Currency: Leu (RON)
Calling Code: 40
Romania is a country located at the intersection
of Central and Southeast Europe, on the border with the Black Sea.
It borders Hungary and Serbia to the west, Ukraine and Moldova to the northeast and east, and Bulgaria to the south. With 238 391 km2, Romania is the ninth largest country in the European Union by area, and has the seventh largest population in the European Union with more than 19 million inhabitants. Its capital and most populous city is Bucharest, the tenth largest city in the European Union.
The United Principalities arose when the principalities of Moldova and Wallachia joined under Prince Alexandru Joan Cuza in 1859. In 1881, Charles I of Romania was crowned, forming the Kingdom of Romania. His independence from the Ottoman Empire was declared on May 9, 1877 and was internationally recognized the following year. At the end of the First World War, Transylvania, Bucovina and Bessarabia were annexed by the Kingdom of Romania, a circumstance that began what the Romanian monarchy called Great Romania. During the 1930s the government, with John Gigurtu as prime minister, derived from an initial position prone to the United Kingdom and France, towards a position aligned militarily and politically with Nazi Germany, implementing anti-Semitism officially in the country.
In 1940, the region of Bessarabia, which had joined Romania in 1918, was annexed to the Soviet Union as a result of the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and northern Bukovina. During the operation there was a confrontation of some Romanian divisions with the Red Army, which defeated them severely, which led to the incorporation of Bessarabia to the Soviet Union as an RSS of Moldova, including the territory of Transnistria.
At the beginning of World War II, the former Minister of War, Antonescu, implanted a fascist military dictatorship, in which he aligned the Romanian army to the Wehrmacht, allowing the cantonment of a large number of divisions thereof, with a view to Operation Barbarrosa, of invasion of the Soviet Union. From June 1941 to 1944, Romania participated in the war on the side of the axis powers, under the military leadership of Germany. In 1944, under the Soviet counteroffensive that penetrated its territory, it changed sides and formally joined the Allies, dropping the military dictatorship of Antonescu. At the end of the war, some previously northeastern territories of Romania were temporarily occupied by the Soviet Union; With Red Army units stationed in Romanian territory, the country eventually became the Socialist Republic of Romania and a member of the Warsaw Pact.
With the fall of the European socialist bloc and the so-called Romanian Revolution of 1989, Romania began its transition to western representative democracy and a capitalist market economy. After a decade of problems due to the massive privatizations and the so-called post-economic revolution, as well as the deterioration of living standards that caused a massive emigration to the surrounding countries, extensive reforms were carried out that boosted the economic recovery. Since 2010, Romania is a relatively high-income country, with a high human development index.
Romania joined NATO on March 29, 2004, and the European Union on January 1, 2007. It is also a member of the Latin Union, La Francophonie, the OSCE, the WTO, the BSEC and the United Nations. Today, Romania is a unitary state with a semi-presidential republic, in which the executive branch is made up of the president and the Government. Romania and Moldova are the only countries in Eastern Europe whose languages are Romance.
Retezat National Park
Salt Mines of Turda
Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa
The name of the country comes from lat. romanus "Roman" and literally means "Country of the Romans".
Romania covers an area of 238,391 km² and is the
largest country in Southeast Europe by area and the 12th largest country
in all of Europe. The country is located between 43° and 49° north
latitude, and 20° and 30° east longitude.
The territory of Romania is characterized by an approximately equal combination of mountainous, hilly and flat areas. Through the entire territory of the country, from the border with Ukraine to the border with Serbia, are the Carpathians, which prevail in the center of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges. The highest point in Romania is Mount Moldoveanu (2544 m). Oil and polymetallic ores stand out among the minerals.
The southeast of the country is washed by the waters of the Black Sea, where large trading ports and naval bases of the navy are located. Ports are connected with the interior of the country by roads and railways.
The presence of access to the sea makes international maritime trade profitable with the countries of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Through the Strait of Gibraltar, access to the Atlantic Ocean is carried out, through the Suez Canal - to the Indian and Pacific Oceans.
Romania is located in the continental climate zone, characterized by cold winters and warm summers. The average annual temperature varies from 11°C in the south to 8°C in the north.
