Most recognized destination in Russia, Red Square is
surrounded by buildings and structure from most of Russia's
history. Ironically this World famous landmark has a wrong
translation. A Russian world for for "red" or
krasnaya(красная) in medieval times was
actually used in two meanings: red and beautiful. So the actual
name of this World famous landmark is "Beautiful Square".
Kremlin walls that serve as a backdrop for Red Square were
originally wooden. Only in the 14th century they were replaced by a
white stone structure, but even after red brick walls were erected
in the 15th century the defences were still painted white. So for
much of Russia's history "Red Square" was surrounded by white color.
In fact another nickname for Moscow is "white- stoned" or
people who visit Red Square realize that it was designed as a single open
air church modelled after
Church of Holy Sepulchre in
Jerusalem (map of
the church on the left). If you look at the layout of Church of Holy
Sepulchre you can see the similarities between general outline of these
structures. It is no coincidence. Faith in New Jerusalem as a place of
righteousness was particularly strong in a Russian society at the time it
was constructed. Architected simply put these beliefs in stone and brick.
Open space of Red Square served as a place for worshippers,
while the area around Holy Virgin Protection Cathedral (mistakenly known as
Saint Basil Cathedral in the West) served as the altar where Jesus Christ
was buried. In the medieval times Saint Basil's Cathedral stood on a small
round hill that in eyes of Russians represented a round rotunda where the
tomb of the Jesus' burial stands. The church itself is so small that it was
never intended to serve as a major prayer site. Instead its presence on a
location was supposed to represent a chapel of Tomb of Christ on a round
hill. If you have been to Jerusalem you would know that Calvary or Golgotha
stands just few feet from the former burial cave of Jesus. Here on Red
Square medieval artisans constructed their own small version of Golgotha.
Lobnoye Mesto or literally 'Forehead Place' was a reference to Golgotha or
'place of the skull'.