Language: English

Currency: US dollar (USD)- currently

Calling Code: +263


Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe (in English: Republic of Zimbabwe, and east of the Shona Dzimba dza mabwe, "stone house"), is a landlocked state located in the south of the African continent, between the Zambezi River, the Victoria Falls and the Limpopo River. It lacks oceanic coasts and limits to the west with Botswana, to the north with Zambia, to the south with South Africa and to the east with Mozambique. Their territories correspond to the ancient Rhodesia of the South. The official languages are English and Shona.

Its Human Development Index (HDI) was the lowest in the world in 2010 at a level of 0.140.6 However, social reforms have been made in recent years that have allowed significant growth in its HDI and according to the 2016 report now has a level of 0.516.


Travel Destinations in Zimbabwe

Chimanimani National Park is a protected biosphere in a Manicaland province in Zimbabwe. It is one of most popular destinations for hiking pristine African wilderness.

Great Zimbabwe is a historic archaeological site located in Zimbabwe. It was constructed by the Bantu civilization to protect the political elites of their society.

Hwange National Park is a protected area in Matabeleland North Province famous for its numerous herds of elephants that roam these lands.

Mana Pools National Park protect an extensive area in the lower Zambezi River that floods large expanses of African savanna.

Victoria Falls is an impressive waterfall situated on the border between Zimbabwe and Zambia. It is one of the most famous natural landmarks on the African continent.



During the colonial era, the country was called Southern Rhodesia after the British politician Cecil Rhodes. After independence was declared in 1980, the country became known as Zimbabwe. According to existing expert estimates, the toponym comes from the name of the ruins of ancient stone structures from the time of the Monomotapa empire - in the modern language of Shona Zimbabwe (dzimba dzemabwe) means "stone houses" or "ruler's dwelling".


History of Zimbabwe

Initially, the territory of Zimbabwe was inhabited by peoples who spoke Khoisan languages, similar in culture to their modern speakers.

Around the 9th century AD. There is evidence of the settlement of present Zimbabwe by a sufficiently developed culture, which is considered to be owned by the people of Gokomer, the ancestors of the present Shona. They founded the Monomotap Empire, the capital of which was a city whose ruins are now known as Greater Zimbabwe.

By the middle of the 15th century, when the Portuguese appeared on the Indian Ocean, this state covered almost the entire territory of Zimbabwe and part of Mozambique. After clashes with the Portuguese, the empire collapsed, although its fragments in the form of states of the Karanga tribe remained until the beginning of the 20th century. By the 17th century, part of the Shaun tribes again united into the Rosvy empire, which succeeded in ousting the Portuguese from the Zimbabwean plateau.

The Rosvy Empire ceased to exist in the mid-19th century when, as a result of the expansion of the Zulus under the leadership of Chaki, the Ndebele tribes under the rule of King Mzilikazi moved to the territory of present southwestern Zimbabwe. At the same time, gold deposits were discovered in Zimbabwe, and these lands fell into the zone of interest of the British Empire.

In 1888, Cecil Rhodes made an agreement with Lobengula, the heir to Mzilikazi, who allowed the British to intervene in the economy of Matabeleland (southwestern Zimbabwe, inhabited by the Ndebele people). In 1899, the efforts of the same Rhodes, the British South African company received the right to develop vast territories, including the current Zimbabwe and Zambia, since then known as Southern and Northern Rhodesia, respectively. In 1895, the company entered Mashonaland (center and north of Zimbabwe), which marked the beginning of the colonization of these lands.

In 1896-1897, the black population (primarily Shawn and Ndebele) rebelled against British rule, but this rebellion, known as (First) Chimurenga, collapsed completely, primarily due to a catastrophic technological gap. Already from the 20th century, the settlement of Southern Rhodesia with white settlers began.

In 1922, the British South African company ceased to operate Southern Rhodesia. As a result of a referendum held mainly among white settlers, she did not enter the Union of South Africa, but became a self-governing colony within the British Empire.

After the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the destruction of the colonial system, many African countries that gained independence chose the socialist path of development, while in South Africa (South Africa, Angola, Mozambique) power passed exclusively to the white minority. To avoid both of these extremes, the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was organized in 1953, including Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland (modern Malawi), with the status of a federal territory (no longer a colony, but not yet dominion). However, ten years later, in 1963, the Federation collapsed when independence gained Zambia and Malawi.