The regions of Romania bordering Bulgaria and Hungary are some of the most fertile in the world, but all of them are experiencing significant declines in living standards and populations. There is an unconfirmed opinion that in Romania, as in all of Eastern Europe, the rural population is growing faster than the urban one, and in this regard, the semi-nomadic population of the Balkans is underestimated, which can hide the official population decline in the countries of Eastern Europe.
Spring is characterized by cool nights and warm days. Summers are generally warm, the average maximum temperature in summer in Bucharest is 28°C, the average minimum is 16°C. Winters are cold: the average maximum temperature ranges from 2°C in the plains to -15°C in the mountains. The absolute maximum is 44.5°C and was recorded in 1951, the absolute minimum is -38.5°C in 1942.
On average, 750 mm of precipitation falls annually, most of the precipitation falls in the summer. At the same time, there are significant differences between different regions - up to 1500 mm of precipitation per year falls in the mountains, about 600 mm in the south and in the center in the Bucharest region, and about 370 mm in the Danube Delta.
Forests occupy 19% of the country's territory, while Romania is one of the largest areas of undisturbed forests in Europe. A large number of wild animals live in the forests, including bears, wolves and others; on the plains - foxes, hares, squirrels and badgers. The country is inhabited by unique mammals (among which the most famous is the Carpathian chamois), birds and reptiles. The fauna of Romania consists of 33,792 animal species, including 33,085 invertebrates and 707 vertebrates.
Ancient history and antiquity
On the territory of modern Romania, one of the oldest remains of the Cro-Magnon man (Pestera cu Oase), dating to about 42 thousand years ago, was discovered.
About 4 thousand years ago, a Neolithic culture arose. During the Bronze Age in 1800-1000 BC, the Thracian-Phrygian Dacian tribes arose. In the 7th century BC, Greek colonies appeared on the territory of the modern Black Sea coast of Romania (Lesser Scythia). The emergence of Dacian states dates back to the 3rd century BC.
At the end of the 1st - the beginning of the 2nd century AD, Dacia was conquered by the Romans, gold mining and the resettlement of the colonists took place here. The beginning of intensive Romanization and the birth of Balkan Latin dates back to this time.
In the 270s after the uprisings, the Romans were forced to retreat beyond the Danube.
During the period of the “great migration of peoples,” Dacia was devastated by the migrating tribes of the Goths, Vandals, Huns, and several others. In the VI century, the Slavs began to settle in the territory of modern Romania.
In the Middle Ages, the ancestors of the Romanians lived on the territory of 3 principalities: Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania.
Since the XI century, Transylvania has autonomy within the Hungarian kingdom, and in the XVI century it became an independent principality and remained until 1711.
In 1526, during the battle of Mojac, the Hungarian troops were defeated, and Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania fell under the vassalism of the Ottoman Empire, while maintaining internal autonomy until the middle of the 19th century. This period is characterized by the gradual withering away of the feudal system. Among the rulers of the territories at this time, the most prominent are Stephen III the Great, Vasily Lupu and Dmitry Kantemir in Moldova; Matei Basarab, Vlad III Tepes (Dracula) and Konstantin Brynkovyan in Wallachia; Janos Hunyadi and Gabor Betlen in Transylvania.
In 1600 Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania were united under the rule of Mihai the Brave, but in 1601 Mihai was killed, and the pro-Ottoman nobility seized real power in Wallachia and Moldova. The whole XVII century is characterized by boyar fragmentation and feuds.
At the beginning of the 18th century, in alliance with Russia, the rulers of Wallachia and Moldavia tried to get rid of Ottoman rule, but the Prut campaign of Peter I, due to the betrayal of the Wallachian ruler Konstantin Brynkovyan, ended in failure, and the enslavement of territories by the Ottoman Empire intensified.
