Population: 10,584,344

Calling code: +351

Currency: Euro (EUR)


Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a unitary sovereign country located in southwestern Europe, whose territory is located in the western part of the Iberian Peninsula and in archipelagos in the North Atlantic. The Portuguese territory has a total area of 92 090 km2, being delimited to the North and East by Spain and to the South and West by The Atlantic Ocean, comprising a continental part and two autonomous regions: the archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. Portugal is the westernmost nation on the European continent. The name of the country comes from its second largest city, Porto, whose Latin Celtic name was Portus Cale.

The territory within the current borders of the Portuguese Republic has been continuously populated since prehistoric times: occupied by lusitanians and by Celts, such as the gallaecians, it was integrated into the Roman Republic and later annexed by Germanic peoples, such as the suevi and the Visigoths. In the VIII century, the lands were conquered by the moors. During the Christian Reconquest the Portucalense County was formed, established in the ninth century by Vímara Peres, a vassal of the king of Asturias. The county became part of the Kingdom of León in 1097, and the counts of Portugal established themselves as independent rulers of the kingdom in the twelfth century, after the Battle of São Mamede. In 1139 the Kingdom of Portugal was established, whose independence was recognized in 1143. In 1297 the borders were defined in the Treaty of Alcanizes, making Portugal the oldest nation-state in Europe with defined borders. In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, as a result of pioneering work in the age of Discovery (see: Portuguese discoveries), Portugal expanded Western influence and established an empire that included possessions in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South America, becoming the most important economic, political and military power in the world. The Portuguese Empire was the first global empire in history, beginning with the conquest of Ceuta in 1415, but the country's international importance was deteriorating during the nineteenth century, a century marked by the independence of Brazil, its largest colony.

With the revolution of 1910, the monarchy was abolished, counting 34 monarchs between 1139 and 1910. The first Portuguese Republic was very unstable, due to high parliamentarism. The regime gave way to a military dictatorship due to an uprising on May 28, 1926. Already in 1933, the Estado Novo was established, an authoritarian regime originally presided over by Salazar that lasted until 1974. Representative democracy was established after the revolution of 25 April 1974, which ended the colonial war. During this period, the overseas provinces of Portugal, such as Angola and Mozambique, became independent, and finally, in 1999, the transfer of sovereignty from Macau to China took place, marking the end of an empire with almost 600 years of existence and the longest lasting of the European colonial empires.

Portugal is a developed country, with a Human Development Index (HDI) considered very high. The country was ranked 22nd.In 2023), and is also one of the most globalized and peaceful nations in the world. It is a member of the United Nations (UN), the European Union (including the Euro zone and the Schengen Area), the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the community of Portuguese-speaking countries (CPLP). Portugal also participates in several United Nations peacekeeping missions.



North (Douro Litoral, Minho, Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro)
The North has the most monuments in the country, including some of the oldest. It is considered the birthplace of the nation and includes the country's first capital, Guimarães, the city of Braga, known as the city of the Archbishops and the second most important Portuguese city, Porto.

Center-North (Beira Alta, Beira Baixa, Beira Litoral)
It is also a very historic region of the country, which attracts people from all over the country to Serra da Estrela, the only point in the country where there are resorts and ski slopes in winter. It includes Fátima, a worldwide pilgrimage destination, and Coimbra, famous worldwide for its university, is the city of knowledge.

Center-South (Estremadura — Greater Lisbon, Oeste, Setúbal Peninsula; Ribatejo, Alto Alentejo)
This is the heart of the country, including the capital and some of the most fabulous beaches in the country, such as São Pedro de Moel and Nazaré, among others. It includes Lisbon, the political, cultural and economic center of the country, Évora, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and the bullfighting region of Santarém.

South (Baixo Alentejo, Algarve)
Tourist region par excellence, the Algarve and its beaches are the main attraction of this region and the country. In addition to the beaches, it also includes the historic cities of Beja, Tavira and Faro, the Fortress of Sagres and the Badoca Safari Park in Santiago do Cacém, a piece of Africa in Europe.

Autonomous region overseas. In the Azores, the city of Angra do Heroísmo is a charming historic Azorean town, and Lagoa das Sete Cidades, the visiting card of the Azores.

Autonomous region overseas. The beautiful island of Madeira, with its cliffs leading down to the Atlantic Ocean and its famous fireworks display to celebrate New Year's Eve.


Travel Destinations in Portugal


Lisbon is the largest city in Portugal and also the capital of the country. It numbers over half a million in population and covers a large area, however its historic centre is what usually draws thousands of tourists here.

Braga, the third Portuguese city
Aveiro, the Portuguese Venice
Coimbra, city of students
Évora, world heritage city
Faro, tourist center of Portugal
Porto, the undefeated city and the second city in the country in terms of importance
Viana do Castelo, where the biggest pilgrimage in the country takes place
Santarém, city with history and crossed by the Tagus river and the city of bullfights
Guimarães, "cradle city", first capital of the country with a well-preserved historic center and world heritage


Other destinations

Alcobaça Monastery is a Roman Catholic abbey situated in Alcobaça, Leiria District. It was found in 1153 by Afonso I Henriques.

Medieval Almourol Castle in Vila Nova de Barquinha parish was constructed on a site of an ancient Roman citadel.

Arraiolos Castle is a round medieval citadel in a city of Arraiolos, Évora District in Portugal.

Catholic Batalha Monastery or Mosteiro Santa Maria da Vitória was constructed to commemorate Portuguese victory over its enemies.

Conímbriga is the largest and most sophisticated Ancient Roman settlement in Portugal. It is situated 2 km South of Condeixa- a- Nova.

Convent of the Order of Christ in Tomar is a Catholic abbey that was originally constructed as a castle for Templar knights.

Medieval Evoramonte Castle became famous as a signing site that ended a Portugues Civil War in the 19th century.

The Monserrate Palace is a former palatial villa located near a town of Sintra in Portugal. It was build in 1858 for English baronet Sir Francis Cook.

Mosteiro dos Jeronimos is one of the largest religious complexes of Roman Catholic Church in Lisbon and certainly one of the most visited one.

Close proximity of Sintra National Palace to Lisbon and its designation as an World Heritage Site makes it one of the most visited tourist destinations in Portugal.

Medieval Palmela Castle is a former Araba fortress that saw actions for most of its long history till it was badly damaged by an earthquake.

Pena National Palace is without a doubt one of the most picturesque and unique residence in Portugal and all of Europe.

Queluz National Palace is a magnificent 18th century Portuguese estate in Queluz, Lisbon District.

Medieval Sabugal Castle was constructed in the 13th century on a hill overlooking crossing of Côa river.



New Year - January 1;
Carnival Tuesday - February/March, the day before Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent;
Good Friday - March/April, Friday in Holy Week;
Freedom Day - April 25, the anniversary of the 1974 revolution;
Labor Day - May 1;
Feast of Corpus Christi - May / June, the ninth Thursday after Easter;
Portugal Day - June 10;
Feast of the Assumption of the Virgin - August 15;
Republic Day - October 5, the anniversary of the proclamation in 1910 of the Republic of Portugal;
All Saints Day - November 1;
Independence Day - December 1, the anniversary of the declaration of independence from Spain in 1640;
Feast of the Immaculate Conception - December 8;
Christmas - December 25


Getting here

For citizens of the European Union, it is not necessary to have any type of visa, just carry a legal document that identifies the person.
If you have a passport you should take it and take a photocopy of the main page.
Brazilian and Cape Verdean citizens do not need any visa to enter the country as tourists, but must be passport holders. However, for stays longer than 90 days they will have to go to the SEF to acquire a residence visa.

By plane
The plane is the main means of transport used by tourists. Portela/Lisbon Airport is the busiest and the one that receives the most tourists throughout the year. The Airports of Porto / Sá Carneiro (Pedras Rubras,Maia) and Faro/Algarve also stand out since, with the introduction of low-cost flights, many lines were created between these cities and the rest of the European Union.

From Brazil, TAP offers direct flights to Lisbon. From Africa, companies such as TAAG (Angola) and TACV (Cape Verde) also fly to the Portuguese capital.

By boat
Due to having a large coastline, the boat is a means of transport widely used to reach Portugal, namely the Algarve and Lisbon. The Port of Lisbon receives throughout the year and Daily several cruise ships, from 3 stars to 5 stars, with a capacity of 2 to 3 thousand passengers. Being the annual average of approximately 300 cruises, which call in Lisbon.

By car
With an excellent national road network, it is easy and fast to get around Portugal from North to South and from East to West. The main road entry points in Portugal are: North: Valença (direct access to the A3) and Chaves (direct access to the A7) Center: Vilar Formoso (direct access to the A25) South: Elvas / Caia (direct access to the A6) and Vila Real De Santo António (direct access to the A22)

By bus
The bus has played a key role in transport between countries in Europe. Many tourists from the central part of the continent prefer to get to Portugal by bus because it is cheaper and more effective.

Many tour groups use the bus to get to Fatima, a world pilgrimage site.

By train
There are several railways to reach Portugal, including from Vigo, Cáceres, Badajoz, Salamanca and Madrid.

There are trains out of the country from the country's major cities such as Lisbon, Porto, Évora, Aveiro, Coimbra and Faro. Lisbon is connected with Madrid (Spain); the port with Vigo (Spain); Vilar de Formoso to Spain, France and the rest of Europe. In the south of the country it is not possible to enter the country by train from Spain. Southeastern Portugal is connected by international lines (Linha do Este and linha de Cárceres) to Spain. For example; from Elvas / Caia, Portugal to Badajoz, Spain; from Marvão-Beira, Portugal to Valencia de Alcántara, Spain. For more information see the website of Comboios de Portugal.


Transport around country

By car/motorcycle
The roads are generally in good condition. All major cities can be easily reached via motorways or highways. The largest cities all have (mostly toll) motorway connections, and from north to south you can also use the motorway at full length. However, some side roads are in poor condition, which can make them dangerous if you are not careful.

By car you can go anywhere. From Faro to Porto there is a motorway (A2/ A1). The A2 leads to Lisbon, then you have to take the A1 to Porto if the destination is to be Porto or similar. Since 2005, you can take the motorway from Porto to Vilar Formoso to the Spanish border. This route is about 300 kilometers long. Both the bridge "Ponte 25 Abril" and the bridge "Vasco da Gama" next to the former Expo site are also worth a crossing for tourists. Almost all motorways are subject to tolls.

Here are a few points to keep in mind on the toll highways:

The system is difficult and complicated and offers several ways to pay the toll, for some routes (e.g. Algarve motorway between Lagos and Castro Marim) - marked with "electronic toll only" - you have to pre-book and pay for the toll control online with license plate registration (www.portugaltolls.pt or visitportugal.com ), which is the most convenient way, because, for example, you pay about 20 € for three days and can drive through on the "via verde" without stopping (observe the 60 km / h limit!). Furthermore, you can rent electronic devices that can be charged with money for a certain time at border crossing points or rest stops. However, these devices can only be returned at the rental location. For rental cars, you should arrange the procedure with the landlord. In addition, payment options in cash or with credit cards are also possible, but not on all motorways. A subsequent payment at post offices is supposedly also possible, but not earlier than 2 days after the trip.