The white government of Southern Rhodesia also demanded independence, but London refused to grant it before power in the country was completely given to the black majority (NIBMAR policy: No Independence Before Majority African Rule). In response, on November 11, 1965, the Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia, Ian Smith, declared independence that was not recognized by Britain. In 1970, Smith proclaimed Rhodesia a republic, which also did not receive international recognition.

The government of the Rhodesian Front party led by Smith pursued a policy of segregation, which is often compared to apartheid, although, strictly speaking, this is not entirely true. So, instead of a “racial” qualification in Southern Rhodesia, a property qualification was often used, the presence of black deputies was preserved in the parliament, there were mixed racial units in the army, and there was no territorial segregation of the South African type in Rhodesia. However, in reality, all power belonged to the white minority, the country had a regime of racial discrimination. Many public institutions served only whites, most of the fertile land was in the hands of white farmers.

The armed guerrilla war against the Rhodesian government was waged by the African National Liberation Army of Zimbabwe (ZANLA) led by Robert Mugabe and the People's Revolutionary Army of Zimbabwe (ZIPRA) led by Joshua Nkomo, leader of the African People's Union of Zimbabwe (ZAPU), which had bases in neighboring South Rhodesian countries (for example, Botswana and Zambia) and enjoyed the support of the USSR. After the socialists from FRELIMO came to power in Mozambique in 1975, this country became the main base for ZANLA attacks. The armed struggle against the power of the white minority, which has been waged since 1964, is called the Second Chimurenga.


Smith, in order to avoid a full-scale civil war, began negotiations with moderate black leaders such as Abel Muzoreva from the United African National Congress or Ndabaningi Sitole from ZANU-Ndong in 1978. The country was called Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, and as a result of the parliamentary elections, a black majority was formed for the first time, although the judiciary or, for example, the army, were still mostly white. Abel Muzoreva became the prime minister, supported by both Smith and the South African government, but he did not receive the full confidence of voters in Zimbabwe.

In accordance with the decisions of the Lancasterhouse Conference on December 12, 1979, power in Rhodesia-Zimbabwe was temporarily transferred to the British governor, Lord Arthur Christopher John Soames, partisan detachments were to cease armed operations and were placed in special isolated camps. In the 1980 general election, a radical victory was won by the radical wing of ZANU - the African National Union of Zimbabwe under the leadership of Robert Mugabe.

In 1982, Nkomo and his members of the same party were removed from the government (due to a discovered party stockpile of weapons), which caused discontent among his fellow Ndebele, resulting in riots. The government sent the Fifth Brigade, consisting mainly of Shawn, to Matabeleland to combat them, during which many crimes were committed: up to 20,000 people died. Only in 1987, negotiations between ZANU and ZAPU resumed, and in 1988 they united in a party called ZANU-PF.

In 1995, the radical opponents of President Mugabe focused on Ndabaningi Sitole formed the rebel organization Chimwenje in neighboring Mozambique. This group set the goal of an armed overthrow of Mugabe. The Chimwenje was supported by the Mozambique opposition party, RENAMO. However, in 1996 Chimwenje was defeated by the Zimbabwean and Mozambique security forces. Its leaders, as well as Sitole, were brought to trial and received convictions.

After the drought of 1992 and the ensuing famine, a state of emergency was imposed; The recovery program developed by the IMF only led to even greater dissatisfaction. The flow of refugees from the country intensified, especially against the background of the ongoing persecution of the Ndebele and the rise to power in South Africa by the ANC. As a result, the government decided to speed up land reform.

Up to 70% of the land suitable for cultivation in the country was in the hands of the white minority, who acquired it mainly after the declaration of independence. Britain provided millions of pounds for the voluntary purchase of these lands by the government of Zimbabwe, but their transfer to blacks was very slow. As a result, in 1999, the forcible eviction of white farmers began with the transfer of their lands to blacks (mainly political supporters of Mugabe), which caused sharp criticism from the international community, and primarily in the UK, which imposed economic sanctions against Zimbabwe.

As a result of migration, the number of the white population grew before the independence of the country: in 1927, there were 38.2 thousand whites for 922 thousand blacks, in 1939 the number of whites increased to 60 thousand people, in 1946 by 1640 thousand blacks accounted for 80.5 thousand white population. In 1952, the number of whites reached 135 thousand, in 1963 - 223 thousand. At present, due to the mass exodus from the country, approximately 100 thousand white residents remain here - less than 1% of the country's population.

