Maine is the northeasternmost state of New England and thus of the United States as a whole.



Maine's 16 counties can be divided into eight tourist regions.

On the Atlantic coast (from north to south):
Down East - Hancock and Washington counties. The easternmost tip of the USA, at the transition to Canada (New Brunswick). French colony until 1763, hence French heritage. Wonderfully original coastal landscape in Acadia National Park with fantastic views.
Central Coast - Sagadaroc, Lincoln, Knox and Waldo Counties.
Greater Portland - The southern portion of Cumberland County. The area around the state's largest city, most densely populated and most urbanized region. Upstream are several islands in Casco Bay with a very relaxed lifestyle, where time seems to have stood still.
South Coast—York County. The southernmost tip of Maine and the part of the state with the longest European history of settlement.

In the hinterland (from north to south):
Aroostook—Aroostook County. The very sparsely populated, extreme north of the USA. Potato fields and cultural heritage of the Acadians (French settlers)
Highlands—Piscataquis County and Penobscot County. Also sparsely populated highlands that belong to the northeastern foothills of the Appalachian Mountains (highest elevation is Mount Katahdin at 1606 meters). Here are the wildlife sanctuaries of Baxter State Park and Sunkhaze Meadows, as well as the east shore of Moosehead Lake (Maine's largest lake).
River Valley—Somerset County and Kennebec County. The Kennebec and Moose River valleys and the west shore of Moosehead Lake.
Lakes and Mountains - Franklin County, Oxford County and Northern Cumberland Counties. Lake District of Rangeley Lakes, eastern tip of White Mountain National Forest, waterfalls, many youth camps.


Some of Maine's major cities are:
1 Augusta – the state capital with the Capitol, the State Museum, the oldest surviving wooden fort in the USA and an old neo-Romanesque post office.
2 Bangor – former logging and dockyard town and center of moccasin production; 19th-century lumber baronial mansions, ancient churches and shady trees have earned the city the nickname Queen City of the East; Seat of the University of Maine, hometown of Stephen King, who chose it as the setting for several novels.
3 Bar Harbor - Small town right on the edge of Acadia National Park.
4 Biddeford - Home of the University of New England, large ethnic French community that hosts the Franco-American festival of La Kermesse every June.
5 Brunswick – Home of Bowdoin College (Maine's oldest college of higher education), several museums; historic wobbly bridge over the Androscoggin River.
6 Ellsworth - Gateway to the Downeast Region and Acadia National Park.
7 Lewiston – large industrial city in central Maine, forms the “Twin Cities” with Auburn.
8 Portland – Port city and largest city in the state. Various historical buildings from the 19th century. Voted one of the most liveable, coziest cities and one of the best places to eat in the USA by various travel magazines

9 Auburn


Other destinations

Acadia National Park covers much of Mount Desert Island in a state of Main along many minor islands of the coast.

Baxter State Park is a small pristine reserve located in the Piscataquis County in the state of Maine.



In northern Maine there are vast, uninhabited boreal coniferous forests. This area offers a lot for people who long for peace and seclusion and like northern landscape characteristics: Chesuncook Lake, the Allagash Wilderness Waterway and Baxter State Park with the 1,585 m high Mount Katahdin are among them, but also the northern part of the Appalachian Trail.
Willowbrook Museum Village, Newfield wikipediacommons. Museum village with 37 historic buildings.
Colby College Museum of Art, 5600 Mayflower Hill Dr, Waterville wikipediacommons. Small art museum.
Portland Museum of Art, 7 Congress Square, Portland wikipediacommons. Museum for, among other things, American and European art of the 19th and 20th centuries. Maine Sculptures and Art.
Bowdoin College Museum of Art, 9400 College Station, Brunswick wikipediacommons. Small art museum. Price: Free entry.
Peary MacMillan Arctic Museum & Arctic Studies Center, 9500 College Station, Brunswick wikipediacommons. One of two museums in the US specializing in Arctic studies.
Moosehead Marine Museum, Greenville. Museum with a small exhibition on regional inland shipping.