The Brisa service is available 24 hours a day, all year round. If something is wrong with the car, he is quickly on the spot. The telephone number is 808 508 508. This number is available at every motorway entrance.

The following speed restrictions apply in Portugal:

Highway: 120 km/h (caravan 100 km/h) Highway: 90 km/h City: 50 km/h

New drivers (< 1 year) are allowed to drive a maximum of 90 km/h on the motorway

In Lisbon and also in Porto you will find a lot of speed traps. The fines can be up to € 1000, depending on the speed.

Fuel prices are among the highest in Europe. 1 liter of super fuel cost € 1.55 in November 2018, which is about the same as the price in Germany.

There is also an ADAC team in Portugal, but only for members.

By train
In the domestic long-distance transport of Portugal, there are two categories of trains: Alfa Pendular and Intercidades. Both are subject to reservation. The Alfa Pendular from Porto via Coimbra and Lisbon to Faro runs 2× daily.

There is also an Alfa Pendular that runs from Lisbon to Porto and sometimes on to Braga. It runs to Porto 9x daily and to Braga 4x daily.

The Intercidades runs from Lisbon to Faro 5 times a day, but takes half an hour longer than the Alfa Pendular. There are also intercidades that run from Lisbon to Porto, but they take half an hour longer for the route than the Alfa Pendular (8x daily.). One train a day is bound to Guimarães.

Travel times and prices with the Alfa Pendular (as of 2017):

Faro - Porto: 5 h 45 min / 51.50 €
Faro - Lisbon: 3 h 10 min / 22.20 €
Lisbon - Porto: 2 h 35 min / 30.30 €
Lisbon - Coimbra: 1 h 35 min / 22.80 €
Lisbon - Braga: 3 h 15 min / 32.80 €
Porto - Braga: 40 min / 14.20 €
Porto - Coimbra: 1 h / 16.70 €
Prices are for 2nd class, one way. There are various discounts: children from 4 to 12 years old receive a 50% discount, as well as people from 65 years old. Young people (13 to 25 years) receive a 25% discount.

In addition, there are other train routes, including intercidades, which can be obtained from the Portuguese Railway Company.

If you book directly on the website of the railway, there are massive seasonal route-dependent discounts, provided that you reserve at least ten calendar days in advance.

By bike
There are numerous good bike paths, but they are not connected in a network. An exception is the Ecovia do Litoral, which is part of the EuroVelo network and runs along the coast.



The official language of Portugal is Portuguese, regularized by the Camões Institute. Also mirandese, spoken in Miranda do Douro and surroundings, has official status in Portugal.

Note that, if you are from Brazil, the European standard Portuguese (spoken in all Lusophone countries except Brazil) has differences from the Portuguese spoken in Brazil namely:

There are some words with different spellings: many of them, due to etymology, have consonants that, at first glance, seem mute, as in "contact", "electricity", "scepter", etc. and other words that are not the same between the two countries (Bus / Bus; Train/Train; mouse/mouse; screen / screen). Note that the Portuguese of Portugal is extremely conservative in the purity of the language so cases of foreignness in the language are very rare;
Phrasal constructions are different. The Portuguese use much more the emclise ("I love you"," give me a juice") while in Brazil the proclase ("I love you","give me a juice") is used more;
The Portuguese clearly differentiate between the informal and the formal. When they address a friend or acquaintance they use the pronoun "thou" and all prayer is made according to that same pronoun. Hey, how are you? It's okay with you (Hello, How Are you? Is everything okay with you?). The você in Portugal is used to address people of a certain age or when they are not known. When you are introduced to someone, say, " I am pleased to meet you."
The Portuguese speak foreign languages quite well, such as English, French and Spanish. Younger people speak English very well; French is better understood by older people; and many people speak and/or understand Galician and Castilian.


What to see

Historic villages

Historic Villages
Not to be missed is to do the circuit of the historic villages of Portugal.

World Heritage sites
Historical center of Angra do Heroísmo (1983)
Jerónimos Monastery and Belém Tower in Lisbon (1983)
Monastery of Batalha (1983)
Convent of Christ in Tomar (1983)
Historical centre of Évora (1986)
Monastery of Alcobaça (1989)
Cultural landscape of Sintra (1995)
Historical center of Porto (1996)
Rock art sites of the Côa Valley (1998)
Laurissilva forest of Madeira Island (1999)
Historical center of Guimarães (2001)
Upper Douro wine region (2001)
Cultural landscape of the Pico Island Vineyard (2004)
Coimbra" University, Alta and Sofia " (2013)


What to do

Surrounded by The Atlantic sea in its almost entirety, the Portuguese beaches are worth a visit. Many activities are offered, from surfing to kitesurfing, and during the summer months the most frequented beaches offer activities on the sand, such as aerobics. If you're not the type to break a sweat while on vacation, almost every public beach will have a bar where locals sit. Some of the most popular beaches are (from North to South):

Viana do Castelo, Póvoa de Varzim, Matosinhos, Espinho, near Porto, on the Costa Verde( Green Coast), Northern Region .
Ovar, Barra, Costa Nova, Mira, Buarcos , Nazaré, Peniche and Berlenga in the Costa de Prata ( Silver Coast), Central Region .
Praia das Maçãs and Praia Grande (in Sintra), Carcavelos , Estoril and Cascais , near Lisbon, on the Portuguese Riviera.
Costa da Caparica in Setúbal .
Zambujeira Do Mar, on the Alentejo Coast (Alentejo and Vicentine Coast ).
Praia da Marinha (Praia da Marinha) and Carvoeiro, near Lagoa, in the Algarve.

The climate, coupled with investments in golf infrastructure, has turned the country into a golfing paradise. Portugal was voted the" best golf destination 2006 " by the readers of Golfers Today , a British publication. Fourteen of Portugal's courses are ranked among the top 100 in Europe. Portugal is also a great place to learn the game and perfect technique. Many resorts offer classes with professionals. The courses can satisfy the discerning golfer, while newcomers won't be intimidated unless they find the beautiful scenery and stunning views distracting from their game. Locals have mixed feelings about golf courses, not least because of the huge amount of water required to maintain them and their apparent uselessness.

The countryside also offers many possibilities, although it is necessary to stimulate the advice of travel agents a little more than usual, as these tend to sell only beach holidays. Cycling through the Serra do Gerês or rafting on the tributaries of the Douro River is an exciting experience.

In addition to the” Carnival", many fairs are organized throughout the country, especially after the end of summer and particularly in the north of Portugal.

During the summer, music festivals are also very common. In the north of the country two of the oldest festivals take place in Paredes de Coura and Vilar de Mouros. The regions chosen for the festivities are usually surrounded by beautiful landscapes and pleasant villages. Lisbon and Porto have their "popular marches". In the southern region the most famous is the Southwest Festival, on the southwest coast with summer landscapes and endless beaches.

Elsewhere, traditional and religious Parish festivals to mark special dates, harvest seasons or other important occasions are also part of the annual calendar in most towns and villages, with religious-themed processions running street circuits accompanied by Philharmonic bands and accompanied by outside visitors and local congregants. Usually people in traditional clothes, floats and fireworks are part of these events. In the Ribatejo village of Golegã, the annual Horse Fair is organized every November and, in addition to horses, cattle and people in period costumes, it has evolved into an important exhibition space for arts and crafts, agricultural products, agricultural equipment, clothing and leather goods, wines, drinks, culinary experiences, music, parties and so on.



In Portugal you can buy everything at very nice prices. There are numerous shopping centers scattered throughout the country. You can use credit cards such as American Express, Visa, Mastercard; checks, or otherwise in liquid. The currency is the Euro, the currency of 13 of the 27 countries of the European Union. There are popular fairs all over the country where you can buy regional products such as ceramics, wine, cheese, sausages, etc.



Portugal uses the euro, like many other European countries . One euro is divided into 100 cents. The official sign of the euro is € and its ISO code is EUR. There is no official symbol for the penny.

All banknotes and coins of this common currency are legal tender in all countries, except that low-value coins (one and two cents) are gradually phased out in some of them. Banknotes look the same in all countries, while coins have a common standard design on the reverse, expressing the value, and a country-specific national design on the obverse. The obverse is also used for different designs of commemorative coins. The design of the obverse does not affect the acceptability of the coin.

ATMs / ATMs (termed Multibanco or ATM Express ) that accept international cards can be found everywhere and, unlike in Spain, usually do not charge any extra machine fees (beyond what your bank charges in your country). Some areas are full of Euronet ATMs - although similar to other countries, here too they charge high fees and use disadvantageous exchange rates.

Exchange offices arise wherever there is a constant flow of tourists. Although usually, the closer they are to tourist attractions, the worse the rates they offer.

Exchange offices arise wherever there is a constant flow of tourists. Although usually, the closer they are to tourist attractions, the worse the rates they offer.



In Portugal VAT (Value Added Tax, VAT ) is included in all prices in shops and restaurants , so it is not added at checkout. The standard rate is 23%, with reduced rate items taxed at 13% or 6%. The rates in Madeira are 22, 12 or 5% and in the Azores 18, 9 or 4%.

In smaller shops (other than on the main street), you can try to bargain, especially if you offer to buy several items. You may want to check your change.

Overhead and cover
It seems to be a regular practice to "accidentally" overcharge tourists or declare non-existent or erroneous prices, both in restaurants and in smaller shops and markets, assuming that tourists are on vacation and will rarely or never check their change. If this is a problem for you, you will quickly notice – let this be just a warning.

In addition, it is very common to be charged for coverage in restaurants, even if you have not requested it. Therefore, explicitly refuse any bread or something like that put on your table, or simply accept it.



Tipping is generally not expected in Portugal, but it will certainly be appreciated if you have received exemplary service.