The historical process of the creation of the state of Romania began on the vassal Ottoman Empire lands of the United Principality of Wallachia and Moldavia in 1859, as a result of the unification of the two principalities - Moldova and Wallachia, by electing the prince of both principalities, Alexander Kuza, who declared himself the prince of the united country. The emancipation of the peasants and other reform projects provoked strong opposition to the prince’s policies among the ultra-conservative party. As a result of the conspiracy, which, in turn, led to a palace coup of the pro-Russian and pro-Ottoman nobles against his ruler, Kuza was overthrown, and the throne passed to the Prussian protege from the Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern - Karol I (Karl Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen). Another area of the modern Romanian state - Transylvania - was then part of Austria-Hungary.
For the first time, the independence of the United Principality of Moldova and Wallachia was proclaimed on May 21 (May 9), 1877 with the declaration of these lands as the Principality of Romania in connection with the outbreak of the Russo-Turkish war; taking part in this war, Romania, following the results of the Berlin treaty, received northern Dobrudja with Constanta in return for the southern regions of Bessarabia (Budjak) newly occupied by Russia. As an independent state, Romania was recognized in the San Stefano and Berlin treaties. The period from 1878 to 1914 is characterized by relative stability. In 1881, on the basis of the United Principality, the Kingdom of Romania was formed, headed by Carol I.
World War I
During the First World War, Romania initially maintained neutrality, but then entered on August 28, 1916 on the side of the Entente under the influence of the victories of the Russian army.
On August 15 (28), 1916, Romanian troops entered Transylvania. At first, the offensive was successful for Romania, but problems with logistical support quickly affected, and after the transfer of German troops from the Western Front, the situation became very complicated. The forces of the Central Powers pretty quickly defeated the relatively weak Romanian army and by the end of 1916 occupied Dobrudja and all of Wallachia, including the capital Bucharest. The royal family, government and parliament moved to Iasi. The army and a large part of the civilian population retreated to Moldova.
Romania was saved from liquidation by the Russian
Empire, which allocated an army to support it, thereby expanding the
Eastern Front to the Black Sea. Active hostilities in his Romanian
sector were resumed only in the summer of 1917, when the Romanian
army managed to recapture a small territory in the south-west of
Moldova from the enemy, however, the revolutionary events of 1917 in
Russia led to the fact that the Russian units more often refused to
fight. The territories occupied by the troops of the Central Powers
almost completely surrounded the territory of Moldova under the
jurisdiction of the Romanian government, threatening Romania in the
long term with complete elimination.
The success of the Entente on the Western Front and the Balkans in the autumn of 1918 led to a change in the balance of power, which allowed Romania to re-enter the war.
As a result of the war, Romania acquired Transylvania and annexed Bessarabia, which was previously the Bessarabian province of Russia. In 1917, Sfatul Tsarii (roman. Sfatul Ţării “Council of the Territory, the Council of the Country”) - the pro-Romanian state authority in Bessarabia (formerly part of the Principality of Moldova) - proclaimed the People’s Republic of Moldova, from March 27, 1918 - the Moldavian Democratic Republic (not recognized one state of the world) and recognized the accession of Bessarabia to Romania.
Between two world wars
After the First World War, parliamentary democracy was proclaimed in the country.
In April 1938, parliament was dissolved and a royal dictatorship was established.
In late June - early July 1940, Soviet troops, according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, occupied Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina.
By a decision of the second Vienna arbitration held by Germany and Italy on August 30, 1940, Romania transferred Northern Transylvania to Hungary. South Transylvania remained in Romanian hands.
On September 7, 1940, Romania ceded the South Dobrudja region to Bulgaria and both parties to the agreement agreed to exchange populations (minorities) in the territories adjacent to the new border. This happened as a result of the Craiova Peace Treaty.
The Second World War
During World War II, Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany. Romanian troops participated in the war against the USSR. Three new provinces were created from the Soviet territories occupied by Romania: Bessarabia, which included the right-bank part of the Moldavian SSR, Izmail Oblast, Transnistria, which included the left-bank part of the MSSR and parts of the Odessa, Nikolaev and Vinnitsa regions of the Ukrainian SSR, and Bukovina, formed by the Romanian authorities in the occupied territory Chernivtsi region of the Ukrainian SSR of the USSR.
Until 1944, a limited military contingent of the Wehrmacht was located on the territory of the country. The German air defense units created a strong air defense system to protect the oil fields of the Ploiesti region from an air attack by anti-Hitler coalition aircraft.
