1875, Egypt landed a new expeditionary force in Massawa. In March 1876, the Ethiopians managed to defeat him at the Battle of Gur. Peace was concluded between Ethiopia and Egypt in June 1884, and Ethiopia gained the right to use the port of Massawa.

In 1885, Emperor Johannes IV launched a war against the Mahdist Sudan. In 1885-1886, the Ethiopian troops defeated the Sudanese, but at this time the occupation of the northern regions of Ethiopia by Italy began. The fighting between the Ethiopians and Italians went with varying success.

In 1888, Emperor Johannes IV offered peace to Sudan. However, Caliph Abdullah ibn Muhammad al-Taish put forward an unacceptable condition - the adoption of Islam by Johannis. At the beginning of 1889, Johannes IV personally led the 150,000th army to Sudan and in March 1889 was mortally wounded in a battle on the border.

The new emperor Menelik II (1889-1913) suppressed separatism in Gojama and the Tigris, recreated a single Ethiopian state. In 1889, the Uchchali Treaty was concluded between Italy and Ethiopia, according to which Menelik recognized the transition to the Italians coastal areas.

In 1890, Italy consolidated all its possessions on the Red Sea into a colony of Eritrea, announcing that Ethiopia recognized the protectorate of Italy over itself under the 1889 treaty. This forced Ethiopia to resume hostilities against Italy in 1894, especially since Ethiopia had a reliable ally in the struggle for independence in the person of Russia after the mission of V.F. Mashkov.

At the end of 1894, Italian troops occupied the cities of Addi-Acne, Addi-Grat and Adua. By October 1895, Italians occupied the entire Tigre region. Emperor Menelik sent an army of 112,000 against the Italians, formed from units of rulers of Ethiopian provinces. On December 7, 1895, at the battle of Amba-Alagi, Ethiopian troops under the command of the race Mekonnyn Walde-Michael (father of the future emperor Haile Selassie) inflicted a major defeat on the Italian troops.

Emperor Menelik II proposed the peace of Italy. Ethiopia has taken additional measures: the diplomatic demarche of the demonstrative non-recognition of the Uchchalsky treaty, sending a diplomatic mission led by cousin Menelik II race Damtou to Russia. The Italians refused to make peace, and the war resumed. On March 1, 1896, the battle of Adua took place, in which the Italians were completely defeated.

 

In 1893-1899, Menelik II established the modern borders of Ethiopia, having conquered a number of areas south and southwest of Addis Ababa - Walamo, Sidamo, Kafa / Kaffa, Gimir and others. Thus, the Ethiopian armed forces practically stopped the advancement of the British colonial empire in Africa. Ethiopia withstood the pressure of Great Britain, ending with the choice of another object for the British attack in southern Africa and the beginning of the second Boer War. It should be noted the enormous positive significance of the help of Russian military advisers and volunteers in the period 1893-1913.

Menelik II issued a decree restricting and abolishing slavery, allowing only prisoners of war to be slaves for a period of not more than 7 years. Under Menelik II, roads were built, a telegraph and a telephone appeared, and trade developed. In his reign in Ethiopia, the first hospital opened (a Russian military hospital to help the wounded under Adua), the first newspaper appeared. In 1897, Menelik II established diplomatic relations with Russia.

First half of the 20th century
In 1913, Menelik II died. His 17-year-old grandson Lij Iyasu under the name Iyasu V. became the emperor. Ethiopia did not formally participate in the First World War, but Iyasu V pursued a course towards rapprochement with Germany, hoping to rely on it in the fight against the British, French and Italians.

In September 1916, Iyasu V was overthrown. The 40-year-old daughter of Menelik II Zaudita (the aunt of the ousted emperor) was declared empress, and the regent, that is, the de facto ruler, was the 24-year-old Tefari Makonnyn. Prior to this, he, one of the youngest sons of the race of Makonnen, from the age of 16 was the governor of the Sidamo region, then the Harare region. After the 1916 coup, Tefari Makonnyn received the title of races (roughly corresponds to the prince), and is now revered by fans as the God of Rastafari.

After the death in November 1930 of the Empress Zaouditu, the Race of Tefari was crowned as Emperor Haile Selassie (1930-1975).

In 1931, he promulgated the first Ethiopian constitution. The absolute power of the emperor was established at the deliberative parliament with the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. It was planned to completely abolish slavery within 15-20 years.