In 2002, the Commonwealth suspended Zimbabwe's membership due to human rights violations and electoral fraud; In 2003, Mugabe himself announced Zimbabwe's withdrawal from the Commonwealth.

After the 2005 elections, during which the divided opposition was unable to oppose ZANU-PF, Mugabe announced the launch of Operation Murambatsvina (Shona "Kill the Trash"), allegedly aimed at clearing the country of slums. Critics point out that it mainly affects the poorest sections of the population, especially the Ndebele.

The redistribution of land led to a sharp decline in agricultural productivity and a catastrophic increase in prices and unemployment (up to 80% of the adult population).

On the night of November 15, 2017, the Zimbabwean armed forces took control of Robert Mugabe and his family, and, according to a Reuters source in Harare, the military arrested several members of the Robert Mugabe government, including Finance Minister Ignatius Tshombo.

On November 19, 2017, the country's ruling party, the Zimbabwe African National Union - Patriotic Front, removed Robert Mugabe from the post of first secretary, and, under the threat of impeachment, called on him to voluntarily resign by Monday afternoon.

On November 21, 2017, deputies from both houses of the Zimbabwean parliament, the House of Assembly and the Senate, met to consider the impeachment of President Mugabe. Parliament received a personal letter from Mugabe, in which he writes that he is leaving the presidency for the "welfare of the people of Zimbabwe and the need for a peaceful transfer of power."


Geographic data

Most of the territory of Zimbabwe is located at an altitude of 1000-1500 m within the vast Precambrian basement plateaus of Mashona and Matabele, which step down to the high stratified sandy plains of the middle course of the Zambezi River (in the north) and the interfluve of Limpopo and Sabi (in the south). The country's highest point is Mount Inyangani (2592 m) in the Inyanga Mountains in eastern Zimbabwe.

Of the minerals, platinoids and chromites are common, in terms of the reserves of which Zimbabwe ranks third in the world. There are also numerous deposits of iron ores, gold, rare metals, copper, nickel, cobalt, bauxite, coal and precious stones (diamonds, rubies, emeralds).

A dense river network belongs to the Indian Ocean basin, with the exception of a small area of ​​internal flow in the west. The Zambezi River, flowing along the northwestern border of the country, collects tributaries from half of the territory of Zimbabwe (Gwai, Sengwa, Sanyati, Hunyani ...). In Limpopo, flowing along the southern border, the rivers Shashe, Umzingvani, Bubie, Mwenezi flow into. In the southeast, the Save river receives the Runde and Sabi tributaries. To the west, the Nata River with its tributaries dries up on its way to the Kalahari. The rivers of Zimbabwe are shallow, drying up in the dry season, with numerous rapids and waterfalls, the most famous of which is Victoria on the Zambezi River. Reservoirs have been built on many rivers, the largest of which is Kariba. Only parts of the Zambezi and Limpopo are navigable.

Due to the catastrophic rate of deforestation, tree vegetation now occupies less than half of the country's territory. Relic moist evergreen forests have survived only on the slopes of the Inyanga Mountains in the east of the country. Dry deciduous teak forests grow in the west. Dry sparse forests of miombo and mopane are widespread on the Mashona plateau. The Matabele Plateau is occupied by tree and shrub savannahs. Flooded savannahs are developed in the Zambezi Valley.

Of the large animals in Zimbabwe, elephants, antelopes, zebras, giraffes, lions, and crocodiles are still numerous. There are few rhinos, cheetahs, oryxes, pythons. 10% of the country's territory is occupied by nature reserves and national parks.



The climate of Zimbabwe varies from subequatorial in the north to tropical in the south. Three seasons are distinguished in a year: warm, humid summer (from November to March, from +21 to +27 ° C), cool, dry winter (April - June, from +13 to +17 ° C, frosts occur in the mountains) and hot dry spring (August - October, +30 to +40 °C). Precipitation varies from 400 mm per year in the southern plains to 2000 mm in the mountains in the east.

The average annual temperature in the central part of the plateau is +18.89 °C; the average annual maximum is +25.56 °C, the minimum is +12.22 °C.