Throughout the war, the Ploiesti region was the main supplier of oil for the economy of the Third German Reich and was repeatedly subjected to aerial bombardment of the allies of the anti-Hitler coalition and shelling from the sea by warships of the Soviet Navy.
In August 1944, King Mihai I, united with the anti-fascist opposition, ordered the arrest of Antonescu and the pro-German generals and declared war on Germany. After that, Soviet troops were brought into Bucharest, and the allied Romanian army, together with the Soviet, fought against the Nazi coalition on the territory of Hungary, and then in Austria.
After World War II, Romania fell into the sphere of influence of the USSR, the Soviet system of legislative power was established in the country, but controlled democracy was allowed in elections to local authorities.
Peace treaties with Romania were signed in 1947 by the USSR, Great Britain, the USA, Australia, the BSSR, Czechoslovakia, India, New Zealand, the Ukrainian SSR, the Union of South Africa, and also Canada. The treaties established the borders of Romania as of January 1, 1938 (decisions of the Vienna Arbitrations of 1938 and 1940 were declared non-existent); The borders of Romania were established as of January 1, 1941, with the exception of the Romanian-Hungarian border, which was restored as of January 1, 1938 (this border was changed in accordance with the decisions of the Vienna Arbitration of 1940).
The political provisions of the treaties coincide
mainly with the corresponding provisions of the 1947 peace treaty
with Italy (dissolution of fascist organizations, restoration of
freedoms, democracy, etc.). Military provisions of the treaties
regulate the composition of the armed forces of these states. The
agreements set the volume of reparations paid by Romania. Romania
pledged to pay reparations to the Soviet Union. The right of the
aggressed countries to restitution of property removed from their
territory was recognized, as well as the right of the Soviet Union
to all German assets in Romania (later, the Soviet Union,
contributing to the economic development of Romania, refused a
significant part of the compensation for damage caused to it).
In 1947, Mihai I abdicated, Romania was proclaimed a people's republic. In 1948, socialist reforms began, the nationalization of private firms and the collectivization of agriculture were carried out.
In 1965, Nicolae Ceausescu came to power, who pursued a more independent policy. In particular, he condemned the entry of Soviet troops into Czechoslovakia in 1968, continued diplomatic relations with Israel after the Six Day War of 1967, and established diplomatic and economic relations with the Federal Republic of Germany. In 1974, Bucharest was granted the most favored nation treatment in trade with the United States. However, from 1977 to 1981, Romania’s foreign debt increased from $ 3 to $ 10 billion, resulting in increased influence from international organizations such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Austerity policies, as well as the beginning of perestroika in the USSR, led to increased dissatisfaction with Ceausescu's policies.
In December 1989, the Romanian Revolution took place, as a result of which Ceausescu was overthrown and shot, and the power passed into the hands of the National Salvation Front; an interim parliament was created - the Council of National Unity.
In May 1990, the first free presidential and parliamentary elections were held. Since 1990, Ion Iliescu, who retired in 2004, occupied the presidency for three terms (with a break in 1996–2000). During this time, the country managed to overcome the consequences of the crisis of the mid-1990s, and the government proclaimed its accession to the EU in 2007 together with Bulgaria as the main goal of its policy.
Romania joined NATO on March 29, 2004, and the EU on January 1, 2007.
The population of Romania is 19,511,000; In terms of
population, Romania ranks ninth in Europe.
As with other countries in the Eastern European region, Romania is experiencing a declining population. The birth rate is 10.5 per 1000 people, the death rate is 12.0 per 1000 people.
Most of the inhabitants of Romania are Romanians (90%, according to the 2002 census). Hungarians are the second largest percentage of the total population and make up the majority in the counties of Harghita and Covasna. The total number of Hungarians in Romania is 1.4 million people (6.6% of the country's population, or 19.6% of the population of Transylvania). Roma (535,140 people, 2.5%), Ukrainians (61,098 people, 0.3%), Germans (59,764 people, 0.3%), Russians (35,795 people, 0.2%) also live in the country. %), Gagauz (45,000 people), Turks (32,098 people, 0.2%), Crimean Tatars (23,935 people, 0.2%), Serbs (22,561 people, 0.1%), Slovaks (17 226 people, 0.08%).
