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Pompeii Forum

 Pompeii forum

 

 

 

 

Pompeii Forum

Forum PompeiiPompeii Forum is the center of religious, cultural and political life of the ancient Pompeii. It contained some of the most beautiful buildings in the city. The Forum of Pompeii was originally the central open space in the settlement. The city spread and grew in size. By the time of the eruption it was located in the South- West corner of the settlement. It measured 157 meters by 38 meters. It was lined by commercial, public and religious buildings important in the daily lives of common Roman citizens.

 

The central plaza was lined by two rows of Doric colonnade. The bottom row consisted of Doric columns, while the top row was lined by Ionic columns. Additionally there were several statues that graced this important part of the city. Unfortunately many of them were destroyed by an earlier earthquake of 62 AD and were never rebuild. The only thing that reminds of their former existence are pedestals that were left abandoned.

 

Two main entrances were located at the north of the plaza with two triumphal arches. The bigger eastern arch was dedicated to Germanicus, step son of emperor Tiberius who made his name by defeating Germanic tribes in 12AD just few years after these tribes under leadership of Arminius dealt a humiliating blow to the Roman Empire by exterminating three Roman legions under leadership of Publius Quinctilius Varus in Teutoburg Forest.

 

 

 

 

 

Temple of Jupiter and Arch of Germanicus (in the back) (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forum

The Temple of Jupiter (Roman version of Greek god Zeus) was the central temple in Pompeii. Although it venerated the highest god in the pantheon of Latin pagan gods, it was also a site of worship for Juno (Roman version of Greek goddess Hera) and Minerva (Athens). Statues of gods were added during the reign of Sulla (80s BC). Only a few fragments of statues dedicated to these deities have survived. Since main temple of the Pompeii forum was used to worship three gods, it is sometimes called the Temple of the Capitoline Triad.

 

The construction of this temple became an important symbol of the fact that the Roman god Jupiter began to replace the cult of Apollo, who was the central deity in Pompeii before the Romans captured it. Pompeii was occupied by the Romans, beginning in 310 BC. Nevertheless, he retained most of his autonomy until the Italian uprising against Rome at the beginning of the 1st century BC struck. In the year 89, the city was besieged by Sulla, who was able to capture Pompeii. Latin language, Roman culture and law soon began to dominate the city and its culture. The architecture of the city was largely formed by the Greeks, but Roman rule soon led to changes in this style. Unlike the previous Greek and Samnite architecture, which built little public buildings or had rather modest open forums, the Romans strongly believed in the importance of architecture in religious and civilian life. Pompeii has been turned into a much more public and open space. Public buildings and spaces began to dominate in the city during the roman rule.

 

The Temple of Jupiter was built in the 2nd century BC (about 150 BC) around the time when the Temple of Apollo was repaired. Population of Pompeii increased it at the beginning of the 1st century during the reign of the Roman emperor Tiberius. The podium that serves as the foundation for the temple of Jupiter has dimensions of 37 meters by 17 meters and a height of 3 meters. A double staircase that led to a portico supported by five columns in depth and 6 columns in width. The cella or interior was divided into three parts by two rows of columns of ionic and Corinthian architectural styles. The side aisles were very narrow. The original wall decor consisted of frescoes of the first style on artificial marble. Later during the reign of Sulla (1st century BC) the walls were covered with frescoes of the second style.

Temple of Jupiter housed statues of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. The head of Jupiter is still kept in the ruins of the temple. The floor is lined with diamond-shaped stone boards, creating the effect of bulk cubes. The basement served as the treasury of the temple. The building was heavily damaged by an earthquake of 62 years, but was partially repaired during the reconstruction of the Pompeii forum. At the time of the eruption, the temple of Jupiter was still being repaired. The much smaller Temple of Asclepius, or the Temple of Jupiter, Meilihios, became the main place of worship for Jupiter and the Capitoline Triad during that period. The original Temple of Jupiter was still waiting for restoration when Mount Vesuvius awoke in 79, burying the city of Pompeii under a layer of volcanic dust, ash and pumice. The excavated temple can still be seen in Pompeii today.