What to do

Whale watching (humpback, fin, minke, white-sided dolphin; tours depart from Bar Harbor, Boothbay, or Portland; best time to travel mid-April to October)
experience the "Indian Summer", i.e. the colorful foliage in October (especially good to observe in Camden Hills State Park and Baxter State Park)
Swimming in lakes and in the sea
to go biking
Sea Kayak: Paddle along the Island Trail.
river kayak
Wildwater Rafting
driving a snowmobile
Visit historical places



The state is characterized by rugged, rocky coastlines carved by glaciers during the last Ice Age, rolling hills and low mountain ranges, extensive inland forests, and picturesque rivers and lakes that give the state its unique character. Maine is also known for its seafood, particularly lobster and conch, and as a base for whale watching. The capital is Augusta, but the most important city is Portland.

In the USA, Maine only borders on New Hampshire in the south-west, otherwise on Canada (province of Quebec in the north-west and New Brunswick in the north-east). To the southeast and south, Maine has a long coastline facing the Atlantic.

Maine is one of the most sparsely populated states in the USA. The first European settlement took place in 1607 in the area of the present city of Philippsburg, but was soon abandoned. Beginning in 1625, individual settlers arrived from New Hampshire and, in 1635, French colonists who named it Maine after their French homeland. In the same year the land was ceded by the Plymouth Company to which it had been assigned by James I to two privateers, Mason and Georges, and, after the latter's death in 1652, was largely sold to Massachusetts. Since then it has formed part of this state. As early as 1792 it demanded to be admitted to the Union as an independent state, but it has only formed its own state since 1820 and adopted the title Commonwealth of Maine.



Generally, American English is spoken, which is the everyday language of over 92% of the residents. There are some native French speakers in the St. John Valley and in the far north of the state, as well as in the Lewiston/Auburn area, making up more than 5% of Maine's population (18% in Aroostok County, 26% in the city of Lewiston). Especially in Washington County in the extreme east, an Indian language tradition (Passamaquoddy) still exists.


Getting here

Commercial airports in Maine are located in Portland and Bangor, which are served by various cities in the northeastern United States. Nearest airport with intercontinental flights is Boston.

Maine shares land borders with New Brunswick, Quebec and New Hampshire. For overseas visitors, the port of call is Boston. There are bus services from Boston to the major cities of Maine, and Amtrak also offers a Downeaster train service from Boston North Station via Portland to Brunswick (five times daily, journey time Boston-Portland 2½ hours, normal price $30, Boston-Brunswick just under 3½ hours, $34, saver fares may be cheaper). However, a car is required to reach remote regions. Many visitors rent one in Boston and then travel via Interstate 95. It takes two hours to drive from Boston to Portland and another two hours to Bangor.

Bay Ferries Limited operate up to seven weekly ferry services between Yarmouth, Nova Scotia and Bar Harbor, Maine from late May to mid-October. Bay Ferries' Yarmouth to Portland ferry service ceased in late 2015.



To get around Maine, a car is essential. North and west of Bangor, the public road network becomes sparse. Private landowners often own the majority of the existing roads here, so that prior permits must be obtained to drive on the roads.



Round Top Ice Cream, 526 Main Street, Damariscotta. Ice cream parlor known beyond the borders of the [Midcoast region]. With over 40 types of ice cream, the choice is overwhelming
Moody's Diner, US Route 1, Waldoboro,. Traditional US diner (since 1927) on the Coastal Highway (Route 1) east of Waldoboro. The dishes are cheap and down to earth (soups/chowder, steak, poultry, salads, pasta, sandwiches, burgers). When ordering, keep in mind to leave room for one of the famous pies.

Taste of India, 68 Main St, Bangor. Nice Indian restaurant in the center of Bangor. As with most Indian restaurants, the house special for 2 is worth trying. Price: Evening entrees $12-15, lunch far cheaper.