Languages of Romania
The official language of Romania is Romanian, which is native to 90% of the population. The second most common language in the country is Hungarian, native to 6.8% of the population. In the 2007/2008 academic year, there were 1,003 Hungarian-teaching pre-school institutions, 41,000 children attended Hungarian-language kindergartens; 47,600 children studied Hungarian in six institutions of primary education, 44,697 students studied Hungarian in 531 gymnasiums and 398 gymnasium departments.
Romania has no official religion, but the vast majority of the population is Orthodox Christian.
86.8% - Romanian Orthodox Church;
6.0% are Protestants;
4.7% are Catholics;
2.4% are others (mostly Muslims).
Romania is divided into 8 development regions, which
are not directly administrative units, but serve to coordinate regional
development. The development regions are divided into 41 counties and 1
municipality. The counties are divided into 2686 communes (in rural
areas) and 256 municipalities. Communes and municipalities are the
smallest administrative divisions in Romania. The communes are divided
into villages that do not have their own administration and are not
administrative units. In total there are 13092 villages in Romania.
An exception in the administrative structure of Romania is the municipality of Bucharest, which, unlike other municipalities, is a second-level administrative unit. Bucharest is divided into 6 sectors, each with its own administration.
The administrative divisions of Romania follow the NUTS standard as follows:
NUTS level 1: Romania;
NUTS level 2: 8 development regions (each with a population of about 2.8 million people);
NUTS level 3: 41 counties and 1 municipality (Bucharest);
NUTS level 4: not used;
NUTS level 5: 256 cities and 2686 communes.
The current Romanian Constitution was adopted in
November 1991 and approved by popular referendum in December of that
year. According to the Constitution, Romania is a unitary state with a
republican form of government.
The head of state is the president, who is elected by the population for a five-year term. Klaus Iohannis has been President of Romania since 2014.
Legislative power in the country is exercised by a bicameral parliament, consisting of the Senate (Senate, 176 seats) and the Chamber of Deputies (Camera Deputaţilor, 412 seats).
Senators are elected by proportional representation.
The 412 members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected by proportional representation with a 5% threshold for political parties and an 8% threshold for blocs, with the remaining seats reserved for representatives of national minorities.
The term of office of MPs is 4 years.
The elections in 2012 were won by a coalition of centre-right parties called the Social-Liberal Union, which received 60.1% in the Senate and 58.63% in the Chamber of Deputies. The coalition consisted of the Social Democratic Party, the Centre-Right Alliance, the National Liberal Party and the Conservative Party.
President of the Senate - Florin Chicu (PNL).
President of the Chamber of Deputies - Marcel Colacu (PSD).
The body of constitutional supervision is the Constitutional Court (Curtea Constituțională); the highest court is the High Court of Cassation of Justice (Înalta Curte de Casație și Justiție); Courts of Appeal - Courts of Appeal (Curțile de apel din România); courts of first instance - tribunals (Tribunal); the lowest level of the judicial system - judicators (Judecătorie); the highest body of prosecutorial supervision is the Prosecutor's Office of the High Court of Cassation of Justice (Parchetul de pe lângă Înalta Curte de Casație și Justiție), consisting of the Prosecutor General of the High Court of Cassation of Justice, the first assistant (prim-adjunct), assistant (adjunct) and three advisers (consilieri) ; the Anti-Corruption Authority is the National Anti-Corruption Directorate (Direcția Națională Anticorupție) under the Prosecutor's Office and the General Anti-Corruption Directorate (Direcția Generală Anticorupție) under the Ministry of Interior and Administrative Reform.
Political parties and public organizations
"Greater Romania" (Partidul România Mare) - nationalist party;
"National Peasant Party - Christian Democrats" (Partidul Național Țărănesc Creștin Democrat) - Christian Democratic Party;
"Democratic Liberal Party" (Partidul Democrat-Liberal) - liberal democratic party;
"New Republic" (Noua Republică) - liberal-conservative party;
The Conservative Party (Partidul Conservator) is a social conservative party.