Tips are usually given as follows:
In restaurants: about 8% to 10% of the total amount of the bill if the service is exemplary. Otherwise, it is perfectly acceptable not to tip.
In coffee shops: do not tip for a coffee, tea, cake or sandwich. However, if you eat a full meal, you can tip 1-2 euros.
In pubs, bars and clubs: no tip
Taxis : all taxis have meters. From the airport the taxi driver will add to the meter an extra fee per piece of luggage. At the end of the trip, it will press a button on the meter to show the total price on the meter screen. Tipping the taxi driver first rounds up the cents to the euro and adds 1-2 euros. If you want to give a bigger tip they will be happy.
in doing so, since prices are equivalent to all other locations.
Handmade regional products-there is a popular tradition of handmade regional clothing, toys, household items, glassware and decor. You can find them in popular tourist spots or at better prices at fairs and inexpensive shops of small towns.
Art and crafts-Portugal is home to some acclaimed artists, who create paintings and sculptures with great demand in both the national and international art market. The glazed clay works of the famous nineteenth-century artist Rafael Bordalo Pinheiro, continue to be reproduced in Caldas da Rainha . Regional souvenirs can be found in shops everywhere and include the Nazaré and Galo de Barcelos dolls .
Wines and fortified drinks – the wide variety of wines, generous drinks and liqueurs of good quality with the seal of quality conferred by the brand “DOC”, dispenses with the need for introduction. All major producers are well represented in the market. Both famous and obscure brands can be found throughout the country in specialized beverage warehouses or in well-known chains of supermarket beverage sections.
Arcádia-founded in 1933, this house of high quality chocolate and sweets from Porto has seen the resurgence of its wide range of products at affordable prices. In addition to Porto, Arcádia today has more than twenty stores and kiosks in Lisbon, Coimbra, Aveiro and Braga. The ideal place to satisfy the desire to eat sweets and buy that special gift for someone.
Canned fish-Portuguese canned fish (sardines, tuna, cod, eel, etc.) are arguably the best in the world. In addition to the Duty Free Shop at Portela Airport, a wide variety of Portuguese canned fish in various types of sauces can be purchased throughout the country in food stores and supermarkets.


Consumer rights

In Portugal, all types of establishments and businesses that deal with customers and consumers, such as hotels, restaurants, shops, car rentals, travel agencies, theaters, taxis, etc, etc, are by law required to provide a "complaints book". Registration). Compliance is usually displayed in a prominent place, easily visible when entering the premises. The purpose of the” complaints book " is to provide the consumer/customer with an official means to register complaints and in case someone refuses you the book, call a police officer to attend to it. These complaint registers are regularly inspected by the consumer law enforcement authorities to ensure that the services provided fall within the regulations and standard parameters. So if you feel harmed, do not hesitate to ask for the book and write down your complaint. You can register your complaint online ( https://www.livroreclamacoes.pt/) in Portuguese or English.



The Portuguese people have an essentially Mediterranean diet focusing on fish and grills. The most famous dishes are:
Leitão à Bairrada
Caldo verde
Fish and seafood
Pastéis de nata
Roasted sardines
Port-style guts
Baked kid in the oven
Papas De Sarrabulho
Portuguese stew
Rojões à Minhota
Feijoada à Transmontana

Portugal has a gastronomy as rich and varied as the landscape and heritage.

It is the sea that gives the most striking characteristic to Portuguese cuisine. Taste a simple grilled fish, always very fresh, as well as the seafood that abounds throughout the coast and give us your opinion. A seafood or fish rice are also wise choices.

In meat dishes, a suggestion from all over the country: the celebrated cozido à portuguesa mixes meats and vegetables, cooked in a juicy way.

If you are in the north, you can also taste tripas à moda do Porto, a variety of feijoada, which is also made in transmontana, in the interior of the region. Enjoy the famous Chaves Ham and FoLAR transmontano. The sausages and the smokes.

Portuguese olive oil, considered to be of great quality worldwide,is always present and integrates all CoD recipes (they say there are 1001,...), in which they are excellent, in the way they prepare and enjoy it.

Each dish has a certain wine for company. There are wines throughout the country, with its demarcated regions, that of Porto, which is famous, the Reds of the Douro, Alentejo, Dão and many others.

The demarcated cheese regions: Serra (da Estrela (hard)) or fresh curd (soft), those of central Portugal (Guarda, Seia, Alcains) and those of Alentejo.

The sweets, with roots in the many convents where they were prepared, make us still today "give thanks to heaven". And be sure to try a pastel de nata, preferably the famous pasteis de Belém (Lisbon). It always goes well with coffee, espresso. In some localities in the North and center it has the name "bica". But, if you prefer coffee with milk, you can opt for: Gallon (in a glass cup), half-milk (in a cup of tea), boy (in a cup of coffee) or drip (in a cup of coffee, stronger than the boy).



From the north to the south of the country, on the mainland and in the autonomous regions, 2568 accommodation units are listed:

41 hostels ;
620 hotels;
149 inns and hostels;
807 pensions and residential;
119 aparthotels;
10 motels;
432 rural tourism units (residential tourism, rural tourism, agrotourism and cottages);
181 holiday villages and apartment complexes;
64 campsites and youth hostels;
144 private homes.
In total there are 88348 rooms, 20639 apartments and 2979 villas.



Culture, literature, Portuguese music (Fado; folklore; Popular). Mirandese language, spoken in Miranda lands (Miranda de I Douro/Miranda do Douro). Local parties.



For a citizen who is a foreigner and of origin outside the EU and intends to work in Portugal, he will have to have a work visa, that is, an employment contract.



The country is stable. Due to the difficult economic situation, demonstrations sometimes occur, especially in Lisbon. In the case of occasional strikes, disabilities and delays in travel must be expected. Bag and snatch thefts are increasing in big cities and tourist resorts. In many parking lots, especially in the vicinity of tourist attractions, illegal parking instructions are doing their mischief. If you do not pay for them, you risk finding scratches or dents in the car when you return. This extortionate approach should not be supported. Therefore, just continue to the next parking lot if someone tries to assign you a parking space. Observe the usual precautions.



Medical care is guaranteed. The European Health Insurance Card must be presented for medical and hospital treatment.

If you are dependent on certain medications, your first-aid kit should contain a sufficient supply. However, keep in mind: in many countries there are special regulations for the carriage of narcotic drugs (e.g. methadone) and substances that are used to treat mental illnesses. If necessary, check directly with the responsible foreign representation (embassy or consulate) before departure. In Portugal, for example, the taking of methadone is allowed.



The Portuguese are very warm people who are very proud of their country, their culture and their language. They also attach importance to a well-groomed appearance. Especially if you want to visit a church, please make sure to wear long pants and a chic top, and the women should generally not dress too tight. Give people the respect they need and they will get it back. The Portuguese are very helpful to tourists and are considered very cordial. Please note the traditions and customs in Portuguese society, because the culture and the Portuguese identity play a big role in everyday life. If possible, avoid comparing anything to Spain or raving about Spain, as the two countries, similar to siblings, are in a competitive struggle and relations are not always friendly.


Keep in touch

In Portugal, access to communications has developed very rapidly. Today, Internet usage is much higher than it was ten years ago. Mobile phones are also one of the ex-libris of the population as there are 11 mobile phones for 10 Portuguese.

You can find numerous telephone booths throughout the country. You can pay with prepaid cards (purchased at CTT or Portugal Telecom stores), coins or with credit cards.

There are also many internet cafes and Wi-Fi points, especially in the areas of large cities such as Lisbon and Porto. Fixed ADSL and fiber access provides high data transfer speeds.

The three national operators (MEO, NOS and Vodafone ) have roaming so you do not need to buy a new card while you are in the country. These operators have 3G, 4G and 5G technology.


Country Name

The name Portugal comes from the port of Porto, created by the Roman Empire, in Latin Portus Cale (Latin portus means "port"). It is debatable what is meant by Cale. Some scholars think that Cale refers to the Gallaecians (ancient Greek Καλλαικοί Kallaikoi, Latin Callaici or Callaeci) – "port of the Gallaecians". Others think that it is a remnant of Latin calidus, which means "warm" – "warm harbor". Other historians have suggested that the Greeks were the first to settle there and that the ancient Greek word καλός kalós for "beautiful" was the eponym – "Beautiful harbor".Note. In the Middle Ages, Portus Cale became Portucale, later Portuguese, although in the 7th and 8th centuries the name referred only to the northern parts of the country, that is, the region between the Douro and Minho rivers.



Early history to antiquity

It is estimated that Portugal was already inhabited 500,000 years ago by Homo heidelbergensis and later by the Neanderthal man who emerged from Homo heidelbergensis. The earliest evidence of a settlement of the westernmost Europe by anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens) comes from a cave (Lapa do Picareiro) not far from the Atlantic coast in central Portugal. Stone tools have been discovered that have been dated to an age of 41,100 to 38,100 years (cal BP). Rock carvings from the Paleolithic period, which are the most important of their kind in the world, have been dated to an age between 22,000 and 8,000 years before today. Although the transition to the Neolithic period took place late, copper processing prevailed particularly quickly, especially in southern Portugal. The first trade relations with other regions of Europe are documented for this time. From 800 BC Phoenicians founded trading bases in the Algarve. From about 600 BC, Greeks founded several small settlements in the eastern and northeastern area. From the 6th to the 3rd century at the earliest. B.C. Celts immigrated in several waves, who mixed with the Iberians. In addition to the Celts, the tribe of the Lusitanians is called, which was considered particularly defensive to the Romans and was to become the eponym for the country in Latin. The mixing of the Celts with the native culture created the Celtiberians.

From 450 BC, the southern Iberian Peninsula was colonized by Carthage. By 206 BC, the Romans managed to drive out the Carthaginians. In the course of the Second Punic War, in which numerous Lusitanian mercenaries from Carthage were used, a counter-invasion of Rome on the Iberian Peninsula took place and thus Romanization took place. By the Romans, the territory of Portugal was first administered as the province of Hispania ulterior, from the reign of Augustus under the name Lusitania, which, in addition to most of present-day Portugal, included other territories in the west of present-day Spain. In northern and northeastern Portugal, the Roman conquerors met with strong resistance; it was not until 19 BC that the region was considered subjugated. After that there was a strong Romanization, cities on the Roman model, Roman roads, villages and mines were created, with the settlers the vulgar Latin came to the country, from which the Portuguese language later arose, and also Christianity. The Roman rule ended in the Migration period; Suebi (from 409), Alans, Vandals and especially Visigoths (from 416) invaded and founded short-lived empires on the territory of present-day Portugal. Only the Suevi could last longer, but their kingdom around Braga was founded in 456 by Theodoric II. and destroyed a second time in 585 by Leovigild.


From Moorish rule to colonial power Portugal

In 711, a Berber army led by Tāriq ibn Ziyād defeated the army of Visigoth King Roderich. By 716, the entire territory of the Visigoth Empire was under the control of the Umayyads, Lusitania probably as early as 713. Al-Andalus and especially the emirate, later Caliphate of Córdoba was partly led by very capable and successful rulers such as Abd ar-Rahman I, Abd ar-Rahman III or al-Hakam II and was one of the most progressive empires of its time. After its disintegration into several taifas, most of Lusitania belonged to the taifa of Badajoz, the extreme south to Seville and to other petty kingdoms. There was an immigration of Berber settlers, due to climatic conditions, especially to the south of the peninsula. The Moorish influence on the culture and language of Portugal was strong and lasting.

The kingdom of Asturias was of no interest to the Moors. It was from here that the Christian reconquista of the territories of the later Portugal began in the 9th century. In 868, during a period of weakness of the Emirate of Córdoba, Portucale was conquered (Presúria), in 879 Coimbra. With the Presúria of Portucale by Vímara Peres, a "first" county of Portucale (Condado Portucalense) developed in the area around Porto as part of the Kingdom of Asturias-León. Descendants from the family of Vímara Peres ruled in this region until 1071; it came to the reconstruction of Braga and the construction of the fortress of Guimarães. in 1071, a revolt of the last count of Portucale, Nuno Mendes, against Garcia, who was appointed king of Galicia and Portugal in 1065, was put down. The king of León enfeoffed Henry of Burgundy with Portucale and Coimbra around 1095. A "second" county of Portucale, also called Condado Portucalense, was created, which led directly to the foundation of the independent Kingdom of Portugal.