Hikers should exercise caution and know how to use a map and compass. Weatherproof clothing is also required.
Maine has one of the lowest crime rates in the United States. Violent crime is rare, but visitors should still take care of their belongings.
The risk of being harmed by wild animals is also low, but mosquitoes can drive you crazy. Automobile accidents involving moose can be deadly for both the animal and the occupants of the vehicle. Consequently, the safest solution is to slow down in areas populated by moose. Many, but not all, sections of road where there is a risk of a moose collision are marked with appropriate signs. Drivers from warmer regions should consider driving on snow and ice covered roads.



Despite the location on the ocean, the climate is continental: There are distinct seasons with long, cold to very cold winters (average 0 to -17 °C in January) and warm to hot summers (daytime average 24-27 °C in July) . The transition times, on the other hand, are short. Precipitation is relatively high and fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, with a slight emphasis on late autumn to early winter, while late spring to early summer is somewhat drier. There are around a hundred rainy days a year, so an average of eight a month. Thunderstorms and tornadoes are less common than in most US states. In the coastal areas, however, there are occasional so-called Northeasters, which bring with them strong winds and a lot of rain or snow in winter.



Early history

Paleo indians

During the Ice Age, the last of which is known as the Wisconsin Glaciation, hardly any people could live in Maine The North American ice sheet extended southward to Pennsylvania. In the Maine area, this shield rose to over 5,000 feet. The large amounts of water that were bound in the ice masses in the polar regions were withdrawn from the oceans, so that the sea level was over 100 m lower. Around 19,000 BC The glaciation was strongest around 16,000 BC. The glaciers began retreating between 13,000 and 12,000 BC. the ice masses released the land in Maine as well. Around 9000 BC the state was free of ice. At the same time the sea level rose, so that the Atlantic advanced up to 100 km inland. This effect was partially reversed as the land freed from the ice masses slowly rose. This resulted in large lakes, such as the Degeer Lake. Between 8000 and 7000 BC the sea level was around 60 m below today's level, the coast was up to 20 km east of the current coastline. Since then, sea levels have been rising unevenly, which may have destroyed numerous artefacts.

Mosses, lichens and grasses returned to the water-rich, still cool but ice-free area, later followed by tree species that were able to survive in the tundra landscape. While Maine's north and mountainous areas remained tundra for a long time, forests of oak, larch and elm settled in the south, with birch, spruce and pine dominating in the middle. The megafauna that characterized the period, such as woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius), prairie mammoths (Mammuthus jeffersonii or columbi), and mastodon, were supplemented by horses, bison, and caribou. Remains of a mammoth have been found at Scarborough and have been dated to around 12,200 BCE. In Massachusetts they probably only disappeared after 9000 BC.

The first human inhabitants of Maine hunted the large mammals, but until a few decades ago only scattered finds of their projectile tips were known, which were discovered at Lebanon in the extreme southwest, Lewiston, Monmouth, Arrowsic, Boothbay, Rumford Center, Graham, Brassta and Flagstaff had been. It wasn't until the late 1970s that two workshops were found on Lake Munsungan and Lake Chase north of Baxter State Park, i.e. places where certain types of stone were extracted and processed into rough pieces. This made it possible to reconstruct the process from the quarrying of the stone to the production of spearheads, as well as scrapers and scrapers. Additional sites along the Magalloway River in northwest Maine have suggested life in hunter-gatherer camps. The largest of these sites is the Vail site, now covered by the water of Aziscohos Lake. Around 9000 BC However, it lay on the east bank of the Magalloway. Condensed finds (loci) were found in eight places, the tents of the residents measured 4.5 by 6 m and were warmed by a deep fireplace. The loci probably did not exist at the same time, but were used seasonally in different years. A total of more than 4000 tools were found, with the projectile tips showing great similarities to those at the Debert site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Although stone was mined about 15 miles north of the site, in the headwaters of the Magalloway, many varieties were from the Champlain Lowlands of western Vermont, or from Lake Munsungan, even New York and Pennsylvania.