June and July are the coolest months of the year. At this time, light frosts are typical for the main part of the country, however, severe frosts (−5 ° C and below) are rare. From mid-August the temperature gradually rises, reaching its peak in October, so September and October are the least pleasant months. Although in regions located above 1200 meters above sea level, temperatures exceeding +37 ° C occur infrequently - as a rule, during these months the temperature is in the range from +29 to +35 ° C.

Relative humidity in September and October does not exceed 35-40%. Beginning in November, daytime temperatures drop due to increasing cloudiness, marking the start of the rainy season, and humidity rises.


Animal world

The fauna of Zimbabwe is quite diverse. In sparsely populated areas of the country there are antelopes (impala, stenbok and others), buffaloes, giraffes, zebras, elephants, rhinos, lions, hippos, leopards, hyenas, earthen wolves. Many birds, lizards, snakes (including the African python); there are crocodiles in the rivers. Various types of ants and termites are common; in the North - tsetse fly. 9 species of birds and mammals are endangered (including black rhinos, half of the world population of which lives in Zimbabwe), as well as 73 species of plants. To protect the flora and fauna, a number of reserves and national parks (about 10% of the country's territory) have been created, the largest of them are Hwange, Matusadona, Victoria Falls, Mana Pools.



The ecological situation in Zimbabwe is relatively favorable. The most acute environmental problems in Zimbabwe are the erosion of agricultural land and the reduction of forest area. Unsystematic deforestation led in the mid-1990s to a reduction in the area of ​​forests by 1.5% (that is, 70-100 thousand hectares) annually. The total amount of carbon dioxide emissions decreased from 16.6 million tons (in 1990) to 11.5 (in 2005). The main sources of water pollution are mining and the use of fertilizers. The concentration of DDT (insecticide) in Zimbabwe's agriculture is one of the highest in the world.


State structure

Republic. The head of state is the president. Elected by the population for a 6-year term, the number of terms is not limited. President Emmerson Mnangagwa has been in charge of the country since 2017.

Parliament is bicameral. The Senate consists of 93 members (60 are elected by the population, 10 provincial governors are ex officio, 16 local chiefs are elected by the council of chiefs, 5 senators are appointed by the president, and the senate also includes the chairman and deputy of the council of chiefs). The House of Assembly - 210 deputies, are elected by the population every 5 years.


Political parties:

Movement for Democratic Change (Morgan Tsvangirai) - 30 seats in the Senate, 109 seats in the House of Assembly;
ZANU-PF (Robert Mugabe) - 30 seats in the Senate, 97 seats in the House of Assembly.
More than 20 parties are registered, of which the most influential are: the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriotic Front (ZANU-PF), the country's ruling political party, founded in 1963;
Movement for Democratic Change (MDC, actually two organizations) - Movement for Democratic Change; National Alliance for Good Governance (NAGG) - National Alliance for Good Governance;
United Party (UP) - United Party; Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga (ZANU-Ndonga) - Zimbabwe African National Union-Ndonga; Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) - Zimbabwe African People Union.
Congress of Trade Unions of Zimbabwe - Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions (ZCTU), osn. in 1981; Federation of Trade Unions of Zimbabwe - Zimbabwe Trade Unions Federation (ZTUF).


Foreign policy

After gaining independence, Africa became the key direction of Zimbabwe's foreign policy. Zimbabwe played an active role in the Non-Aligned Movement, the Commonwealth of Nations, in the fight against apartheid, being a member of the group of "front-line states". The Zimbabwean leadership supported the government of Mozambique in its fight against RENAMO; From 1992 to 1995, Zimbabwe participated in UN peacekeeping missions in Mozambique, Rwanda, Angola, and Somalia. Foreign aid plays a significant role in the country's economy. Only the EU in 2002-2012 provided assistance to Zimbabwe for food security, health and sanitation in the amount of about 181 million euros.