"National Liberal Party" (Partidul Național Liberal) - a liberal party;
"Green Party of Romania" (Partidul Verde) - environmental party;
The Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (Hungarian: Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség) is a party for the defense of the Hungarian population.
"Social Democratic Party of Romania" (Partidul Social Democrat) - a social democratic party;
"National Union for the Progress of Romania" (Uniunea Națională pentru Progresul României) - a center-left party of former members of the SDP and the NLP;
"People's Party - Dan Diaconescu" (Partidul Poporului - Dan Diaconescu) - left-nationalist party;
The Socialist Alternative Party (Partidul Alternativa Socialistă) is a communist party.
The largest trade union center is the National Confederation of Trade Unions of Romania - Brotherhood.
On December 6, 2009, the second round of presidential
elections took place in Romania, in which Traian Basescu won with a
minimal advantage (50.33% of the vote). His rival, one of the leaders of
the Social Democratic Party of Romania, Mircea Geoana, challenged the
election results in the Constitutional Court.
Băsescu, backed by the centre-right Justice and Truth Alliance, became president in 2004 with 51.23% of the vote. His opponent was the chairman of the ruling Social Democratic Party, 54-year-old Adrian Năstase.
The presidential elections were considered the most violent since the fall of the communist regime in 1989.
Justice and Truth Democracy Alliance candidate Traian Basescu, 53, a Bucharest mayor, a former sea captain who has also served as transport minister in several governments, has criticized the authorities for being too slow in implementing liberal reforms.
Romania has tensions in relations with Moldova, these countries do not have a border treaty with each other. In November 2013, Traian Basescu announced his desire to create a single state with Moldova, but the Prime Minister of Moldova, Iurie Leanca, in response to this, stated that Moldova was not ready to unite with Romania.
From January 1, 2019, the minimum gross wage amounted
to 2080 lei and 2350 lei for qualified specialists. The Keitz index (the
ratio between the minimum and average wages in the country) in Romania
as of 2019 (average - 4532 lei, and minimum - 2080 lei) is about 46%.
From January 1, 2021, the gross minimum wage was 2300 lei and 2350 lei
for qualified specialists (€473.07 and €483.36 for qualified
specialists), and net 1386 lei and 1413 lei for qualified specialists
(€285.08 and €290.63 for qualified professionals). From January 1, 2022,
the gross minimum wage is 2550 lei (€515.61) and net 1524 lei (€308.16).
General condition, main indicators
Advantages: oil reserves, successfully transitioned to a stable market economy. Low inflation (3.2%). The country is a member of the EU single market. Relatively high economic growth (above the EU average), and low public debt (below the EU average). Still relatively cheap, and well-educated, in comparison with the EU countries, the workforce. With the unemployment rate plummeting and the labor shortage widening, wage growth as of 2019 is not constrained by the economic slowdown.
Weaknesses: Poor resource base. Strong corruption. Slowly advancing market reforms. Low investment in infrastructure and R&D. The biggest problem (as in other countries of the new EU members) is the increasing shortage of able-bodied labor force every year, and the increase in the number of pensioners, due to low birth rates and high emigration of the population to other, richer, EU countries, which in turn forces employers to pay more to their workers, thereby artificially raising wages, which leads to an imbalance between productivity and wages.
One of the largest sectors of the economy is oil production, Rompetrol occupies a significant market share, but oil reserves are insignificant and its production is constantly decreasing.
One of the largest manufacturers of oil and gas equipment (80% of the production of all oil and gas equipment) - "Plant Upetrom - May 1" in (Ploiesti); in 2008 the plant celebrated its 100th anniversary since its founding.
Since the mid-2000s, Romania's oil consumption has been roughly double its own production, and this ratio also applies to oil imports and exports.
Romania has natural gas reserves and production, but in recent years the country has had to import gas to meet its needs.
The leading branch of agriculture is plant growing and grain farming. Developed viticulture. In animal husbandry - breeding of sheep and cattle.
Tourism is developing. The largest resort region of the country is the Black Sea coast of Romania.