 

Triumphal Arch of the Pompeii Forum

At the northern side of the Pompeii Forum, temple of Jupiter is flanked by two triumphal arches. On the west side of the Temple of Jupiter stood the triumphal arch of Germanicus. General Germanicus was an adopted son of Emperor Tiberius and the father of Emperor Caligula. This Roman general gained wide popularity by defeating the Germanic tribes in the 12 AD. This happened in retaliation for the massacre in the Teutoburg Forest, when Germanic tribes, under the command of Chief Arminius, destroyed three Roman legions under the leadership of Publius Quentilius Varus in 9 AD.

On the east side of the temple once stood a triumphal arch, which was demolished, so that the third triumphal arch was better visible from the Forum. That arch was dedicated to the emperor Tiberius. In his niches, turned to the Pompeii forum, stood the statues of Drusus and the emperor Nero.

 

Temple of Apollo (Tempio di Apollo) (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forum  Pompeii forum

Temple of Apollo was originally constructed by the Etruscans in the 5th century BC. It was established from remnants of Etruscan fragments with a dedication to various gods. Although the first altars in the open air stood on Pompeii Forum from the 8th century BC. Although Apollo was a Greek god, the influence of Greek colonists spread far beyond their homeland. In particular, the Etruscans took Apollo for their own, changing the name to Apulu. The rest remains unchanged.

 

Over a course of centuries the size and layout of the shrine changed repeatedly. Much of the layout you see today on Pompeii Forum date back to the 2nd century BC. It was built by the Samnites under the direction of a questor Oppius Kompanus, as evidenced by the inscription on one of the stones found here. Together with the Doric temple, the Temple of Apollo is one of the most ancient temples of the city and one of the oldest in this region of Italy. Apollo was considered the patron saint of commerce and therefore for the inhabitants of Pompeii this god had an important role. He was considered the patron saint of Pompeii. In fact, for many centuries it was the most important temple in the city. Only with the arrival of the Romans, the cult of Jupiter became dominant, and the temple of Jupiter became the center of religious and political life. During the reign of Emperor Augustus, sports games were held dedicated to the god Apollo, known as Ludi Apollinarians.

 

The temple was badly damaged by an earthquake in 62 AD so it was reconstructed shortly before final destruction of Pompeii. A bronze statue of god Apollo was places on pedestal on an Eastern side. It is copy since the original was moved to a museum. Sun dial in front of the temple helped residents of Pompeii to track the movement of sun driven by god Apollo across the sky in his chariot.

 

 

The Temple of Apollo stands at a slight angle relative to the entire Forum of Pompeii, since during construction the streets were laid at a slightly different angle. During the Roman period, walls were erected around the temple of Apollo and separated it from the rest of the Pompeii Forum. The walls of the sanctuary were built using bricks. What we see today is only rough masonry, but the walls and floors were originally covered with veneer made of fine marble. The whole temple was surrounded by a colonnade of 28 columns made of tuff from the city of Nozer. Columns were toped with Ionic capitals, which were replaced by plaster columns with Corinthian capitals painted in yellow, red and dark blue. Today, only two columns are completely preserved, but the paint has been lost. The remaining columns fell during an earthquake that accompanied the eruption of Mount Vesuvius. The inner walls had niches painted with scenes from the Trojan War.

The bronze statue of the god Apollo stands on a pedestal on the east side of the courtyard in front of the temple. This is a copy of the original, which was transferred to the museum. The courtyard also had statues of Venus, Hermaphrodite, Hermes and a bust of Artemis with a bow.

Pompeii Basilica (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forum  Pompeii forum

Basilica is a civil and political building of Pompeii that stood on the Western side of the Pompeii Forum. It was constructed somewhere between 120 BC and 80 BC. It is quite possible this is the first basilica of this type in the entire Roman Empire. By the way, the first Christian churches were basilicas and they were built in this architectural style for many centuries. Therefore, the early Byzantine churches looked like the basilica of Pompeii. An example of such a structure can be found for example in the city of Nessebar in Bulgaria.

 

Pompeii Basilica measures 24 meters by 64 meters. Most of Pompeii Basilica did not survive, however remains of the building indicate that it was a peristyle lined by 28 Corinthian columns. The depths of the basilica had two-story "tribunal" or the Court. It rises just above the level of the head and has six Corinthian columns along the whole front. Initially Basilica served as a market, but in the first century AD it was turned into a city court. The interior of the walls are covered by numerous graffiti. One of them claim: "O walls, you have held up so much tedious graffiti that I am amazed that you have not already collapsed in ruin.".