The same applies to the Adkins site, but the artefacts there consist of one-third the mass of crystalline quartz, plus rhyolite (probably from New Hampshire). This variable composition of raw materials is characteristic of all sites of the Magalloway complex, such as the Michaud site. Four types of flint predominate there, namely black and gray-green, and Munsungan flint; Greenstone was only used for the simplest, coarsest tools. In nearby Moose Brooke, Henry Lamoreau discovered the site named after him, which was probably inhabited at the same time as the Michaud site. Similar to these two sites, the Wayne dam site was in an area of old sand dunes, the top layer of which was blown away by the wind, exposing the finds. Here, too, three or four loci were found. The stone artifacts came from a wide area, namely Nova Scotia and northern Maine to the north, central New York and western Vermont to the west, and Pennsylvania.

In general, the large sites in New England, where several family groups gathered seasonally, are surrounded by a cluster of smaller camps. The seasonal migrations were probably not only determined by sites of particularly beautiful or practical stones, but above all by the migrations of the prey animals, above all the caribou. Around 8000 BC The production of the fluted points characteristic of the Paleo-Indians ended.


Archaic period (8000–1500 BC)

The term archaic period was first used by William A. Ritchie in 1932 and today describes the epoch between the Paleo-Indian cultures and the early farming cultures of North America, i.e. the time between about 8000 and 1500 BC. This epoch is usually divided into an early, a middle and a late phase, which were demarcated around 6000 and 4000 BC.

Paleo-Indian culture was tied to an open landscape, but dense forest now spread across New England. With that, the large herds of animals disappeared, and the retreat of the glaciers allowed them to migrate further north. Additionally, this forest area in Maine changed around 8000 B.C. from a boreal landscape dominated by poplar, birch, and spruce to a temperate region, where from about 7000 B.C. BC Oaks and hemlocks increased. Moose, deer, American black bear (Ursus americanus) and numerous other mammals expanded their habitat northward from the southern and western areas. Whether the Paleoindians followed the caribou herds or adapted to the new conditions is unclear in the Northeast, in contrast to the Midwest and Southeast, where adaptation occurred. While no fluted tips were found in Québec, new forms were developed there that may have represented an adaptation during the north migration.

Little is known about the early Archaic period, possibly because most people lived along the coast and their remains have been destroyed by rising sea levels. On many lakes, on the other hand, between 6500 and 3000 BC. by global warming of water levels. It seems that the local rock types continued to be used, although preference was given to harder stones. However, techniques and possibly new residents came from the south, such as what is now North Carolina. In addition, woodworking techniques emerged, such as the construction of dugout canoes, waterways as a whole established themselves as the most important traffic routes, and boats as the main means of transport. This is at least believed to be possible from the fact that the archaeological sites of this period are located along waterways. Instead of bison and caribou, they now hunted bears, deer, beavers and muskrat, birds and turtles. Traces of rituals were often found, the dead were cremated.

The people of the subsequent Middle Archaic period continued this lifestyle. But the noticeable innovations used were grooved axes and spear throwers (possibly with weights). They probably came from Middle Archaic groups from the south; on the other hand, so-called "ground slate points" were produced on site. They were made of shale, a material less suitable but not nearly as rare as flint in Maine. Knives were also made from these more common materials, such as quartz and slate. Furthermore, groups of 20 to 25 members mostly lived on shores and coasts. A fish weir was found at Sebasticook Lake near Newport. Apparently eel was the fish of choice. Ocher was now widely used in funeral rituals.

The late Archaic period is divided into two phases, namely the Vergennes phase from 3000 BC. and the Small Stemmed Point tradition, which began around the same time and also lasts until 1500 B.C. was enough. It was characterized by small stalked or barreled projectile tips. The Vergenne phase is rarely found in Maine, but Otter Creek Points, spearheads belonging to this phase and used for hunting large animals, have been found. These artifacts may have belonged to small groups that invaded Maine territory. Small stalked spearheads, mostly quartz, are common in New England but less common in Maine, where they are found almost exclusively on the coast. The points were used to hunt deer, but mussels and fish, especially cod or cod (Gadus morhua), played an important role. Another group is represented in the Moorehead phase, also from 3000 to 1500 BC. BC is verifiable. People used red paint at funerals and burned the dead's personal belongings, such as weapons or tools, but also jewelry and beautiful objects. Their culture was so similar to that of Canada's maritime provinces as far north as Newfoundland that they are believed to have belonged to a vast, overarching culture.