In 1934-1935, armed clashes occurred on the border with Italian possessions. In October 1935, troops of fascist Italy invaded Ethiopia. For several months, the Ethiopian troops showed fierce resistance, sometimes achieving individual successes. However, on March 31, 1936, the main forces of the Ethiopian army were defeated at Mai Chow. On May 5, 1936, Italian troops under the command of Marshal Badoglio entered the capital of Addis Ababa. King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III was proclaimed emperor of Ethiopia.

The Italian occupation of the country continued until the spring of 1941, when the British army, supported by auxiliary forces recruited from the African colonies, liberated Ethiopia and occupied other Italian possessions in the Horn of Africa.

Second half of the 20th century
After World War II, Emperor Haile Selassie I continued autocratic rule. In 1951, under pressure from the international community, slavery was abolished. Many privileges of the traditional nobility were preserved, the press was under the strict control of the monarch, and political parties were banned.

In 1953, Ethiopia entered into a treaty of friendship and economic cooperation with the United States. Over the next 20 years, the United States provided Ethiopia with nearly half a billion dollars in financial subsidies, loans, and $140 million worth of free arms.

By the early 1970s, the regime had become completely odious: the emperor was criticized from all sides, both in the political space and among the people. The catalyst for further events was the mass death of people from starvation in 1972-1974.

In 1974, measures to improve the economy resulted in a sharp increase in prices and led to mass demonstrations of protest. The situation was exploited by a group of officers leaning towards Marxism, which arose in the summer of that year, under the name "Derg". The process of dismantling the monarchy became known as the "creeping coup". By mid-autumn, the Derg had subjugated all administrative resources and proclaimed a course towards building socialism. The deposed emperor Haile Selassie I died on August 27, 1975, the cause of his death was officially declared unhealthy. In 1976-1977, the Derg strengthened its position through the red terror, both against the royalists and separatists, and against the left. Almost immediately, a civil war began in Ethiopia, in which the regime was opposed by both the right (the Ethiopian Democratic Union, the leader of Mangash Seyoum) and the left (the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Party, the leaders of Berhanemeskel Reda, Tesfaye Debessaye, Kiflu Tadesse), as well as various organizations, populist and separatist movements (People's Liberation Front Tigray, leaders Abay Tsehaye, Seyoum Mesfin, Meles Zenawi, Popular Front for the Liberation of Eritrea, leader Isaias Afewerki and others).

The leader of the Derg at this stage was Mengistu Haile Mariam. In 1975-1991, the USSR and some countries of Eastern Europe provided comprehensive assistance to the Mengistu regime.

In the southeast of the country, in the Ogaden, the Somali army intensively supported the separatist movement of ethnic Somalis in an attempt to seize and annex the Ogaden. In the Ogaden War of 1977-1978, Ethiopia was assisted against Somalia by Cuba, the USSR and South Yemen.

The policy of building socialism led Ethiopia to complete ruin. The attempted collectivization of agriculture led to further degradation of the regime. In 1984, a million people died of starvation in the country. In Eritrea, the war for independence began in 1961.

In the context of the crisis in the USSR, the Mengistu government was overthrown in May 1991. The main role in the rebel alliance was played by Eritrean groups.

A group of insurgent leaders came to power in the country, first allegedly Marxists of the extreme left, then changing their ideological orientation to a more liberal one. From then until his death in 2012, Meles Zenawi, a representative of this group, led the country, first as president, then, after the introduction of a parliamentary republic, as prime minister.

In the field of foreign policy, the Zenawi government allowed Eritrea to secede in 1993, but then there was a period of cooling with the former allies who came to power in the new state. A negative peak in relations between neighbors was reached in 1998-2000, when the Ethiopian-Eritrean conflict broke out in the border zone, ending with a slight margin in favor of Ethiopia. The question of the border between the countries still remains unresolved. In 1997, 2000 and 2006, Ethiopia also took an active part in the fate of Somalia. In the latter case, the Ethiopian army defeated the formations of local Islamists and installed in Mogadishu a transitional government loyal to Ethiopia, headed by Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed.

XXI Century
The parliamentary elections of 2005 stand out among the domestic political events of recent history, when the opposition accused the authorities of rigging the results and brought tens of thousands of their supporters to the streets. As a result of the clashes, several dozen people died, thousands were arrested. Since 2008, the armed struggle against the EPRDF government has been led by the Ginbot 7 organization, led by former ENRP activists Berhanu Nega and Andargachyu Tsij, who participated in the civil war.

On September 16, 2018, Ethiopia signed a peace treaty with Eritrea at a summit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

On November 4, 2020, an armed conflict broke out in Tigray between the federal government and the authorities of the Tigray autonomy.