 

 

Other graffiti and writings in the Pompeii basilica include:

If you are able, but not willing, why do you put off our joy and kindle hope and tell me always to come back tomorrow. So, force me to die since you force me to live without you. Your gift will be to stop torturing me. Certainly, hope returns to the lover what it has once snatched away.
Phileros is a eunuch!
Let everyone in love come and see. I want to break Venus’ ribs with clubs and cripple the goddess’ loins. If she can strike through my soft chest, then why can’t I smash her head with a club?
Chie, I hope your hemorrhoids rub together so much that they hurt worse than when they ever have before!
Epaphra, you are bald!
Caesius faithfully loves M[…name lost]
A small problem gets larger if you ignore it.
Auge loves Allotenus.
No young buck is complete until he has fallen in love.
Gaius Pumidius Dipilus was here on October 3rd 78 BC.
Pyrrhus to his colleague Chius: I grieve because I hear you have died; and so farewell.
Take hold of your servant girl whenever you want to; it’s your right.
Samius to Cornelius: go hang yourself!
Lucius Istacidius, I regard as a stranger anyone who doesn’t invite me to dinner.
The man I am having dinner with is a barbarian.
Virgula to her friend Tertius: you are disgusting!
The one who buggers a fire burns his penis.
Epaphra is not good at ball games.
Love dictates to me as I write and Cupid shows me the way, but may I die if god should wish me to go on without you.
Sarra, you are not being very nice, leaving me all alone like this.

 

Pompeii basilica differs from many other buildings in Pompeii by its proportions in that the main entrance is on the short side with a view of the forum, and not on the more traditional long side. As a result, the tribunal (the elevation on which the masters sat) is located on the short rear wall, on the axis with the entrance. The entrance has five doorways, one on each side of the portico and one between each pair of columns.

In addition to the main entrance, the Basilica also has two side entrances on Via Marina or Maritime Street and Vikolo di Championnet respectively.

 

The interior has a central nave and two side rows. The central square is surrounded on four sides by twenty-eight large brick columns. A number of Ionic semi-columns are located on the walls of the basilica at half the height. Between the columns the side walls are covered with plaster and painted with frescoes with the characteristic of the first style.

Many fragments of Corinthian columns of the same diameter were found near the north wall. The building was illuminated by light that fell between the columns. At the western end of the tribunal were located adjacent symmetrical rooms. The raised stand is surrounded by six Corinthian columns. Above the tribunes was the upper row of half-columns, which served as a frame for rectangular windows.

The basilica played an important role in both the civil and commercial life of Pompeii. Not only was justice administered here, but it was also the center of the commercial life of the city.

 

Temple of the Lares Publici (Pompeii Forum)

Forum Pompeii  Forum Pompeii

Temple of the Lares Publici is located south of Macellum on the east side of the Forum of Pompeii. Temple of the Lares Publici was constructed after the earthquake of 62 AD and was intended as a sanctuary for the state Lares and the deified Emperor Augustus. Lares are the ancient Roman statues of gods, patrons of the family or in this case entire city of Pompeii. Similar altars were found in many houses around Pompeii.

 

Temple of the Lares Publici measures 18 by 21 metres and was dedicated to deified emperor Octavian Augustus. Lares is the ancient Roman statues of gods, patrons of the family or in this case entire Pompeii. Altar for sacrifices stood in the middle of the temple. This building was an open area on the east side of the Forum of Pompeii with a central altar, where sacrifices were made. Today, much of the interior of the Temple of Lares Publici is lost.

 

The walls of the sanctuary were built of brickwork, covered with plaster and colorful frescoes. However, all the decorations today have collapsed. Today, much of the interior of the Temple of the Lares Publici is lost. What we see today is only rough masonry, but the walls and floors were originally covered with pieces of fine marble. The building itself consists of a large, unequipped courtyard with a large apse occupying most of the back wall. In the center of the apse there was a socle in height up to 1.8 meters, on which stood a shrine with a pedestal for three statues. On the north and south side of the square there are two alys in which the statues stood on a pedestal. Two entrances were surrounded by pilasters on the sides, and they were divided by two columns.

 

Municipal Offices (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forumSome terms
Aedil (Latin aedilis; from aedes - the temple) - in ancient times, one of the colleges of the city councils of Rome.
Duumviri or Duoviri - two persons to whom the state jointly entrusted care of the city.