Woodland period, trade wars, population collapse from epidemics

Woodland culture followed the Archaic period. Around 800 it was characterized by birch bark canoes, wigwams and above all pottery. The inhabitants of present-day Maine were Algonquin-speaking Indians of the eastern Abenaki of the Pigwacket, Arosaguntacook, Kennebec and Penobscot tribes and, at least historically, smaller tribes such as the Amaseconti, Arsicantegou, Kwapahag, Ossipee, Rocameca and Wewenoc, as well as the Mi'kmaq, Maliseet and Passamaquoddy.



The Mi'kmaq, of which only the Aroostock Band of Micmac living in Maine is officially recognized in the USA today, were the first to come into contact with Europeans. They used petroglyphs as a means of communicating with transcendent powers. Their villages were assigned to seven different political centers. Each village had a chief, elders, a women's council and a grand chief or chief chief. The villages consisted of wigwams in which 10 to 20 people lived. They mainly followed elk seasonally, but also hunted deer or caribou, using maple bows. In the summer they lived in fishing villages on the coast. Having killed an elk was a prerequisite for being active in the political bodies. The Mi'kmaq Confederation represented a loose alliance of numerous groups, the internal organization followed laws of the clans.

Giovanni Caboto brought three Mi'kmaq to England in 1497. The Indians were soon trading with the Europeans, with skins and fish being the main goods. From 1564 to 1570 a first epidemic raged among the Mi'kmaq, in 1586 it was typhus. Meanwhile, Penobscot and Abenaki benefited more from trade, threatening the supremacy of the Mi'kmaq. From 1607 to 1615 there was open warfare between Abenaki and Penobscot on the one hand and Mi'kmaq and Maliseet on the other. When some Mi'kmaq killed the Penobscot sachem (chief) the war ended. The victors raided numerous Abenaki villages. In doing so, they brought diseases that killed three quarters of the tribesmen. By 1620, only 4,000 of the approximately 20,000 Mi'kmaq in Maine were still alive.


Maliseet and Passamaguuddy

The Maliseet were often in league with the Mi'kmaq. Their name comes from the powerful neighbors and it means "people who cannot speak properly". They call themselves Wolastoqiyik. Wolastoq is her name for the Saint John River, the "shining river". They traveled down this river in spring and up in autumn. They hunted, fished, but also farmed.

In 1604, Samuel de Champlain met Europeans for the first time; at that time they were at war with the Abenaki. They greeted the French with beaver pelts and caribou meat. Missionaries converted part of the tribe to Christianity, the other part stuck to their religion, called Midewin.

They were closely related to the Passamaguoddy, so Europeans collectively called them "Etchmins". Like the Mi'kmaq, the Passamaguoddy, who lived mostly along the estuary and only hunted when necessary, suffered from severe epidemics. Their population also collapsed from about 20,000 to 4,000. A typhoid epidemic followed in 1586. The few survivors found themselves with Abenaki and Penobscot in the Wabanaki Confederacy.



The Penobscot made their living mostly from hunting bear, beaver, elk and otter, but they also fished and farmed. Only in winter do they move to more wild areas. Due to trade with the Europeans, the beaver population soon declined, since the hides and furs of these animals were the main means of exchange for European goods such as guns, tools, pans and pots, tobacco, flour or sugar. They too suffered from epidemics and the consumption of alcohol, and also got into conflicts with the Wabanaki Confederation over trade privileges. The few who survived were baptized, but they came into conflict with the Mohawk people in the mid-17th century. At the beginning of contact with the Europeans there were about 10,000 Penobscots, in 1803 only 347 were counted.



Abundant rainfall and long, cold winters made cultivation, such as the cultivation of pumpkins, difficult. Hunting and fishing were therefore the main sources of food. Maple trees provided syrup and sugar. The Penacook of southern New Hampshire, on the other hand, enjoyed a milder climate. They grew corn, beans, and squash, which barely thrived in Maine. But in 1668 the Mohawk drove the Pennacook through New Hampshire into southern Maine. The perhaps 2500 survivors joined the Wabanaki Confederation, their descendants are now organized in the Cowasuck Band of the Pennacook-Abenaki People and live in the states of Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts, others live in Canada.