Already the son of Henry of Burgundy, Alfonso I, with the support of the local petty nobility (infanções), rebelled in 1127 after Henry's death against his own mother, who had married a Galician prince. After the Battle of Ourique was won, he had gained so much prestige that he accepted the title of king in 1143 with the consent of Alfonso VII of León. In 1166, León gave up the claim of supremacy over Portucale, thereby gaining formal independence. The rulers of the House of Burgundy tried to expand their territory to the south, the goal of which may have been to gain power over the whole of Lusitania. But Castile prevented this. By 1250, the reconquista was completed with the conquest of the Algarve, with the strong participation of foreign knights and orders of chivalry.

In 1383, the House of Burgundy in Portugal died out. A non-marital descendant, John of Avis proclaimed himself king, was able to fend off Castilian claims to the Portuguese throne at the Battle of Aljubarrota (1385) and founded the second Portuguese dynasty, the House of Avis. Under the Avis kings (especially Emanuel I - he ruled from 1495 to 1521), Portugal rose to become a leading European trading and maritime power. Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) initiated voyages of discovery on the West African coast, which were at the beginning of the establishment of the Portuguese colonial empire, first in Africa, later in South America (Brazil) as well as Asia (Portuguese India, Ceylon, Malacca, Macau, etc.) and European expansion. The country became a great power and one of the richest nations in Europe due to the income, especially from the Indian trade. There was also a cultural heyday (Luís de Camões).

In 1580, the House of Avis died out, Portugal fell to the Spanish Habsburgs (Iberian Union) for dynastic reasons. The Spanish ruled until 1640; Portugal lost its independence, descended into a Spanish province and lost parts of its colonial empire. In 1640, the Duke of Braganza led a noble revolt against Spanish rule and proclaimed himself king as John IV. He founded the penultimate Portuguese dynasty, the House of Braganza. In foreign and economic policy, the country became increasingly dependent on England (Methuenvertrag, 1703). in 1755 an earthquake destroyed large parts of the capital Lisbon. Under the First Minister and reformer Marquês de Pombal, the city was rebuilt and the country was transformed into an enlightened absolutist state with sometimes drastic methods. In 1761 there was an attack on the country by Spain and France, Pombal gave Wilhelm Graf zu Schaumburg-Lippe the supreme command over the combined Portuguese and British troops. Wilhelm repelled the attacks and thus secured the independence of Portugal. In the following years, he profoundly reformed the Portuguese army and had the fortress of Elvas built on the Spanish border. in 1807, Napoleonic troops occupied the country; the royal family fled to Brazil. After the French were expelled with British help, the liberal revolution occurred, the country received a constitution for the first time in its history (1821). The subsequent struggle between supporters of absolutism and supporters of a constitutional monarchy was decided only in 1834 by the victory of the latter in the Miguelist War. On the 7th. In September 1822, Brazil gained its independence under Emperor Pedro I.


Final phase of the monarchy until Estado Novo

The period after the end of the Miguelist War was marked by the confrontation between right-wing and left-wing liberals (cartists and Setembrists). in 1853, the house of Braganza died out in a direct line with Queen Maria II, and through the queen's marriage to Ferdinand II of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Portuguese branch of this German noble house took the throne (until 1910). The final phase of the monarchy was characterized by great poverty, low education (80 percent of the Portuguese were illiterate), general economic problems (state bankruptcy in 1891) and Republican uprisings that expanded into state crises. Under João Franco, the royalties were further increased and the prestige of the monarchy suffered exacerbated by the visible contradiction between broken state finances on the one hand and the luxurious, extravagant lifestyle of the ruling family on the other. in 1908, the King Charles I. and his son, heir to the throne Ludwig Philipp, was shot during a carriage ride. Only the son Manuel survived the assassination attempt.

On October 3, 1910, the Republican deputy Miguel Bombarda was murdered under unclear circumstances. There were riots in Lisbon that night. A quickly formed provisional government proclaimed the Republic on October 5, 1910; King Manuel II fled into English exile.

In 1914, the young Republic of Portugal pledged material support and the deployment of its own troops to Great Britain. Although officially neutral, the Portuguese government justified its participation in the First World War with an old alliance agreement between the two countries, which had been renewed in 1912.

"By participating in the First World War on the side of the British, Portugal tried to protect its African colonies (Angola and Mozambique), which had been part of a secret agreement between the British and the Germans in 1898. In addition, Portugal wanted to underline its entry into the ranks of European nations. Participation at the international level was perceived as a means of strengthening national unity. Finally, the legitimacy of the republican regime, which at that time was threatened by monarchist movements and great economic difficulties, was to be consolidated.

The British General Staff was initially content with the material assistance of Portugal. The leadership remained skeptical about whether the use of the young Portuguese Republic in the hostilities would really benefit the Allied forces. However, the growing logistical problems of the Allies prompted Great Britain to request the seizure of all German ships anchored in Portuguese ports in December 1915. The government complied with this request on 24 February 1916, after which Germany declared war on Portugal on 9 March.“

In March 1916, the country entered the First World War on the side of the Entente. Portugal mobilized 56,500 soldiers at times. In the Fourth Battle of Flanders, the expeditionary corps lost almost 7500 men (fallen, missing, prisoners of war and wounded) in a single day during a German offensive.

In the so-called First Republic (until 1926), general political instability and chaotic conditions prevailed. It was characterized by monarchist and communist uprisings, coup attempts (among others of the Sidónio Pais, 1917) and weak, often changing governments without a parliamentary majority.

In 1926, the military staged a coup and ended the first republic. Among the military, a civilian, António de Oliveira Salazar, Minister of Finance from 1928, Prime Minister from 1932, rose to the highest power. From 1933 he founded the "Estado Novo", the new state, an authoritarian entity with fascist tendencies, with a Unity Party (National Union), state Youth and secret police (PIDE). The Catholic-authoritarian and anti-democratic ideology of the dictator pursued the project of a "estate state".

According to Decree No. 19694 of May 5, 1931, women were given the right to vote and stand for election on the condition that they had completed at least secondary school; men, on the contrary, had to be able to read and write only. According to Adams, this clause caused a very limited women's suffrage for women with high education. With the Election Law D.L. 24631 of November 6, 1934, everyone who could read and write received the national right to vote. However, in the case of elections to certain local bodies, some restrictions on women remained in force until 1968.

In foreign policy, Salazar built on ties with Great Britain, sympathized with the national Spanish forces in the Spanish Civil War and skillfully maneuvered between the blocs. During the Second World War, the country remained neutral, supplied both sides with the important raw material tungsten and became a playground for secret agents of many warring parties. Salazar, who expected an Allied victory from the very beginning and had decisively influenced Franco in the sense of Spanish neutrality, finally allowed the Allies to establish military bases in the Azores in the autumn of 1943.

Portugal is a founding member of NATO, created in 1949. From 1960 – the African Year when 18 countries became independent - the colonial War began, which was fought with great severity in Africa (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau). The attempt by officer Henrique Galvão to bring down the Salazar system by hijacking the passenger ship Santa Maria in the Caribbean in January 1961 failed, although the Santa Maria affair attracted international attention.

In 1968, Salazar was forced to resign due to health problems. His successor, Marcelo Caetano, could not decide on fundamental reforms. Due to the colonial war, Portugal was increasingly isolated in foreign policy, the costs of the war led to rising public debt and inflation.

Leading military leaders realized that the colonial War could not be won militarily for Portugal. Due to the inability of the government to find a political solution to the problem, left-wing military men staged a coup on the night of April 25, 1974. The general dissatisfaction of the population with the dictatorship, exacerbated by the onset of the economic crisis (triggered by the first oil crisis in 1973), led to the fact that large sections of the population expressed solidarity with the coup officers.

The general popular uprising, the Carnation Revolution, quickly brought the Estado Novo to an end. The hallmark of the revolution in Portugal was red carnations, which were put by the population to the insurgent soldiers in their rifle barrels.

On May 14, 1974, a new Electoral Law was adopted (Law 3/74, Article 4, number 1). According to Decree-Law No. 621-A/74, Article 1.1 of November 15, 1974, Portuguese citizens who were 18 years of age or older on February 28, 1975 were eligible to vote for the Constituent Assembly. For the first time in Portuguese history, universal suffrage was thus recognized and was exercised the following year: in April 1975, the members of the Constituent Assembly that drafted the 1976 Constitution were elected. This was published on 2. It was proclaimed in June 1976 and thus constitutionally guaranteed equality of the right to vote for women and men for all elections.

The new rulers released the Portuguese colonies to independence (1974/1975), Macau followed in 1999.


Carnation revolution until EC accession

The first period after the revolution was marked by the confrontation between a rather conservative current (General Spínola) and a socialist wing (captain Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho) within the MFA (Movimento das Forças Armadas – Movement of the Armed Forces), the association of the coup officers. At first it looked as if the socialist current was winning, nationalizations and land reform were coming. The 1976 Constitution defined the transition to socialism as a state goal.

When the more moderate General Eanes was surprisingly able to prevail against Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho in the first presidential elections under the new constitution in 1976, the course was set for a return of the country to a parliamentary democracy of a Western European nature. Eanes and the leader of the Socialist Party Mário Soares (head of government from 1976 to 1978 and 1983 to 1985, president of the State from 1986 to 1996) finally led the country to the European Community in 1986.


From accession to the EU to the present

In 1979, for the first time since the Carnation Revolution, a right-of-center political group won the parliamentary elections again, the governments led by Francisco Sá Carneiro and Francisco Pinto Balsemão. The government was able to agree with the socialist opposition on a constitutional amendment that removed the socialist remnants that had been written into the Constitution after the Carnation Revolution. The constitutional amendment, which came into force in 1982, replaced the Revolutionary Council, which had been important until then, with a constitutional court on the model of other democratic states. In 1985, Aníbal Cavaco Silva became Prime Minister. His conservative Partido Social Democrata (PSD) won a landslide victory in the 1987 elections; for the first time, a party won an absolute majority. Cavaco Silva remained Prime Minister until 1995. He pursued a neoliberal economic policy and withdrew the nationalizations from the time of the Carnation Revolution. From 1995 to 2002, the Socialists again formed the government with António Guterres.

The parliamentary elections of 17 March 2002 saw a new shift to the right. With a turnout of 62.3 percent, the conservative PSD under José Manuel Durão Barroso achieved a relative majority of 40.1 percent, followed by the Socialist Partido Socialista and the right-wing conservative People's Party CDS-PP with 37.9 and 8.8 percent, respectively. With the latter, Barroso formed a coalition government, with the populist chairman of the CDS-PP, Paulo Portas, taking over the post of Minister of Defense and also the areas of justice and labor and social affairs went to the CDS-PP. However, the Socialists continuously provided the president of the country, since the socialist Jorge Sampaio succeeded Soares in 1996.