 

Political system

Ethiopia is a federal republic consisting of 10 killils (regions or states) formed according to ethnic division and 2 self-governing cities (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa).

The head of state is the president, elected for a 6-year term (with the right to re-term) by the parliament (house of people's representatives).

The head of government is appointed from the party that won the parliamentary elections.

The legislative branch is a bicameral parliament: the House of Federation (108 members elected by the state assemblies for a 5-year term), which decides constitutional and federal-regional issues, and the House of People's Representatives (547 members, elected by the population for a 5-year term).

Political parties represented in parliament (based on the results of the elections on May 24, 2015):

"Revolutionary Democratic Front of the Ethiopian Peoples" - 500 seats;
Democratic Party of the Peoples of Ethiopian Somalia - 24 seats;
"Democratic Front for the Unity of the Peoples of Benishangul-Gumuz" - 9 seats;
Afar National Democratic Party - 8 seats;
"Democratic Movement of the Peoples of Gambela" - 3 places;
"Democratic Organization of the Argobba People" - 1st place;
"Harare National League" - 1st place;

 

Geography

Relief

Ethiopia is the highest mountainous country on the African continent. A significant part of its territory is occupied by the Ethiopian Highlands, which stretches from north to south of Ethiopia. The highest part of the highlands is the northern one. Here are the highest points of the country - Ras Dashen (4620 m) and Talo (4413 m). In the east, the highlands abruptly break into the Afar depression, one of the lowest points in Africa.

The western part of the Ethiopian highlands has a more gentle relief and descends to the Sudanese border in small steps. Plains also occupy a significant part of the territory of Ethiopia. The largest is located in the east of the country. In some places it turns into a plateau with a height of more than 1000 m. This is one of the driest parts of Ethiopia. Small plains, sandwiched between mountain ranges, are located in the north and west of the country.

 

Climate

The entire territory of Ethiopia is located in the equatorial and subequatorial zones. The fact that most of the country is located in the Ethiopian highlands explains the milder and wetter climate in this region. The temperature ranges from +25°C to +30°C all year round, with sufficient rainfall.

The complete opposite is the eastern regions of Ethiopia: there is a hot and dry desert climate. In general, Ethiopia is not characterized by temperature fluctuations during the year, but fluctuations in daily temperatures are typical - the difference can be about 15 ° C.

Water resources
Most of the rivers in western Ethiopia belong to the Nile basin. The largest among them is Abbai, or the Blue Nile. The largest lake in Ethiopia, Tana, is also located here.

In the east, the rivers are less full-flowing, which is associated with a more arid climate. The largest river is the Jubba. Ethiopia is characterized by the presence of small lakes in the Great Rift Zone.

 

Flora and fauna

Nikolai Vavilov, who made a trip to Abyssinia and Eritrea in December 1926-April 1927, based on the study of many collected samples of cultivated species of local flora, singled out Ethiopia as a separate Abyssinian center of origin of cultivated plants. In his book Five Continents, Vavilov points out that teff, noug, and enseta originate from this center. He also noted the exceptional originality of certain types of Ethiopian wheat, for example, wheat with purple grains, hard awnless wheat, the originality of Abyssinian barley, hardy and resistant to many diseases typical of European species.

In the XVIII century, about half of the country's territory was occupied by forests. In the early 1900s, almost 45% of the country's area was covered with forests. Demand to expand farmland in an effort to feed the country's growing population has resulted in more than 90% of the vast rainforest being decimated. Now there are no large areas with virgin forests on the territory of the country; tens of thousands of small groves remained, scattered mainly in the northern part of the country. Savannas are common in the south and southeast of the country. On the Ethiopian highlands, depending on the altitudinal zone, savannahs, evergreen forest with coffee trees, coniferous forests, mountain savannahs and steppes are replaced.

With the decrease in the area of ​​​​forests, animal populations also decreased, although today elephants, cheetahs or lions can still be found in Ethiopia. Populations of foxes, crocodiles, giraffes, hippos and monkeys have also survived.

In the northern regions of Ethiopia, rare animals live - the nyala antelope and the Ethiopian goat. Of the birds, there are ostrich, sunbirds, hornbills, weavers.

 

Population

Population - 120,811,390 (2022 est., 12th in the world)

Annual increase - 2.46% (fertility - 3.99 births per woman).

The average life expectancy is 68.25, for men - 66.12 years, for women - 70.44 years.

HIV infection - 1% (690,000 infected, 2018 estimate).

The urban population is 22.7%.