 

Municipal Offices of Pompeii forum are three small buildings in the Southern part of the Pompeii forum. They were built after 62 AD earthquake on a site of older municipal buildings that served the same purpose. At the time of the eruption, only the building of duumviri (most eastern) was completed. These state order implied that they were in charge of the finances of Pompeii as well as its judges. Two other buildings did not have both internal and external decoration.

 

All three buildings are similar in structure and layout. Each room had niches and an apse. The walls were lined with marble and painted with frescoes. Additionally the interior of the buildings had several statues. Western building was intended for two aediles. Their duties included maintaining the order in Pompeii, as well as enforcement of rules of the town market. The central building was part of the Curia and was intended to hold the meeting of the Municipal Council (Ordo Decurionum). East Building was intended for duumvirs. By the time of the eruption only the interior of the Eastern building was completed. Duumvirs served as judges and also managed finances of Pompeii. Therefore, immediately after the earthquake of 62 AD the city began reconstruction of their offices right away.

 

Macellum (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forum

Macellum was the main food market  for the residents of Pompeii and surrounding villages. It was constructed around 1st century BC and later increased in size and splendor during the Roman period. It is a rectangular space that measures 37 metres by 27 metres. The area was taken by several small shops. There is also a small shrine in one end of the open air market place dedicated to the Imperial family. Two statues stand in the niches of the small temple. One was dedicated to Marcellus, Octavia's (sister of Emperor Octavian Augustus) son and another was dedicated to Octavia herself. Judging by archeological digs fish was sold underneath a round roof that sat on columns in the center of the plaza. It was apparently also scaled here by request of customers. Many fish scales were discovered here in a ditch.

 

 

 

Comitium (Pompeii Forum)

Comitium is a site that was located opposite of the Basilica. In the ancient times it was a place for gathering for magistrates of Pompeii. Here they voted for various important issues. Words like "committee" is derived from this Latin term. The city council gathered here and knocked out important city officials. Pompeii were controlled two Duumvir who were chosen every year. It is not known how many terms these political figures could get out. They sat in the Comitium and made the last decision in all matters.

 

Aedil - city masters obeyed the duumvirs and monitored the implementation of their decisions. There were no roofs for Comitium and initially this square was open to the entire forum. Apparently Comitium was rebuilt right before the eruption. As a result of this construction, walls were erected, separating a small area from the rest of the Pompeii forum. Archaeologists have not been able to establish whether the Comitium was a roof. Apparently some kind of wooden structure defended members of the committee from rain and sun. Within the walls there were also niches in which statues of gods were placed. Most of the statues are not preserved. A wave of lava just broke them, and scattered pieces throughout the building. Little that remains of the once rich and colorful interior. Only multides colored pieces were found on the floor. Therefore, it is logical to assume that it was one of the most beautiful and stately buildings in the whole city. Of course, nothing of this wealth has survived today. Today there are only bare walls, devoid of frescoes, plaster and marble, which once covered the Comitium.

 

Temple of Vespasian (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forum  Pompeii forum

Temple of Vespasian stands on the Eastern side of the Forum of Pompeii. The dedication of the temple is still a subject of debate. Some think that the sanctuary was actually devoted to the Genius (family protector) of Octavian Augustus. Then it was transferred to subsequent emperors and finally became the temple of Vespasian. We remind you that his son Titus became the ruler of the Roman Empire only three months before the death of the city of Pompeii, so the church did not have time to transfer the new ruler.

 

The most prominent part of the building is a marble altar that stands in the center. It represents part of the religious ritual where a priest stands over a tripod for sacrifices. A man leads the bull that is intended for the sacrifice to gods. He is carrying an ax intended for a religious execution.

 

 

Building of Eumachia (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forum

Building of Eumachia was named after a rich and influential priestess Eumachia who donated her money in the 1st century AD for the construction of the temple. It is one of the most prominent buildings on Pompeii Forum. An inscription above a side door read: "Eumachia, daughter of Lucius, a public priestess, in her own name, and in the name of her son, Murcus Numistrius Fronto, made the chalcidicum, the crypta and the porticus with her own money and dedicated the same to Concordia Augusta and to Pietas". The structure was constructed out of brick and later surfaces with marble slabs as a skin of the building.