In July 2004, Barroso was nominated by the European Council to succeed Romano Prodi as President of the Commission of the European Union. His successor as prime minister was Pedro Santana Lopes, who was only able to rule for a short time, as President Sampaio dissolved the parliament prematurely in November and called new elections for February 2005, in which the Partido Socialista won an absolute majority of the parliamentary seats with 121 out of 230 seats for the first time in history. Its leading candidate, José Sócrates, became the country's new prime minister on 12 March 2005.

On 22 January 2006, some 8.9 million Portuguese elected a new president. The previous president, the socialist Jorge Sampaio, was not allowed to stand for election after two terms. The centre-right candidate and former head of government Aníbal Cavaco Silva (PSD) already prevailed against five candidates from the left in the first ballot with an absolute majority of 50.6 percent with a turnout of 62.6 percent. He was supported by an alliance of PSD and CDS-PP. The 66-year-old economics professor, who was the architect of the Portuguese economic upswing in the years 1985 to 1995, thus became the first bourgeois president in Portugal since the Carnation Revolution of 1974. He was inaugurated for five years on March 9, 2006. Cavaco Silva was confirmed in office on 23 January 2011.

The drastic effects of the global economic and financial crisis dominated the election campaign in the 2009 parliamentary elections. Although the ruling Socialists lost significantly in electoral votes and lost their absolute majority, they managed to assert themselves as the party with the most voters. Thus, the government of Sócrates also remained in office.

After the government's savings concept had not found a majority in parliament, Sócrates submitted his resignation on 23 March 2011. In the subsequent new elections, the Socialists suffered a clear electoral defeat. Consequently, Pedro Passos Coelho, chairman of the liberal-conservative Social Democratic Party (PSD), which won with almost 40% of the votes, was appointed the new Prime Minister of Portugal on 15 June 2011. He led a coalition government of PSD and CDS-PP, which had a solid majority with 132 out of 230 parliamentary seats.

After the parliamentary elections on October 4, 2015, the previously ruling party alliance PàF remained the strongest force, but lost the absolute majority. The left-wing opposition parties PS, BE and CDU, together with 124 of the 230 seats in parliament, hold a majority capable of governing. On 20. In October 2015, António Costa (PS) told President Anibal Cavaco Silva that he wanted to form a left-wing government. Cavaco Silva, however, blocked the attempts of the Socialists and communists to conclude a government alliance for the time being, and once again appointed the incumbent bourgeois-conservative Prime Minister Pedro Passos Coelho as head of government. In a televised speech to the nation on the evening of October 22, 2015, Cavaco Silva justified this with regard to the European Union and the euro, "financial institutions, investors and the markets". On 26. In November 2015, António Costa was appointed Prime Minister and promised a departure from the harsh austerity policy in compliance with the requirements of the European Union. On January 24, 2016, Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa (PSD) was elected President of the State. After the 2019 parliamentary elections, he formed a minority government on October 26, 2019, and a sole government after the 2022 parliamentary elections. In June 2021, Portugal was the first country whose economic recovery plan was approved by the European Commission after the economic downturn due to the restrictions resulting from corona. Investments in environmentally friendly production processes and digitization, as well as in health, housing and infrastructure should become possible. On March 21, 2024, the conservative Luís Montenegro became Prime Minister of Portugal.




Portugal is sometimes called the country of poets. In Portuguese literature, poetry has always had a stronger influence than prose. In the Middle Ages, when the Portuguese nation was formed, poetry was widespread in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. Excellent epic and lyrical works were created. While the most famous classical poets are Luís de Camões and Fernando Pessoa, there are a number of lesser-known artists who have a significant influence on modern Portuguese literature.

Prose developed later than poetry, and it was not until the 14th century that it emerged in the form of chronicles or the description of the lives of saints. Here the most famous representative is Fernão Lopes; he wrote a chronicle of the regencies of three kings of his time. For him, the most important thing was the accuracy of the presentation, as well as a vivid description. Portuguese modern literature is best known internationally, especially with the works of José Maria Eça de Queiroz and the 1998 Nobel Prize winner for Literature, José Saramago.

Women are also to be found among the important contemporary writers of the country, especially Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen, Lídia Jorge and Agustina Bessa-Luís. Among the young authors, José Luís Peixoto has recently been able to make a name for himself internationally.



Cinema has a long tradition in Portugal. Internationally, the country's sophisticated auteur film in particular enjoys a good reputation among cinema enthusiasts, but award-winning directors, such as João Botelho or João Canijo, are rather little known to the general population, even in Portugal. If the film industry is also determined here by the major international productions and the multiplex cinemas, there is still a lively film club movement and a number of different film festivals in the country, which produce committed new directors such as the very different Miguel Gomes, Jorge Pelicano or Fernando Fragata, as well as up-and-coming actors with names such as Ana Moreira, Diogo Infante or Lúcia Moniz.

The most famous Portuguese director to be mentioned here is Manoel de Oliveira († April 2, 2015), who was also the oldest still working director in the world at over 100 years (born in 1908), and the last living one who was already shooting silent films at the time. The most famous actors are Maria de Medeiros, who was the film partner of Bruce Willis in pulp fiction, and Joaquim de Almeida with his numerous Hollywood roles.



Fado music

The most important form of music in Portugal is fado, which can be very melancholic and has contributed to the stereotype of the melancholic Portuguese (compared to the temperamental Spaniards). This music is closely related to Saudade (about: longing) and was probably created by mixing the songs of Portuguese sailors with the rhythms of African slaves. Here, two stylistic forms are distinguished, namely the more varied, folk-oriented fado of Lisbon, and the academic fado of Coimbra, sung only by men. The most internationally known fado song was April in Portugal, which was released in several hundred versions worldwide and was written by Raul Ferrão, and also combines the Fado Coimbras with the Lissabons. Amália Rodrigues was the most important fado artist, after her death several musicians stepped out of her shadow and created new forms of fado, some of which have only the saudade in common with the original fado, but some of which deliberately adhere to traditional patterns of fado. In recent years, the number of fado releases and its public presence has increased again, due to the successes of young singers such as Mariza, Camané or Ana Moura. In the former colonies of Portugal, fado has also spread and evolved into the Cape Verdean morna of a Cesária évora and the Brazilian choro. One of the well-known groups influenced by fado in the German-speaking world today is Madredeus with the singer Teresa Salgueiro.


Classical, New Music, Jazz

Since the Middle Ages, church music has been very important in Portugal within the framework of strong Portuguese Catholicism and reached its peak in the Renaissance. In the field of spiritual vocal polyphony, Portugal had a remarkable generation of Portuguese composers who shaped the musical history of Portugal in the 16th and 17th centuries: Estêvão de Brito (c. 1575-1641), Filipe de Magalhães (c. 1571-1652), Duarte Lobo (1565-1646) and Manuel Cardoso (1566-1650). This so-called generation of the polifonists of Évora represents the heyday of church music in Portugal. The Baroque composer António Pereira da Costa (c. 1697-1770), who worked in Madeira, wrote the only known Concerti grossi in Portuguese musical history.

Portugal has no internationally significant composers in the field of classical music. In the 18th and 19th centuries, it was individual composers such as Carlos Seixas, João Domingo's Bomtempo, José Vianna da Motta or Luís de Freitas Branco who wrote important works for Portugal, but did not achieve any significant international attention. On the other hand, Luísa Todi (La Todi, 1753-1833) was one of the most famous singers of her time in Europe.

In the 20th century, the tradition of Portuguese classical music was continued by composers such as Emmanuel Nunes, António Victorino de Almeida or Eurico Carrapatoso. The tenor Lomelino Silva achieved international fame in the 1920s and 1930s, but then fell into oblivion. At the end of the 20th century. At the beginning of the twentieth century, Portugal had internationally important composers: Emmanuel Nunes, who held a teaching position in Paris, Jorge Peixinho, who can be described as the most important figure of Portuguese contemporary music of his generation, and Joao Pedro Oliveira with teaching assignments in Portugal and Brazil.

Maria Joao Pires, Mário Laginha, Pedro Burmester, António Pinho Vargas and Bernardo Sassetti became important modern composers and performers across national borders, both in classical music and jazz.

The jazz club Hot Clube de Portugal in Lisbon is considered the oldest still existing jazz club in Europe. With a number of jazz festivals and numerous musicians, the jazz scene is still alive in the country, with names such as the trumpeter Sei Miguel, the bassist Carlos Bica, the guitarist Manuel Mota, or the well-known singer Maria João. In free jazz and new improvisational music, Portugal has a number of active musicians, such as Carlos Zingaro, Ernesto Rodrigues, Carlos Maria Trindade or Vítor Rua.

The former Madredeus musician Rodrigo Leão was able to make a name for himself with his modern-classical compositions in a contemporary yet traditional guise both in his homeland and internationally. The accordion quartet Danças Ocultas also received some international attention. Portugal also won the 62nd Eurovision Song Contest in Kiev in 2017 with singer Salvador Sobral.


Singer-songwriter and folk

From the time of the fascist Estado Novo under Salazar comes a critical songwriting tradition. The most famous representatives of this protest movement were José Afonso (often called Zeca) and Adriano Correia de Oliveira, while representatives of the movement such as José Mário Branco and especially Sérgio Godinho are still active in the music scene today. José Afonso wrote the song Grândola, Vila Morena, which became a political symbol throughout the country on the night of the Carnation Revolution and beyond.

The musical traditions of the different regions are also constantly revived and interpreted in a contemporary way, often by combining different musical styles. Artists such as Trovante, Júlio Pereira or Rão Kyao, a composer, musician and singer of Portuguese music and fado, has made a name for himself by incorporating musical influences from Indian music (Goa, former Portuguese colony), from Macau (former Portuguese colony), from the Arab world and from North Africa.


Pop and rock variants, folklore

The pop music genre, which was introduced in the 1960s mainly with beat bands such as Quinteto Académico, Conjunto Académico João Paulo and especially the Sheiks in Portugal, has been able to rise to the defining music of the youth since the 1980s, alongside rock music, with names such as Heróis do Mar, the Dolphins, or the eccentric singer António Variações, who died early. The band The Gift has caused a comparable stir among music lovers in the country in recent years with their multi-layered pop and their Amália Rodrigues tribute project Hoje, as well as Silence 4 and their now solo singer David Fonseca. The first Eurodance group in Portugal, "Santamaria", also brought technobeats to the discos.

The rock and blues singer, guitarist and composer Rui Veloso was able to make a name for himself beyond the borders of the country. In addition to well-known groups such as GNR or UHF, the undisputedly most popular rock band in the country are the Xutos & Pontapés, founded in 1978 as a punk band, while Moonspell is the most internationally known metal band from Portugal. Bands such as the psychobilly band Tédio Boys or the punk band Censurados have formed some of the most influential formations of the diverse underground and independent scenes in the country. Mata-Ratos are the oldest, still existing band of the Portuguese punk scene.