Relations between the R. Mugabe government and the West deteriorated after the country began to requisition the lands of white farmers, and also after observers from Western countries recognized the elections in 2000 as unfair. The IMF and the World Bank stopped issuing loans to Zimbabwe, citing the misuse of funds received by officials, as well as the termination of debt payments. Another reason was the US law on "Democracy and Economic Recovery in Zimbabwe" (December 2001), according to which R. Mugabe could normalize relations with international financial institutions only in the event of the withdrawal of troops from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and ensuring transparent and fair elections. The actions of the Zimbabwean authorities against the opposition before the 2002 presidential election were regarded by the EU as a threat to democracy, which led to the introduction of limited sanctions against Zimbabwe in 2002, then repeatedly extended. The Commonwealth of Nations temporarily suspended Zimbabwe's membership in the organization, after which the country itself withdrew from it. R. Mugabe's government enjoyed fairly stable support from the regional leader, South Africa, although the situation became temporarily more complicated after the entry of Zimbabwe's troops into the Democratic Republic of the Congo. South Africa voted to exclude Zimbabwe from the Commonwealth for one year, but opposed the imposition of international sanctions. The leadership of South Africa is taking an active part in settling the political crisis in Zimbabwe. In 2009, after the formation of a coalition government headed by M. Tsvangirai, Zimbabwe's relations with the EU improved markedly, which was manifested in an increase in international assistance from both the EU and its individual members. For example, in 2013 the United Kingdom implemented 46 humanitarian programs for the development of Zimbabwe with a total budget of more than 500 million pounds. In 2011-2014, the EU lifted a significant part of the sanctions on Zimbabwe. Under the EU sanctions remained (as of February 2015) only the President of Zimbabwe R. Mugabe, his wife, as well as the Zimbabwean Defense Industry company. In 2012, the IMF decided to resume aid to Zimbabwe. The United States, although it provides significant assistance to Zimbabwe (in 2001-2014 alone, it allocated $1.1 billion for humanitarian purposes), sanctions are not lifted from this African country. In 2014, the US sanctions list for Zimbabwe included 113 individuals and 70 entities.

In 2006, the Zimbabwean government officially announced the "Look East" program, which became part of the state policy of reorientation from Western markets to the markets of China, India, Iran, Indonesia, Malaysia, and North Korea.

Zimbabwe is a member of the UN (since August 25, 1980), is part of the African Union, the Southern African Development Community, the Economic Community of Eastern and Southern Africa, and others.

According to WHO data for January 2009, in Zimbabwe the number of people infected with cholera reached 60,400 people. 3,200 people have already died as a result of this epidemic. International pressure is mounting on President Robert Mugabe to force him to step down. Nobel Peace Prize winner, South African priest Desmond Tutu called on Mugabe to voluntarily resign and, in case of refusal, considers it necessary to further increase international pressure, up to armed intervention to overthrow Mugabe.

The total number of Zimbabwean officials who do not have the right to enter the EU has reached 200 people. At 40 companies assets in the territory of the European Union were frozen.

On March 6, 2009, opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai's car was involved in an accident on the highway between Harare and Masvingo, his wife Susan died, and he was hospitalized with non-life-threatening injuries. Morgan Tsvangirai and Susan have been married since 1978, from this marriage they have 6 children. Disputes flared up in the country about whether the accident was an accident or a planned action to eliminate the opposition leader objectionable to Robert Mugabe.

In March 2013, a referendum was held on a new constitution. The European Union noted that the referendum was a "peaceful, successful and credible" expression of the people's will and lifted a 2002 travel ban imposed on 81 Zimbabwean officials due to human rights violations and violence. However, such a ban remained in relation to Robert Mugabe and 10 other most senior officials.


Armed forces

Army strength: 39,000, of which 35,000 ground troops and 4,000 aviation. The commander-in-chief is the president. The number of police is 19.5 thousand people. In addition, there is a paramilitary police unit - 2.3 thousand people. (2000) Military spending - 3.7% of GDP (2006 est.).


Administrative-territorial division

Zimbabwe is divided into eight provinces, as well as two cities with provincial status (Harare and Bulawayo). They, in turn, are divided into 59 districts, and those - into 1200 municipalities.



As of July 2010, the population of Zimbabwe was estimated at 11.7 million, but this estimate may be inaccurate due to the high level of infection with the immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - according to the 2007 UN estimate - 15.3% of the country's adult population (6th place in the world in terms of infection rate).

98% of the population of Zimbabwe are peoples who speak Benue-Congo languages ​​(82% Shona, 14% Ndebele, 2% others). In the south, separate groups are settled by ethnic minorities - Tsonga, Venda, Pedi and Tswana, and in the northeast - Nsenga, Chikunda, and others, which are part of the ethnic community of Malawi. Among the European population, most of all are English, who live mainly in cities.