 

In ancient times Building of Eumachia served as a warehouse and exchange site for fabrics in the Pompeii Forum. It is not clear what was relationship of Eumachia to fabrics, but it is possible that her family was involved in linen business. In the far corner of the building of Eumachia three apses were erected. They held three statues of emperor Tiberius, Libya (wife of Octavian Augustus and mother of Tiberius) and Nero Claudius Drusus, brother of Tiberius. Behind the building you can see a statue of Eumachia herself. Statue survived the eruption, but original version is kept in the Historic museum of Naples. A replica of the ancient Roman statue stands on the original site.

 

 

 

Granary (Pompeii Forum)

On the north-west side of Pompeii Forum a warehouse was built for storing grain. In ancient times, grain and other important foods were stored here. The food here was usually kept in case of a crop failure or natural disaster. In such cases, diumviry or two masters, who were chosen keep an order in the city for a set term. Under their orders, they could open the doors of the granary and then distributed food here for a small price to the rich and free of charge to the poor citizens of the city. One way or another, hunger would be the first consequence in the event of a natural cataclysm. If Pompeii were not killed by lava, which destroyed the city in the very morning, the granary would have been open in the first hours after the eruption. Distributing food would be the first step in eliminating social unrest. The old Roman rule of "Bread and show" was always relevant.

It is easily recognizable by the modern roof. Most of the granary of Pompeii is filled with artifacts found in the city during archaeological excavations. Apparently in the museums they are not needed, but it is necessary to protect. Unfortunately, the granary is usually closed to visitors, but through the grids you can look at the even rows of amphoras, small things and of course plaster casts of the victims of the eruption: people, dogs, even pigs. In some plaster casts you can see the bones of the victims. Some casts are so well preserved that it is possible to determine the clothing of the victim or even the status of a person. So a large wide belt is clearly visible around the waist of the deceased resident of Pompeii. This belt is a sign of a slave. It had the name of the owner and address. Essentially the same thing as we put on a dog belt today.

 

Piblic toilets (Pompeii Forum)

Toilets forum pompeii

The photograph above shows the public toilets that were located on the northwest corner of the forum. Forum Pompeii was built wisely. One of the entrances to the Pompeii forum had public toilets for the citizens of the city. However, like much of the forum, the toilets have been hit hard by the pyroclastic flow. The protruding stones along the edges of the toilet supported wooden or stone slabs with holes in them. Under the seats flowed a stream of water that washes away all impurities. In the photo on the right you can see the pipe where the water flowed into the general sewage system. Archaeological excavations in this place told a lot about the life and diet of the ancient Romans.

There were no partitions between the seats, so people could socialise with all those present. By the way, they did not disdain to use a sponge on a stick to wipe instead of toilet paper. How often this sponge washed is not known, and do not really want to know, to be honest.

 

Diet in the Roman Empire
The practice of throwing kitchen waste into toilets was unhygienic in the life of the ancient Romans, but the remnants of this garbage are now a rich source of information. The archaeologists working here were surprised by the quality and variety of products in the sewers of Pompeii, especially because it was connected to a residential complex that had a large number of poor people. The rich lived next door and hardly used the public toilets of the Pompeii Forum. They were not only dirtier than domestic toilets, but also much more dangerous. Anyone could have been robbed or even killed. The Romans even made amulets and talismans specifically for a safe trip to the public toilet. Therefore, they were used mostly by the poor citizens of Pompeii. Nevertheless, the data obtained during the excavations show that even poor people ate variety of different kinds of food, most often figs, eggs, olives, grapes and mollusks. They seasoned their dishes with spices such as dill, mint, coriander, and mustard seeds.

Archaeologists also used the contents of the sewage system to obtain information on the wider consumption of food. From the number of fish bones found, she concluded that the regional trade in fish was probably much more intense than scientists had expected.

 

Public weights and measures table (Pompeii Forum)

Pompeii forum

In this part of the Pompeii Forum there was a government agency that followed the exact standard of weight, length and other Roman units of measurement. "Mensa ponderaria" was a table with the official measures of the city, guaranteeing citizens protection from fraud by shop owners and merchants. All traders had to pass an examination of this institution so that they could trade. If the trader was caught in altering their weights or scales, such merchant could be arrested or fined. On the photo above is an example of how bulk products are measured (for example, grain). First, the merchant measured his goods, and then checked against the state standard measure.