Each region of Portugal has its own folklore style (Ranchos Folclóricos). Projects such as the pop bands Sétima Legião or Sitiados combine these with contemporary pop styles. The Portuguese music and dance tradition has mixed in Brazil with the traditions of the slaves from present-day Angola to form the samba and is also popular in this mixture in Portugal. The kuduro is especially popular among Angolan immigrants. This is a musical genre, which includes influences of the Sungura and the Afro Zouk, among others. The rhythm is fast and hard. The widespread kizomba is a hybrid form of the Angolan semba and zouk. These are mostly romantic songs with correspondingly slow rhythms. These two genres of music (but the kizomba in particular) are popular among the young generation of African immigrants. In recent years, this musical genre has become widespread among young people of culturally Portuguese origin.

In addition, the hip hop tuga has developed in Portugal, a version of hip hop adapted to Portugal, which is popular among young people. The most famous representatives were Da Weasel and Sam the Kid. Reggae has also become more popular in Portugal after the success of the group Kussondulola, with today's performers such as Richie Campbell, Mercado Negro or Freddy Locks.



In the field of artistic dance, Portugal has been quite successful since the early 1990s and, along with Russia, is one of the most important countries in Europe in this field. Numerous dancers and choreographers have achieved fame throughout Europe or worldwide: Rui Horta, João Fiadeiro, Clara Andermatt. Modern and innovative forms are often used, new styles are developed. Portugal is regularly involved in the training of young dancers. The dance culture in Portugal is called Nova Dança Portuguesa.


Visual Arts

Portuguese artists never achieved great fame in painting and sculpture. This was due to various reasons: on the one hand, there were no new, innovative techniques and forms from the country. Often, many paintings and sculptures were created for the glory of God only for certain monasteries or churches, without the names of the artists being known (who often deliberately did not give their names). In addition, the often difficult pronunciation of Portuguese names, as well as the destruction of art by the earthquake of 1755 and by Napoleonic troops at the beginning of the 19th century, played an important role. This is a crucial role in the twentieth century. Nevertheless, Portugal has also produced many painters. Today's painting is oriented to the tendencies of modern painting.

In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, it was often foreign painters who worked in Portugal, for example from Flanders, but who were not famous painters, but could then work in Portugal because they had been displaced by the great masters of their country. Important names from this period were Nuno Gonçalves, Gregorio Lopes and Grão Vasco.

Baroque, Rococo and the beginning of the 19th century were covered by painters such as Domingos de Sequeira, Vieira Portuense or Francisco Augusto Metrass.

In the 20th century, many painters came: Paula Rego, Almada Negreiros, Mário Eloy, Santa Rita Pintor, Maria Helena Vieira da Silva, Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso and many others.



Architectural styles cover almost all epochs of European art history. Monasteries, churches, castles, palaces and state institutions were often built according to the styles prevailing in Europe, such as Gothic or neoclassicism. The architect Álvaro Siza Vieira received the Pritzker Prize, as did his compatriot Eduardo Souto de Moura. Other well-known architects were or are Raoul Mesnier de Ponsard (an Eiffel student), Miguel Ventura Terra, Tomas Taveira.

In the decoration (building decoration), Portugal was able to achieve its own, national note, especially through Manuelism and Azulejo art.



Portuguese cuisine is diverse, in some respects it follows the Iberian tradition, but in addition, it absorbed many elements from the colonized territories. After the Moorish rule over Portugal, many North African influences were also preserved, including the heavy use of sugar, cinnamon, spices and egg yolks.

The bacalhau is considered the national dish of Portugal. Since the 13th century, this species of dried and salted fish has played an important role in the diet of the Portuguese. Today it is said that in Portuguese cuisine there is a bacalhau recipe for every day of the year. Sardines, the cheapest food in the country in the 16th century, are still a traditional food today. For example, grilled sardines (sardinhas assadas) are very popular, especially in summer. Numerous other dishes such as caldeirada, Amêijoas à Bulhão Pato, Rissóis de Camarão or Arroz de marisco underline the importance of fish and other marine products in Portuguese cuisine.

Also typical are soups such as Caldo verde, a kale potato soup from the Portuguese cabbage Couve-galega, which is typically served with broa (corn bread) and chouriço, or the sopa alentejana with bread, egg, coriander, garlic and olive oil. Meat was eaten very little in the Middle Ages of Portugal, but sausages (enchidos) are still common and there are some famous meat dishes such as Cozido à portuguesa or the popular fast dish Francesinha. Frango assado (Grilled chicken), especially seasoned with spicy piri-piri, is today a widespread dish that came to Portugal from the African colonies. There is also a long tradition in the cheese factory, worth mentioning are Queijo do Pico, Queijo Serra da Estrela or Queijo de Azeitão.

Sweets occupy a very significant place in Portugal. The famous pastéis de nata (Pastéis de Belém) are a specialty from Belém and have spread over Macau to large parts of Southeast Asia in recent years. Some of the many other desserts are the Pastéis de Tentúgal, the Ovos moles de Aveiro, or the Bolo rei, which is especially popular at Christmas. Especially in autumn, traditionally roasted chestnuts are sold at small street stalls.

Portugal is known for its wine. Since Roman times, Portugal has been associated with the god of wine and festivals, Bacchus/Dionysus. Some Portuguese wines are among the best in the world. A well-known wine specialty is the sparkling-moussing Vinho Verde. The port wine is world famous, while another well-known fortified wine from Portugal comes from the island of Madeira, the Madeira. In addition, there are also some local beer breweries.


Folk festival

In June, festivals are held throughout Portugal in honor of the three folk saints (Santos Populares). These three saints are Anthony, John and Peter. It is celebrated with wine, água-pé (most), traditional bread with sardines, street processions and dances, weddings, fires and fireworks as well as a lot of good mood. Particularly well-known are the street parades, the Marchas Populares, the capital of Lisbon, where dance groups from the historic districts compete against each other.

Santo António is celebrated on the night of June 12-13, especially in Lisbon (where this saint was born and lived), where a kind of street carnival (Marchas Populares) is held. On these days there are weddings, the Casamentos de Santo António. The most popular saint is São João (St. St. John), for which St. John's Day is celebrated mainly in Porto and Braga, with sardines and caldo Verde (a traditional soup). In honor of São Pedro is celebrated on June 28 and 29, especially in Póvoa de Varzim and Barcelos, where these festivals are dedicated to the sea. There will be a fire (fogeiras) and a street carnival.



Portugal has a 1224 km long border with Spain to the east and north and coast to the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south.

The north of Portugal has a relatively cool and humid climate and consists of two landscapes: The Minho in the northwest, due to the highly developed industry, is one of the most densely populated areas of the country. The largest cities of the Minho are Braga, Guimarães, Vila Nova de Famalicão, Barcelos and Viana do Castelo. The Minho is called the green garden of Portugal because of its climate and the comparatively lush vegetation. On the slopes of the numerous river valleys, mainly wine is grown, which is further processed into Vinho Verde. In addition, many vegetables thrive. The natural vegetation is a mixture of the flora of the temperate climate zone and the subtropical flora; depending on the altitude, there are oaks, chestnuts, pines and olive trees.

To the northeast lies Trás-os-Montes (Behind the mountains). This side of northern Portugal facing away from the sea is very mountainous, has very cold winters and very hot summers. The vegetation is significantly less lush than in the Minho and becomes more sparse towards the border to Spain. What both landscapes have in common is that their mountain massifs, such as Marão or Peneda-Gerês, are intersected by numerous rivers such as the Rio Minho or the Rio Douro. The Peneda-Gerês National Park is located in the north of Portugal. There are still remnants of natural forests there, in which in particular the evergreen holm oak is found. Important cities in the northeast are Vila Real, Bragança, Mirandela and Chaves.

The Centro region, also called Central Portugal, is mostly hilly to mountainous and has a considerable mountain range with winter sports facilities with the Serra da Estrela. At 1993 m, the Torre is the highest mountain in continental Portugal. The most important landscapes are the Beiras, which are located in the east of the region and where the cities such as Castelo Branco, Guarda and Covilhã are located, the Ribatejo, which is located in the southwest of the region, via the Lisbon metropolitan area, where cities such as Santarém, Tomar or Entroncamento are located. The Estremadura is the western landscape of the region; there are the cities of Leiria, Caldas da Rainha and Torres Vedras. The entire region is very fertile and has a climate favorable for viticulture. The tradition of viticulture dates back to Roman times. In addition, cereals, rice, sunflowers and vegetables are grown. The region is divided by the Tagus River. Since the construction of numerous dams, there have been hardly any floods, unlike before.

Alentejo plains
The Alentejo is a dry and hot region of the country. The surface of the entire region is flat to hilly. The region is known as the former granary of Portugal, today it is sparsely populated and characterized by migration from the villages to the cities of the region or other regions of the country; extensive grain fields with olive groves and cork oaks dominate the landscape. Wine and sunflowers are also grown. The meadows are used for sheep breeding and are strewn with flowers in spring. The prolonged dry periods, which are to be mitigated with the construction of dams, have contributed to the economic decline. The planting of fast-growing eucalyptus trees is controversial. These pose an increased risk of forest fires, but the cultivated areas have nevertheless increased. The southern coastal regions are often overgrown with pine forests. In addition, there are numerous palm species, of which only the dwarf palm is native. In the south-west of the region, in the district of Odemira, various types of fruits and vegetables are grown, which grow all year round and are partly exported to other European countries.

The Algarve is the southern coast of the country. It is a popular holiday destination with its pretty towns, the steep coasts and the sandy beaches with crystal blue water. Over the years, the Algarve has become increasingly popular and tourism has increased. The largest cities in the region are Portimão, Faro, Loulé, Quarteira and Lagos. The defining river Rio Guadiana forms the border with Spain twice a longer distance. Numerous succulent plants are adapted to the great summer heat.

Portugal also includes the island groups Madeira (Wood Island) and Azores (Hawk Islands) in the Atlantic Ocean. They are, except for the Azores island of Santa Maria, volcanic islands. The Madeira archipelago off the coast of Africa has partly tropical and partly subtropical vegetation. The highest mountain in Portugal (Ponta do Pico, 2351 m) is located on the Azores island of Pico.

The most important rivers of Portugal are the Tagus, which originates in Spain under the name Tagus, the Douro (Spanish Duero) and the Mondego, the latter flowing only through Portugal.



Portugal has a Mediterranean climate, Csa in the south and Csb in the North, according to the Köppen climate classification. Portugal is one of the mildest European countries: the average annual temperature in mainland Portugal ranges from 13 °C in the mountainous northern interior to 18 °C in the South, in the Guadiana Basin. Summers are mild in the northern highlands of the country and in the coastal region of the far north and center. Autumn and winter are typically windy, rainy and cool, being colder in the northern and central districts of the country, in which negative temperatures occur during the coldest months. However, in the southernmost cities of Portugal, temperatures only very occasionally drop below 0 °c, staying at 5 °C in most cases.