First Europeans, Anglo-French dispute, Abenaki and Mohawk
From 1497 to 1499 Giovanni Caboto, an Italian in the service of the English, stayed on the American east coast. At the beginning of the 17th century, the English King James I claimed the entire territory of New England with reference to the voyages of "John Cabot".

But the first European settlers were French in 1604. Samuel de Champlain attempted to establish a colony on St. Croix Island, but in 1607 it was moved to Port Royal in what later became Nova Scotia. That year saw a Souriquois attack on Almouchaquois on the Saco River. The former can only be identified with one of today's tribal groups, namely the Mi'kmaq, who still live in the region today, through the relatively long list of words in Marc Lescarbot's Histoire de la Nouvelle France. The fur trade already played an important role for the Wabanaki. Bessabez was chief and controlled trade in the large area between Mount Desert Island and the Saco River known as the Mawooshen. In 1604 he met Champlain sailing down the Penobscot River. However, he was killed in battles with Etchemin tribes in 1615. In 1616–1619, smallpox epidemics probably killed three-fourths of Maine's Indians.

In 1607 the first Englishmen, supported by the Plymouth Company, settled there. George Popham and Raleigh Gilbert attempted to establish Popham Colony at the Kennebec Estuary. However, it had to be abandoned after Popham's death in 1608. On the other hand, the Jamestown colony in southern Virginia survived, and it was from there that fishermen came to the Maine coast for the first time as early as 1610. They set up their first permanent stations there.

But the English and French colonies fought each other. Although Biard, a French Jesuit, was able to establish a settlement on Somes Sound on Mount Desert Island in 1613, which the Penobscot called Pemetic (sloping land), the English captain Samuel Argall of Virginia destroyed the French settlements on Somes Sound, Port Royal and on St Croix Island. In 1614, John Smith came to Maine and wrote his Description of New England, which prompted some Englishmen to emigrate there.

Beginning in 1621, the coastal areas were granted by the king to the Council for New England, a group of nobles who wanted to settle the area. Therefore, Ferdinando Gorges, the "father of English colonization", is also considered the founder of Maine from 1622. His interest in colonization had been sparked by Captain George Weymouth presenting captured Indians to him. He was involved in the failed Popham Colony as a partner in the Plymouth Company. In 1622, along with John Mason, he received a land deed for an area that initially lay between Merrimack and Kennebec. In 1625 a trading post was established in Pejepscot, in 1628 there were posts in Cushnoc (Augusta) and on Richmond Island. In 1634 North America's first sawmill was built on Piscataqua, and in 1636 the first court was held in Saco in southern Maine. Eastern, less populated Maine north of the Kennebec River was designated Sagadahock territory in the 17th century. 1630 the settlement efforts of the founded in that year Massachusetts Bay Colony were increased. Settlements were established at York, Cape Porpus and Saco, and in Kittery in 1631.

The French, for their part, continued to pursue their goal of winning the region over to New France, their American colony. In 1640, the first Abenaki chief was won over to Catholicism by French missionaries and baptized Jean Baptiste. In 1671, eastern Maine became French again. For a short time it appeared that Mount Desert Island would be settled by the French. In 1688 Antoine Laumet was granted about 400 km² of land on the coast including the whole island. Laumet, who had given himself the title of Sieur de la Mothe Cadillac, wanted to establish a feudal lordship there, but the plan failed.

But not only the English and the French fought each other. In 1642 Mohawk raided western Maine, in 1661 Abenaki killed 30 of the attacking Mohawk in an attempt to subjugate their territory to the Iroquois. The next year the Mohawk fought back and attacked Etchemin; nearly 100 opponents were killed or captured. Only in 1671, when most of the tribes had already fallen victim to severe epidemics, was there a peace agreement.