Literacy - 51.8, men - 57.2%, women - 44.4% (2017 estimate).

Ethnic composition (2022 estimate):
Oromo - 35.8%;
amhara - 24.1%;
Somalia - 7.2%;
tigers - 5.7%;
sidamo — 4.1%;
gurage - 2.6%;
wolaita - 2.3%;
afar - 2.2%;
silte - 1.3%;
kefficho - 1.2%;
others (ometo, dasanech, etc.) - 13.5%

 

Religion

Ethiopia is the only traditionally Christian African country. One of its main religions is Eastern Christianity (the Ethiopian Church), and the positions of Islam are also strong in all peripheral regions. The Ethiopian Church adheres to Miaphysitism. Lutheranism has been actively spreading among the Oromo people in recent decades, as a result of which the Ethiopian Mekane Yesus Church is the fastest growing Lutheran denomination in the world. Other Protestant groups include Presbyterians, Baptists, Adventists, and believers belonging to the Christian Pentecostal Church, the Worldwide Fellowship of the Assemblies of God.

According to the 1994 census:
Total Christians - 60.8%:
Old Eastern Orthodox Churches: Ethiopian Orthodox Church - 50.6%;
Protestant Christians - 10.2%;
Muslims - 32.8%;
aboriginal cults - 4.6%;
others - 1.8%.

 

Administrative-territorial structure

Administratively, as of 2021, Ethiopia is divided into 11 regions (states), organized along ethnic lines, and two federal cities (highlighted in italics):
Amhara;
Afar;
Benishangul-Gumuz;
Gambela;
The peoples of southwestern Ethiopia;
Nations, nationalities and peoples of the South;
Oromiya;
Sidama;
Somalia;
Tigray;
Harari;
Addis Ababa;
Hole-Dawa;

 

Economy

The basis of the Ethiopian economy is low-profit consumer agriculture. Thanks to the easing of customs regimes, the level of investment in the country's economy has increased. The main investors are: China, India and Saudi Arabia.

GDP per capita (according to the IMF) in 2014 - $ 1,600 (173rd place in the world). Below the poverty level - about 40% of the population.

Agriculture is the main branch of the Ethiopian economy, it employs 85% of the population, 44% of GDP and 62% of the country's exports. Ethiopia is one of the largest exporters of African coffee (exports to 53 countries), coffee accounts for more than 60% of export earnings. The area of ​​coffee plantations in Ethiopia exceeds 525 thousand hectares. Ethiopia exported about 180,000 tons of coffee in 2014/15. In 2021, a record was set for the export of coffee in a month, 29 thousand tons of coffee were sold for $ 114 million.

In Ethiopia, cereals, coffee, oilseeds, cotton, sugar cane, and potatoes are grown. Cattle, sheep, goats are bred.

Industry
Industry provides 13% of GDP (5% of employees) - processing of agricultural products, production of beverages, textiles, leather goods.

International trade
Export - $3.23 billion in 2017 - coffee (up to 27% of the total value), oilseeds (17% of the total value), vegetables, khat, gold (up to 13% of the value), flowers, livestock and meat products.

Main buyers in 2017: Sudan - 23.3%, Switzerland - 10.2%, China - 8.1%, Somalia - 6.6%, Netherlands - 6.2%, USA - 4.7%, Germany - 4.7%, Saudi Arabia - 4.6%, UK - 4.6%.

Imports - $15.59 billion in 2017 - cars, vehicles, including aircraft (up to 24% of the total value), metal and metal products (up to 14% of the total value), electrical goods, petroleum products, chemicals and fertilizers.

Main suppliers in 2017: China - 24.1%, Saudi Arabia - 10.1%, India - 6.4%, Kuwait - 5.3%, France - 5.2%.

 

Communications

Connection
In 1930, the first radio station was built in the country. In 1933, Ethiopia joined the International Telecommunication Union. In 1935, with the help of the Italian company Ansaldo, the construction of a modern radio station was completed in Akaki. In 1960, a communication station appeared in Aseba (now in Eritrea) for telegraph and telephone communication with ships in the roadstead. By 1988, the country had telephone communication with 16 states, direct telegraph communication with 14 states and telex with 9 states, there were more than 370 telephone and telegraph stations with 4 thousand people serving them, while the telephone network of the city of Addis Ababa alone totaled 35 thousand subscribers.

Number of fixed telephones: 909 thousand (in 2008).
Cell phones: 3.17 million (in 2008)
Radio receivers: 11.75 million (in 1997)
Televisions: 320,000 (in 1997)
Internet users: 360 thousand (in 2008).