At the beginning of the 21st century, the white population was approx. 0.5% (in 1980 - 5%). The population growth rate has dropped sharply to 0.62% (estimated) due to the AIDS pandemic (about 1.3 million infected and 5,000 deaths from AIDS every week) and emigration (up to 4 million Zimbabweans have left the country). In 2006, the birth rate was 24.59, the death rate was 24.06, while the infant mortality rate was 62.97 per 1,000 newborns. Life expectancy has fallen from 61 years (1991) to 45.77 years (2009 est.), 2011 51 years. The population growth increased to 1.53%, the birth rate was 31.49, the death rate was 16.8 per 1 thousand, while the infant mortality rate was 32.31 per 1000 newborns (all estimates, 2009). The economically active population is 4.039 million (2008, est.), of which about 66% are employed in agriculture, 10% in industry, and 24% in the service sector. Unemployment at 80%. At least 68% of the population lives below the poverty line.

The average population density is 32 people. per 1 km². The most densely populated neighborhoods of Bulawayo and Harare, the valley of the river. Zambezi. The lowest population density is in the southwestern regions. The proportion of the urban population in Imbabwe is 37% with a growth of 2.2% per year (2009, est.). The largest cities, except for the capital (thousand inhabitants, 2009, estimate): Bulawayo (740), Chitungwiza (353), Mutare (183.5), Gweru (142), Epworth (137), Large cities are industrial and administrative centers Kwekwe (98), Kadoma (77), Masvingo (72), Norton (64), Marondera (62).

Annual growth - 1.5% (excluding the flow of emigration to South Africa and Botswana).

Birth rate - 31.5 per 1000 (fertility - 3.7 births per woman).

Mortality - 16.2 per 1000.

Average life expectancy is 48 years for men, 47 years for women (219th place in the world).

Urban population - 37% (in 2008).

Literacy - 90% (2003 estimate).

Ethno-racial composition:
blacks - 98% (Shona - 82%, Ndebele - 14%, others - 2%);
mulattoes and Asians - 1%;
white - less than 1%.



According to a government study, the majority of Zimbabwe's population is Christian (85%). This number includes parishioners of Afro-Christian syncretic beliefs and sects (33% of the population). The largest Christian denominations are Pentecostals - 17% of the population. The remaining Protestant churches unite 16% of the country's inhabitants, Catholics - 10%. Other Christian groups (para-Christian, Orthodox) account for 8% of the population. A significant number (12%) of the country's inhabitants are not religious. Traditional African beliefs are followed by 3% of the population, Muslims and other religions make up about 1% of the population.

The largest church unions in the country are the Zimbabwean Assemblies of God in Africa (1.6 million), the Catholic Church (1.2 million), the Seventh-day Adventists (482 thousand), the Anglicans (320 thousand), the Church of Christ (225 thousand). ), Methodist Church of Zimbabwe (120 thousand), Baptist Convention (110 thousand), Salvation Army (110 thousand), Assemblies of God (100 thousand).



Prior to gaining independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was one of the most economically developed countries on the African continent. Zimbabwe is currently one of the poorest countries in the world. In the 2000s, the country went through a severe economic crisis, which peaked in 2008, when the public debt reached 131% of GDP, inflation was 231,000,000%, and GDP fell by 17.76%. Under these conditions, the Zimbabwean authorities adopted the Short-Term Economic Recovery Program, which provides for the abandonment of the national currency, as a result of which the situation in the economy has stabilized. Already in 2011, GDP grew by 11.9%, while inflation only by 5.4%.

Industry employs 10% of the able-bodied population, it provides 21.6% of GDP. There are enterprises of the textile and tobacco industries, the production of car batteries and the processing of agricultural raw materials. Iron, gold, asbestos, coal, silver, nickel, and platinum are commercially mined, with gold mining playing the most important role. In 1996, diamond mining began.

Agriculture employs 66% of the able-bodied population, it provides 16.7% of GDP. 8.3% of the territory is cultivated, 174 thousand hectares of land are irrigated. The main export crops are tobacco (3rd place in the world), cotton, tea (22 thousand tons) and sugar cane (3.3 million tons). Wheat (140 thousand tons), corn (900 thousand tons), vegetables (135 thousand tons) are grown for domestic consumption. Frequent droughts cause great damage to agriculture.

Zimbabwe's foreign trade in 2017 showed the following volumes: export $1.93 billion, import $3.22 billion.