The area in its former borders, i.e. southwest Maine, became part of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1652. By the 1690s, it seemed almost as if the French and Abenaki would drive the English-Protestant colonists out of Maine. William Dummer, the colony's governor appointed by London, set out to destroy the Abenaki and the French Jesuits led by Sebastien Rale. He fought against the English in both the King Williams War (1689-1697) and the Queen Anne War (1702-1713). During the war of 1722-1725, the Jesuit priest died in the Norridgewock massacre, now euphemistically known as the "Battle of Norridgewock". Significantly, this war is referred to by a variety of names by the Anglo-Saxons, including Father Rale's War or Governor Dummer's War, while the Francophones commonly refer to it as Guerre Anglo-Wabanaki. After the defeat of the French in the 1740s, the area east of the Penobscot came under the nominal administration of the province of Nova Scotia.

Disputes between British and Americans then went from the American Revolutionary War to the War of 1812, which lasted until 1814. British troops occupied Maine in both conflicts.


State of the USA, border conflicts

After US independence, Maine was a part of the state of Massachusetts until 1820, although not directly adjacent to it. For eight months in the War of 1812, Britain occupied almost all of eastern Maine, intending to annex it permanently for Canada. Even after the peace treaty of 1814, the border between Canada and the USA remained unclear. It was separated from Massachusetts by the Missouri Compromise, which provided that the slave state of Missouri could be admitted to the Union if a non-slave-holding state was also admitted at the same time in order to obtain a tie vote in the United States Senate and on March 15 Admitted to the Union as the 23rd state in 1820. Therefore, in addition to Maine, Massachusetts was also involved, because a large part of the disputed area on Saint John and Madawaska was still in its possession. The majority were of French descent, while the settlers who arrived from the 1820s onwards were mainly American and British, living predominantly on the Aroostook and west of Saint John. The Francophones were so-called Brayons and considered themselves members of the unofficial République du Madawaska. On July 4, 1827, John Baker raised an American flag on the west bank of Saint John near what is now Baker Brook. He declared his place of residence the capital of the Republic of Madawaska, but was promptly detained by the British colonial authorities pending the payment of a fine. In the summer of 1830 troops were deployed and the British and American foreign secretaries felt compelled to meet. King William I of the Netherlands tried to mediate in the border dispute and London accepted his proposal. But the state of Maine refused, President Andrew Jackson was involved, and the Senate finally rejected the mediation proposal.

Maine's capital was originally Portland until Augusta took over that role in 1832. The final boundary with New Brunswick was established in the Webster-Ashburton Treaty in 1842 after the Aroostook War (1838-39). Up to that point, there had always been clashes. By February 1839, Maine had sent a thousand volunteers to reinforce the upper Aroostook. On the other side, British troops were massing, the Mohawks were offering their support, and New Brunswick's forces were massing at Saint John. There were around 32,000 armed men in the disputed area.

Congress authorized a force of 50,000 men, while Maine provided 3,000 to 10,000 militiamen. General Winfield Scott, who had directed the forced displacement of the Cherokee, was posted to the conflict region. He caused the Maine militias to be recalled and exchanged for regular troops in May and June 1839. In late summer construction began on Fort Fairfield and Fort Kent. In 1840 Maine formed Aroostook County. Finally, the participating states agreed on a boundary commission and on August 9, 1842 the Webster-Ashburton Treaty was signed, ending the boundary disputes. He granted the United States 18,170 and Canada 12,890 km² of the disputed territory. The Brayons' residential areas were divided, which in turn became the cause of Maine's present-day bilingualism.


Civil War to this day

Maine was the first state in the Northeast to support the anti-slavery movement. During the Civil War (1861-1865), the people of Maine were loyal to the Union and sent the highest percentage of soldiers per state.

In the 20th century, Maine struggled with the decline of the textile and shipping industries, making it the poorest state in the Northeast.


Economy and Infrastructure

Real per capita GDP was USD 44,518 in 2016 (national average for the 50 US states: USD 57,118; national ranking: 41). The unemployment rate was 3.3% in November 2017 (national average: 4.1%).