Normally, the spring and summer months are Sunny and temperatures are high during the dry months of July and August, occasionally exceeding 40 °C in much of the country, on extreme days, and more frequently in the interior of the Alentejo.

The average annual total rainfall varies from just over 3 000 mm in the northern mountains to less than 600 mm in southern areas of Alentejo. The country has about 2 500-3 200 hours of sunshine per year, and an average of 4-6 hours in winter and 10-12 hours in summer, with higher values in the southeast and lower in the northwest.

Snow occurs regularly in four districts in the north of the country (Guarda, Bragança, Vila Real and Viseu) and decreases its occurrence towards the south, until it becomes non-existent in most of the Algarve. In winter, temperatures below -10 °C and snowfalls occur with some frequency in restricted points, such as Serra da Estrela, Serra do Gerês and Serra de Montesinho, and it can snow from October to May in these places.


Fauna and flora

The climate and geographical diversity shaped the Portuguese flora. With regard to Portuguese forests, Pine (especially the species Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea), Chestnut (Castanea sativa), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus ilex), Portuguese Oak (Quercus faginea) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) are widespread for economic reasons.

The mammal fauna is very varied and includes the fox, badger, Iberian lynx, Iberian wolf, wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), the wild cat (Felis silvestris), the Hare, The Weasel, the sacarabos, Genet and occasionally brown bear (near the Minho River, near Peneda-Gerês) and many others. Portugal is an important stopping place for migratory birds moving between Europe and Africa, in places like Cabo de São Vicente or Serra de Monchique, where thousands of birds can be seen flying from Europe to Africa in autumn or in the opposite direction in Spring. Portugal has about 600 species of birds, among which 235 nest and almost every year there are new records.

Portugal has more than 100 species of freshwater fish ranging from the European giant catfish (International Tagus Natural Park) to small endemic species that live only in small lakes (west zone, for example). Some of these rare and specific species are highly threatened due to habitat loss, pollution and droughts. Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in biodiversity in the world. Marine species number in the thousands and include sardines (Sardina pilchardus), tuna and Atlantic mackerel.

In Portugal it is also possible to observe the phenomenon of resurgence, especially on the West Coast, which makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and biodiversity. Portugal's protected areas include one National Park, thirteen natural parks (the most recent created in 2005), nine nature reserves, five natural monuments and six protected landscapes, ranging from the Peneda-Gerês National Park to the Serra da Estrela Natural Park. In 2005, the Esposende coastal Protected Landscape area was promoted to a Natural park for "the conservation of the coastal cordão and its natural physical, aesthetic and landscape elements".




In terms of the long-established population, Portugal is a very homogeneous country in terms of language, ethnicity and religion.

The Portuguese language is spoken throughout the country and only in the villages of Miranda do Douro is a dialect associated with Asturian (Mirandés) spoken, which is recognized as a minority language.

The largest indigenous ethnic minority is made up of 40,000 to 50,000 Roma, who are often socially and economically marginalized. The first comprehensive official study on the Portuguese Roma community in 2017 revealed a figure of a good 37,000 people who still identify as Roma. The study showed a below-average school education, but also some improvements in education and successes of the various integration and anti-discrimination campaigns. The right-wing populist party Chega has been the first and only party to address resentment against Roma since its foundation in 2019. Since then, politicians, but above all civil society actors and journalists have been increasing the clarification and classification of the facts about the Roma in Portugal.

The coastal strip between the two metropolitan regions of the country, Porto and Lisbon, has the densest population. Almost 40% of the population lives in this strip; the hinterland and the south of Portugal, on the other hand, are only sparsely populated. The two largest cities (Lisbon and Porto) account for more than 10% of the population, while more than half live in places with less than 2000 inhabitants. The trend in Portugal is towards urbanization.


Population development

According to the results of the census, a total of 10,344,802 people lived in Portugal in 2021. As a result, the population has doubled since 1900. The population growth was by no means constant. A population decline in 1920 due to the effects of the First World War, the Spanish Flu and a wave of emigration was followed by a period of growth that lasted until the 1940s and which benefited from increasing life expectancy of the people. From about 1965 to 1973 there was a strong emigration. In 1974, due to the independence of the colonies, many people migrated to Portugal. The emigration of the 1980s came to a standstill in the 1990s.

The Portuguese population grew again in 2019, 9 years after the beginning of the financial crisis in 2010, after having shrunk since the financial crisis. Some of the reasons for the renewed population growth are the reception of migrants from the former colonies, the improvement and stabilization of the economic situation, which stopped the emigration of young Portuguese and families, and the return of Portuguese from abroad. in 2020 and 2021, over 10.34 million inhabitants were recorded.

The birth rate, which was still at 30 per 1000 inhabitants before 1920, has fallen to 8.2 per 1000 inhabitants by 2021. The fertility rate reached the lowest level in the country's history in 2021 with only 1.4 children per woman. In the 1960s, a woman had an average of three children. There are considerable regional differences in terms of population development: while the population of the Algarve, Lisbon and the Azores is growing, that of the Alentejo and the Centro is declining. There are strong migratory movements within Portugal, with the migratory movements from the hinterland regions towards the major cities such as Lisbon, Porto, Braga, Leiria, Coimbra, Aveiro and the Algarve.

The population of Portugal is aging: in 2021, 1.3 million people under the age of 16 lived in Portugal, while 2.5 million people were 65 years or older. This trend is particularly pronounced in the hinterland; the reason is the migration of younger residents to the big cities and metropolitan regions. Since many Portuguese who have worked abroad are returning to their homeland for the rest of their lives, the aging of the country's population is particularly striking. Life expectancy at birth in 2022 was 82 years (85 for women and 79 for men), which places Portugal 34th (Germany 43rd) according to the United Nations list. In 1970, life expectancy was still 67 years (70 for women and 64 for men).


Portuguese abroad

For a long time, Portugal was a country of emigration; in 2021, over 20% of Portuguese people lived abroad. There are important centers of Portuguese culture in the diaspora, especially in France, where 1,132,048 Portuguese live alone, but also in many other countries, especially Brazil, South Africa, Venezuela, Switzerland, on the east coast of the USA, and most recently increasingly in Angola. In 2012, there were 81,274 Portuguese living in Luxembourg, making them 16 percent of the population of Luxembourg. On the other hand, Portugal was already a destination for immigrants from the colonized regions during the wars of independence of its colonies.


Foreign population

Since Portugal's accession to the European Community in 1986 and the associated political and economic changes, Portugal has increasingly become a country of immigration, with the countries of origin of immigrants mainly in Africa (Cape Verde, Angola, Guinea-Bissau), South America (Brazil) and Eastern Europe (Ukraine, Romania, Russia and the Republic of Moldova). Since the Russian invasion of Ukraine in 2022, about 54,000 Ukrainian citizens and residents of Ukraine have also been accepted as refugees in Portugal (as of October 17, 2022). Previously, Portugal had already taken in refugees from the civil wars in Iraq and, above all, Syria, including almost 3,000 under international agreements between the UN and the EU to take in refugees from Greece, Italy and, above all, Turkey.

At the end of 2008, there were 443,102 foreign nationals living in Portugal. More than half of them come from other Portuguese-speaking countries, are mostly of the Catholic faith and therefore have a similar cultural background. About a quarter of the foreigners living in Portugal are Europeans, some of whom are returnees, i.e. Portuguese who have emigrated from Portugal and returned with foreign citizenship. Another part is permanent vacationers who are spending their retirement in Portugal. In 2017, 8.5% of the population was born abroad.

More than half of the foreign population lives in Lisbon, apart from that it concentrates on the urban areas on the coast. In the hinterland, the share is less than 0.5%.

The 2021 census showed a current number of 555,299 inhabitants of Portugal with foreign nationality, which currently represent 5.4% of the total population.


Ethnic composition

Data on the genetic makeup of the Portuguese point to their weak internal differentiation and essentially continental Paleolithic European base. It is true that there were demic processes in the Mesolithic (probable connection to North Africa) and Neolithic (creating some connection with the Middle East, but much less than in other areas of Europe), just as the migrations of the Copper, Bronze and Iron Ages contributed to the indo-Europeanization of the Iberian Peninsula (essentially a "celtization"), without erasing the strong Mediterranean character, particularly to the south and East. Romanization, Germanic invasions, Moorish Islamic rule, and Jewish presence will also have had their impact and contribution. We can even list all the most historically important peoples who passed through Portugal and / or stayed: the pre-indo-European cultures of Iberia (such as Tartessos and others before) and their descendants (such as the conians, later "celticized"); the proto-Celts and Celts (such as the lusitanians, gallaici, celtici); a few Phoenicians and Carthaginians; Romans; Swabians, burians and Visigoths, as well as a few vandals and Alans; a few Byzantines; Berbers with some Arabs and saqaliba (Slavic slaves); Sephardic Jews; sub-Saharan Africans; less massive flows of European migrants (particularly from Western Europe). All these population processes will have left their mark, sometimes stronger, sometimes only vestigial. But the genetic basis of the relatively homogeneous population of the Portuguese territory, as of the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, has remained the same in the last forty millennia: the first Moderna human beings to enter Western Europe, the Paleolithic hunter-gatherers.

One of the common criticisms of census data relates to the apparent poor coverage of ethnic groups. However, it is part of the policy of the National Statistics Institute not to include the distinction of race or ethnicity, and there is only the collection of data on nationality.



The official language of the Portuguese Republic is Portuguese, adopted in 1290 by decree of King D. Dinis. With over 210 million native speakers, it is the fifth most spoken language in the world and the third most spoken in the Western world. It is the official language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique and São Tomé and Príncipe, and an official language alongside other official languages in Timor-Leste, Macau and Equatorial Guinea. It is also spoken in the former Portuguese India (Goa, Daman, Diu and Dadrá and Nagar-Aveli), as well as having official status in the European Union, the Union of South American nations (UNASUR), the Southern Common Market (Mercosur) and the African Union.

Portuguese sign language and mirandese are also officially recognized and protected, officially protected in the municipality of Miranda do Douro, with Origin in Asturian-Leonese, taught as an optional second language in schools in the municipality of Miranda do Douro and part of the municipality of Vimioso. Its use, however, is quite restricted, and actions are underway to guarantee the linguistic rights of its speaking community.

The Portuguese language is a romance language (of the ibero-romance group), as are Galician, Castilian, Catalan, Italian, French, Romanian, reto-Romansh (Switzerland), and others. Portuguese is known as the language of Camões (after Luís de Camões, author of the Lusíadas), the last Flower of Lazio, an expression used in the sonnet Língua Portuguesa by Olavo Bilac or the sweet language by Miguel de Cervantes.