Тransport network
Roads: 36,469 km (of which 6,980 km paved, 2004).
Railways: 681 km (narrow gauge, links Addis Ababa with Djibouti).
Main article: Rail transport in Ethiopia
Number of airfields: 63 (of which 17 are paved) (in 2009).

 

Мass media

The state television and radio company EBC (Ethiopian Broadcast Corporation - "Ethiopian Broadcasting Corporation") includes the ETV channel and radio stations National Radio and regional radio stations.

The federal government publishes the Addis Zemen (New Era) newspaper.

 

Armed forces

Ethiopia maintains one of the largest and most capable military forces in the region. It makes a significant contribution to regional peacekeeping. The September 2018 peace agreement with Eritrea could influence future military deployments. Military clashes in late 2020 between the central authorities and forces in Tigray province highlighted internal political problems, as well as the persistence of illegal armed groups (IAFs). Countering al-Shabaab remains an ongoing military obligation, and Addis Ababa continues to provide military support to the Somali federal government. The armed forces are tested to regional standards, after a history of combat. Training and experience are also gained through the deployment of an international peacekeeping force. Ethiopia has demonstrated the ability to make a significant contribution to UN operations in Darfur and South Sudan, as well as to the AMISOM operation in Somalia. The equipment of the Ethiopian armed forces consists mainly of Soviet-era weapons and military equipment (WME), on top of this weapons and military equipment were purchased in Hungary, Ukraine and the United States, and modern air defense systems were purchased in Russia. Ethiopia has a small local defense industrial base, mostly focused on small arms, with some licensed production of light armored vehicles. Maintenance capabilities are adequate, but support for advanced platforms is limited.

 

Culture

Ethiopian cuisine
Ethiopian cuisine is in many ways similar to the cuisine of neighboring countries - Somalia and Eritrea. The main feature of Ethiopian cuisine is the absence of cutlery and plates: they are replaced by figs, a traditional teff flatbread. Another striking feature of Ethiopian cuisine is the presence of a large amount of spices.

Coffee is the pride of Ethiopia. The word "coffee" comes from the name of the province of Kaffe, where coffee trees mainly grew. The country has developed entire rituals, similar to Chinese tea ceremonies, from roasting coffee beans to drinking coffee, which take place once a day: they start around 12 o'clock and end at one in the afternoon.

In Ethiopia, only the Arabica variety is produced - in particular, varieties such as Jimma and Harar.

There are many vegetarian dishes in Ethiopian cuisine - many Christians and Muslims strictly observe religious fasts. In general, Ethiopian cuisine is distinguished by a wide variety of flavors and aromas, created by the unique combination of spices and vegetables.

Education
For a long time, Ethiopian education was dominated by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, until a law on secular education was passed at the beginning of the 20th century. However, for a long time a good education was only available to the elite of society and the residents of the Amhara people, who for a long time occupied a privileged position. Recently, the government has been trying to introduce education to the general population, including all ethnic groups in Ethiopia in the educational process. In some parts of the country, there is oppression of indigenous languages, which the government is actively fighting. Education in Ethiopia consists of six years of education: 4 years in elementary school (lower secondary school), and 2 years in high school.

Literature
Afawork Gebre Jesus is one of the most famous Ethiopian authors.

Sport
On the international sports scene, Ethiopia is best known for its famous middle and long distance runners. At the Olympic Games, prize-winning places and medals in Ethiopia were brought exclusively by athletes, in total they have more than 20 gold medals. Among the famous Ethiopian runners who won the world championships and the Olympic Games, one can name such athletes as Abebe Bikila, Mirus Ifter, Haile Gebreselassie, Kenenisa Bekele, Tirunesh Dibaba, Meseret Defar, Derartu Tulu.

In 2006, Ethiopia competed for the first time at the Winter Olympics in Turin.

In football in the 1960s, the national team was a strong team and won the African Cup. Now Ethiopia is no longer so strong in football. However, among the football players from Ethiopia, Theodore Gebre Selassie is known, who has Czech citizenship and plays for its national team. He is also a Werder Bremen player.

Holidays
January 6 or 7 Christmas Gänna/Ledät (ገናልደት)
January 19 Epiphany Temqät (ጥምቀት)
March 2 Victory at Adua
April or May Easter Fasika (ፋሲካ)
May 1 Labor Day
5 May Freedom Day Omédla del (ኦሜድላ ድል)
September 11 New Year Enqutatash (እንቁጣጣሽ
27 or 28 September Meskel Cross Day Mäsqäl (መስቀል)