Main agricultural products are seafood (Maine lobster is famous), poultry, eggs, potatoes, dairy products, cattle, blueberries and apples. Industrial products are paper, wood and furniture, electronics, food, leather and textiles. Maine is a tourist area for the big cities of the American east coast (see tourism).

Furthermore, the 49 km ² large and over 1600 men counting US Navy base Brunswick Naval Air Station in Maine, which was the only military base in New England. Maritime reconnaissance and transport units were stationed here. However, in August 2005 it was decided that the base would be closed and its units would be relocated to Florida.



A major tourist attraction in Maine is Acadia National Park, established in 1929. With more than two million visitors a year, the only national park in the New England states is one of the ten most visited parks in the USA (as of 2003). Located on and around Mount Desert Island, it offers stretches of coast and mountains up to 470 meters high with views of the island with its small lakes and countless smaller islands.

Maine's coast also attracts tourists elsewhere. Sandy beaches are found primarily in the south of the state at beach towns such as York, Ogunquit, Wells Beach and Kennebunkport; however, the water temperatures are around 12-14 °C even in summer. Rocky sections predominate further north.

Maine has over 40 state parks and state historic sites that welcome over two million visitors annually.

rail transport
Despite the sparse population, the state of Maine is still very well developed by railroads. The first railroad, the Bangor and Piscataquis Canal and Railroad, ran as early as November 1836, linking Bangor to Old Town. The further expansion of the route network came mainly from Portland.

In 1842 the Portland, Saco and Portsmouth Railroad opened the line to Portsmouth, which had connections to Boston and thus to the rest of the US railroad network. In 1846, the Atlantic and St. Lawrence Railroad opened the first leg of the route to Montreal, which was completed in 1853. From 1849 to 1855, the Portland–Bangor connection (later the Maine Central Railroad) went into operation in sections. From 1851 Gorham was served by the York and Cumberland Railroad, which reached Rochester in 1871. The connection to Augusta was completed in 1852. From 1869, the Portland and Ogdensburg Railway opened a railway in sections towards the White Mountains, which went into operation in 1877 as far as Swanton (Vermont). In 1873 the Boston and Maine Railroad opened a new main line towards Dover. Since the many railroad companies that met in Portland each had their own terminus, the city decided to build a common main station, which was opened in 1888 by the Portland Union Railroad Station Company.

Bangor also developed into a railway junction. From 1868 to 1871, the European and North American Railway built the route to Vanceboro and on to New Brunswick. In 1874 the Eastern Maine Railway opened a route to Bucksport, and in 1883 the Maine Shore Line Railroad opened a route to Mount Desert Ferry. Finally, in 1905, the Northern Maine Seaport Railroad opened the north-south bypass from South La Grange to Searsport, which ran west of Bangor. The Bangor to Vanceboro and Portland railways were like the Atlantic & St. Lawrence was initially built with a gauge of 1676 millimeters ("colonial gauge"), but had to be converted to the standard gauge (1435 mm) common in the USA by 1877 for economic reasons.

The northeast of the state was developed from 1893 mainly by the Bangor and Aroostook Railroad. Numerous smaller companies developed the less important traffic axes. In 1879 Maine began to build narrow-gauge railways, which had a gauge of 2 feet (610 mm).

The dismantling of the railway network began in the late 1920s. First, the narrow-gauge railways disappeared until 1943. Almost all of the formerly important main routes are still in operation today, only the routes from Portland to Portsmouth and to the White Mountains have been closed. However, most branch lines fell victim to road competition over time.

Passenger service only resumed after a 35-year hiatus on December 5, 2001, when Amtrak began operating the Boston-Portland Express service. The service runs four times a day, using the route of the former Boston and Maine Railroad. Freight traffic on the surviving network is mainly handled by the Montreal, Maine and Atlantic Railway (in the north) and the Pan Am Railways. In addition there are the local companies Eastern Maine Railway, Maine Eastern Railroad, New Hampshire Northcoast and the St. Lawrence and Atlantic Railroad as well as the shunting company Turners Island LLC. As of December 31, 2005, there was a total route network of 1,869 km. In 2005 around seven million tons of goods were moved with a total of 101,652 truckloads. The most important transported goods were paper products.