The distribution of the labor force: about 30% - in agriculture, 23% - in industry, 47% - in the service sector (2006).
The main articles of Romanian exports are engineering products 29.5%, vehicles and spare parts for them 18.4% and products of the metallurgical industry 7.8%. In 2017, the volume of exports was estimated at 70.5 billion dollars. Imports are dominated by engineering products, raw materials, including oil and gas, chemicals, textiles and textile products. In 2017, the volume of imports was estimated at $81.4 billion.
The main partners in foreign trade are Germany, Italy, France, Hungary (2017).
Romanian Railways is a railway company that performs a
significant part of the freight and passenger transportation within the
country. The length of railways is over 11 thousand km.
A feature of the Romanian railways is single-track, which greatly slows down the movement of transport and goods.
1075 km of the transport network runs along the Danube. The importance of the Romanian ports increases with the creation of the trans-European Rhine-Danube highway.
In the 10th-13th centuries, the settlements consisted of rectangular dwellings built of thick logs and hewn beams. Less often there were huts that had a wooden frame, intertwined with branches and smeared with clay; the wooden rafters of high overhanging roofs were covered with straw or shingles.
Stone construction was carried out mainly by feudal lords. The houses of the nobility were modest. Stone estates consisted mainly of 3-4 rooms with a gallery on one of the facades (the estate in Curtea de Arges, XIII-XIV centuries).
Early churches had a rectangular plan and an apse in the eastern part. They were built from rough stone blocks and bricks.
The Church of St. Nicholas in Curtea de Arges (1310-1352) is cross-domed, built of alternating rows of stone and brick, with a dome on pillars, which indicates the influence of Byzantine culture. Also widely known is the Kokosh Monastery in Isaccea.
From the 10th-11th centuries, during the formation of feudal estates, art began to emerge in Romania. In Wallachia and Moldova - under the influence of the culture of Byzantium, Bulgaria and Serbia; in Transylvania, the cultures of Germany, the Czech Republic, and Poland.
Painting: The largest Romanian artist and in fact the founder of modern Romanian painting was Nicolae Grigorescu.
The largest Romanian composers are George Enescu, Horatio Radulescu, Jancu Dumitrescu, George Stefanescu.
Radio stations: Radio România Actualități, Radio
România Cultural, Radio România Regional, Digi FM, Radio ZU, Kiss FM,
Magic FM, Radio Europa FM, Virgin Radio , "Radio Pro FM" and "Național
FM". Radio stations available on medium wave: "Radio România
Actualități", "Radio România Regional" and "Radio Antena Satelor" Radio
Antena Satelor broadcasts on 153m LW."Radio Romania Muzical"
DAB (Bucharest): 223.936 (12A).
TV channels available via DVB-T (formerly on analog UHF): TVR 1, TVR 2, TVR 3, Antena 1 and Pro TV.
Romania has achieved and continues to achieve the
greatest success in sports in gymnastics, rowing and athletics. The
history of gymnastics knows such outstanding Romanian women as Nadia
Comaneci (or Nadia Comanech), Simona Amanar, Yolanda Belash, Lavinia
Milosevic, Daniela Silivas, Catalina Ponor. The most famous Romanian
professional tennis player is Simona Halep, a former world number one.
Winner of two Grand Slam tournaments in singles; finalist of three Grand
Slam tournaments in singles; winner of 24 WTA tournaments.
In football, her team reached the quarterfinals of the World Cup 94, after 4 years - in the 1/8 finals. The most prominent football players: Gheorghe Hadji (retired), Dan Petrescu, Gheorghe Popescu (same status), Adrian Mutu, Ciprian Marika, Cristian Chivu, Razvan Rat.
The capital football club "Steaua" won the European Cup and the UEFA Super Cup in the 1985/86 season, and was also a finalist in the 1988/89 season.
The Romanian rugby team is one of the strongest teams in Europe: it has won the European Nations Cup four times, and also participated in all seven World Cups.
Romania is also gradually developing in winter sports - in particular, luge and bobsleigh and biathlon.
The armed forces of Romania consist of ground forces, naval and air forces.