The main export commodities are tobacco raw materials (51% of the value), ferroalloys (8.9%) and minerals (diamonds, chromite and nickel ores), and other agricultural products in small quantities (sugar, cotton, tea, citrus fruits). The main buyer is China (44%), followed by South Africa (9.8%). Russia's share - 2.6% (mainly food products and agricultural raw materials - 99.37% of all deliveries to the Russian Federation)

The main imports are machinery and equipment (up to 24%), packaged medicines and other chemical products, vehicles, food (mainly corn, rice and legumes), and petroleum products. The main supplier is South Africa (62%), followed by China (14%).

Since 2000, the government began to carry out a program of forcible taking of farms and lands. This was explained by the fight against colonization and the return of land to the black population. This process was accompanied by the oppression of white farmers and the squatting of their lands by armed radicals. The result of this policy was the collapse of the economy and the introduction of international sanctions[34][35]. In 2000-2008 Zimbabwe was in an acute economic crisis. The crisis has affected many vital areas of the Zimbabwean economy. The gross national income of Zimbabwe decreased by almost one and a half times from $6.69 million in 2000 to $4.416 in 2008. During this period (with the exception of 2001), the GDP dynamics was negative. Almost all areas, including the critically important sectors for the country's economy - agriculture and industry, showed a rapid decline. The country, once the breadbasket of Africa, was forced to start importing grain. Already in 2003, more than half of Zimbabweans depended on food imports. In 2000-2007 the volume of agricultural production has decreased by more than half; the volume of industrial production was halved, the volume of production in the extractive industry - by more than a third. In the same period, GDP per capita decreased by more than one and a half times (from $500 to $300), which led to a massive increase in poverty. According to this indicator, Zimbabwe has become one of the poorest states in the world, entering the top three of the poorest states along with the DRC and Liberia, destroyed by civil wars.

In 2009, with the abandonment of the national currency (the Zimbabwean dollar) and the transition to a multi-currency system (the main means of payment are the US dollar and the South African rand), as well as the stabilization of the political situation, the country's economy began to recover. From 2009 to 2013 the average annual GDP growth was 11%. The inflation rate was stabilized, and in 2014-2016. even deflation was observed in Zimbabwe, as the US dollar during this period significantly strengthened against the national currencies of neighboring countries. State budget revenues in 2013 amounted to 2.7 billion USD. State budget expenditures - 2.2 billion USD.

It should be borne in mind that in Zimbabwe there has been a population explosion for several decades, the country's population is increasing by 1 million people every four years. In January 2013, the country's finance minister announced that after the payment of salaries to state employees, 217 dollars remained in the state treasury. As of September 2010, US dollars are in circulation in the country, Rands of South Africa are small change coins. The national currency has been withdrawn from circulation, 100 trillion dollar bills (the maximum denomination issued in the country) are actively sold on the black market to tourists and collectors.

At the end of 2017, the country's economy remained in a difficult situation: an unemployment rate of 80-90%, an external debt of almost $2 billion, and the threat of hyperinflation. At the same time, the new president of Zimbabwe, Emmerson Mnangagwa, guaranteed the safety of foreign investment in his country, and also announced his intention to compensate for losses to farmers who lost land during the land reform. Among other measures, Mnangagwa is counting on the economic support of Russia and China to overcome the problems that exist after the imposition of sanctions against this country.

Money turnover
The country's currency is the Zimbabwean dollar (not currently used). Since the end of 2008, Zimbabwe has introduced a multi-currency system with the circulation of the currencies of South Africa, Botswana and the United States. Since 2014, the list of currencies in circulation has been expanded to nine.

In the summer of 2022, the Zimbabwean authorities introduced their own gold coins into circulation in order to stabilize the national financial market, counter inflation and increase the number of investment instruments available in the country. A gold coin with a diameter of 32 mm with a denomination of 1 troy ounce (the actual weight of the new coin is 33.93 grams) and a purity of 22 carats (91.67%) was officially named Mosi-oa-Tunya Gold Coin after the name of the Victoria Falls in the language of the Makololo people. This waterfall appears on the obverse of the coin, on the other side is the state emblem of Zimbabwe.


Mass media

The state television and radio company ZBC (Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation - “Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation”) includes the TV channel of the same name and radio stations Radio Zimbabwe, National FM, Power FM and S-FM.