The vast majority of Portuguese profess the Roman Catholic faith, with the proportion of the total population being given with values between 85% and 95%. In addition, there are other Christian churches in Portugal, including Evangelical congregations, Jehovah's Witnesses, Evangelical Free Churches (especially from Brazil) or the Anglican Lusitanian Church of Portugal.

In Portugal, there is freedom of religion and, since the introduction of the "Law on Freedom of Belief" (Lei da Liberdade Religiosa), equality between religions has officially also prevailed. However, equality has not yet been achieved in reality: the Catholic Church runs important cultural institutions, a prestigious university, private schools and also a radio station in Portugal. Furthermore, the law on Freedom of belief is only partially applicable to the Catholic Church. Whether public schools should be obliged to offer religious education has been controversial in Portugal since the 1980s. In 2004, a new concordat was concluded between Portugal and the Holy See. On the one hand, the church has the right to offer lessons, but there must be consent. Also, in principle, all religious communities must have the same right, which is practically difficult to implement.

In the first Constitution of Portugal (1822), Catholicism was declared the state religion. The Constitution of 1826 abolished religious persecution. The official separation of state and church took place with the Republican Revolution of 1910, with concordats with the Vatican continuing to grant far-reaching privileges to the Catholic Church. in 1976, secularism was enshrined in the Constitution of Portugal (Article 41, paragraph 4).

The Portuguese expression of Catholicism is described as "human, lyrical and with an understanding of the carnal things of life". Typical is the strong veneration of the Virgin Mary. The most important pilgrimage destination is the pilgrimage site Fátima. The Virgin Mary is said to have appeared to three shepherd children here in 1917.

In the Middle Ages, two other religions played an important role in Portugal: Muslim Moors and Arabs dominated the south of the country for a long time from the year 711 onwards. After the reconquista, they had to leave the country or submit to the Christians. They brought with them numerous technical advances, such as improvements in well construction, irrigation, olive cultivation, cultivation of citrus fruits, cotton and sugar cane, silkworm breeding, the production of tiles, blinds, hygiene and ornamentation. The society in Portugal at that time also offered subjugated or enslaved Moors the opportunity to rise socially; the Muslim population was absorbed into the Christian one.
Judaism in Portugal also has a long history. Thus, in the Middle Ages, the Jews enjoyed the protection of the Portuguese kings. The wealth acquired and saved by trade and administrative posts in the state and church served as the basis for the construction of the Portuguese fleet. anti-Jewish pogroms occurred in Lisbon in 1504 and 1506. Later, the situation of the Jews in Portugal improved again. The semi-fascist Salazar dictatorship, for example, does not take part in the persecution of the Jews, and in 1938 the largest synagogue on the Iberian Peninsula was inaugurated with the Sinagoga Kadoorie. In 2015, Portugal enacted a special citizenship law for the descendants of Sephardic Jews, underlined the importance of Portugal's Jewish history for the country and apologized for the historical injustice that had happened to them here.

Lisbon is home to one of the largest Hindu communities in Europe, mainly thanks to its Nepalese and Indian-born residents. In addition, there are other faiths in Portugal, including Buddhism, with the União Budista Portuguesa association as the central organ (see also Portuguese-Tibetan relations).

A representative survey commissioned by the European Commission within the framework of the Eurobarometer in 2020 showed that religion is important for 47 percent of people in Portugal, for 37 percent it is neither important nor unimportant and for 15 percent it is unimportant.



The city of Lisbon, with more than half a million inhabitants and with nearly 3 million inhabitants in its metropolitan area, is the largest city and the largest urban area in the country, the main economic hub, holding the main Portuguese seaport and airport and is the richest city in Portugal with a GDP per capita higher than the European Union average. Other important cities are Porto, (about 240,000 inhabitants – 1.7 million in the metropolitan area) the second largest city and economic center, Aveiro (sometimes called the "Portuguese Venice"), Braga ("City of Archbishops"), Chaves (historic and ancient city), Coimbra (with the oldest university in the country), Guimarães ("cradle City"), Évora ("Museum City"), Setúbal (third largest port), Portimão (3.º cruise port and headquarters of the AIA), Faro and Viseu. In the metropolitan area of Lisbon there are cities with high population density such as Agualva-Cacém and Queluz (municipality of Sintra), Amadora, Almada, Amora, Seixal, Barreiro, Montijo and Odivelas. In the metropolitan area of Porto the most populated municipalities are Vila Nova de Gaia, Maia, Matosinhos and Gondomar. In the Autonomous Region of Madeira the main city is Funchal. In the Autonomous Region of the Azores there are three main cities: Ponta Delgada on the island of São Miguel, Angra do Heroísmo on Terceira Island and Horta on Faial island.



Political system

In Portugal, the fundamental law is the Constitution, dated 1976, all other laws must respect it. The Constitution has undergone some revisions. It is provided in the Constitution to hold referendums of popular consultation, however, the result can be politically annulled. The first referendum was in 1933 that approved the Constitution that led to the creation of the Estado Novo. Other structuring laws of the country are the Civil Code (1966), the Criminal Code (1982), The Commercial Code (1888), the Code of Civil Procedure (2013), the Code of Criminal Procedure (1987) and the Labor Code (2011). Some of these laws have undergone major revisions since their original publication.

There are four organs of sovereignty: the president of the Republic (Head of State – moderating power, but with some executive power), the Assembly of the Republic (Parliament – legislative power), the government (executive power) and the courts (judicial power). A semi-presidential system is in force in the country, according to the constitutional framework established in 1976. Portuguese semi-presidentialism - with a parliamentary bias (attenuated or accentuated, depending on whether the government is majority or minority) - supports 4 essential structural features: the election of the president of the Republic by direct and universal suffrage; the sharing of executive power between the latter and the government, without the former ever directly and formally heading the executive; the political accountability of the government before the Assembly of the Republic and the president of the Republic; and the head of State holds the power to dissolve Parliament and Regional Legislative Assemblies.

Therefore, the president of the Republic is the head of State and is elected by universal Suffrage, for a term of five years. Unlike the other organs of sovereignty, the candidate for this position has to be over 35 and a national citizen. The winning candidate - at the inauguration before the Assembly of the Republic-takes the following oath: "I swear by my honor to faithfully perform the functions in which I am invested and to defend, comply with and enforce the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic". The elected candidate must have more than half of the votes. In case there is no clear winner, a second round is held with the two most voted candidates from the first round.

The president of the Republic exercises - among the aforementioned functions - that of command, as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces (Army, Navy, Air Force, National Republican Guard); that of formal representation of the Portuguese State abroad and in international relations, namely in the ratification of international conventions or treaties and in the reception of the credentials of foreign ambassadors; to promulgate and order the publication or veto of legislative acts, namely the laws of the Assembly of the Republic, the decrees-laws and the decrees-regulations of the government, as well as to request the supervision of the constitutionality of these diplomas; to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister and the other ministers, in the latter case on the proposal of the head of government; to confer decorations and to exercise the position of Grand Master of the honorary orders. It is also up to the president of the Republic, on a proposal from the government, to appoint and dismiss ambassadors and the highest military positions (Chiefs of staff), as well as the appointment of the Attorney General of the Republic. Within the framework of the interdependence of powers between the president of the Republic, the Assembly of the Republic and the government, it is up to the former to declare war and make peace, declare a state of emergency and a state of siege, and pardon and commute sentences. The Portuguese head of State officially resides at the Belém Palace in Lisbon.

The Assembly of the Republic, which meets in Lisbon, at the São Bento Palace, is elected for a four-year term. The primacy of legislative power is attributed to the Assembly of the Republic, sharing, in some cases, part of this power with the government. However, the Assembly of the Republic has supervisory powers over legislative acts of the government, either through the granting of legislative authorizations or through parliamentary consideration of these. At the moment it has 230 deputies, elected in 22 plurinominal circles on political party lists, although independent citizens can participate in these. The president of the Assembly is elected by the deputies, always being an elected deputy in the legislatures, usually the elected deputy is from the government party. The president of the Assembly is the second figure of the state, taking charge of the functions of the president of the Republic in case of his absence.

The government is headed by the prime minister, who is, as a rule, the leader of the most voted party in each legislative election, and is invited, in this form, by the president of the Republic to form a government, so the government is not elected but appointed. It is the president of the Republic who appoints and dismisses the remaining ministers, on the proposal of the Prime Minister. This officially resides in the Palacete de São Bento, at the back of the Assembly of the Republic, in Lisbon. Any government can be subject to a motion of censure and can overthrow it in the Assembly. A motion of confidence may also be tabled, opposing the motion of censure.

Since 1975, the Portuguese political landscape has been dominated by two parties: the Socialist Party (PS) and the Social Democratic Party (PSD). These parties have divided the tasks of governing and administering most municipalities, practically since the establishment of democracy. However, parties such as the Portuguese Communist Party (PCP), which still holds the presidency of municipalities and a great influence with the trade union movement or the CDS – Popular party (CDS-PP) (which has already governed the country in coalition with the PS and the PSD) are also important in political chess. In addition to these, the Left Bloc (B. E.) And The Ecologist Party "the Greens" (ENP) have seats in Parliament.


Law and Justice

Portuguese law has evolved from Roman law. According to French law, it was mainly influenced by German law in the 20th century.

In Portugal, the following dishes exist:
the Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional)
the Supreme Court (Supremo Tribunal de Justiça)
5 Courts of Appeal (tribunais da relação)
23 District Courts (tribunais de comarca), 4 Courts of Execution (tribunais de execução das penas), 4 Specialized courts (Tribunal marítimo; Tribunal da propriedade intelectual; Tribunal da concorrência, regulação e supervisão; Tribunal central de instrução criminal)
25 Courts of Peace (julgados de paz)
the Supreme Administrative Court (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo)
2 central administrative courts (tribunais centrais administrativos)
15 Administrative and Fiscal Courts (tribunais administrativos e fiscais), a district administrative court (tribunal administrativo de círculo), a tax court (tribunal tributário)
the Court of Auditors (Tribunal de Contas).


International Relations

Portugal's foreign policy is linked to its historical role as a prominent figure of the age of Discovery and holder of the extinct Portuguese Empire. Portugal is a founding member of NATO (1949), OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960); leaving the latter in 1986 to join the European Union (EU), then still the European Economic Community (EEC). Founder of the first International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), on June 25, 1992, it became a member state of the Schengen Area, and in 1996, co-founded the community of Portuguese-speaking countries (CPLP).

Portugal has benefited significantly from the European Union and is a proponent of European integration. He has served as president of the Council of the European Union four times (in 1992, 2000, 2007 and 2021). Portugal took advantage of its presidencies to launch a dialogue between the EU and Africa, to make the European economy more dynamic and competitive and, in the penultimate presidency, to establish and sign, together with the other member states, the reform Treaty, which became known as the Treaty of Lisbon.

Portugal was a founding member of NATO; it is an active member of the alliance by, for example, contributing proportionately large contingents to the peacekeeping forces in the Balkans. Portugal proposed the creation of the community of Portuguese-speaking countries (CPLP) to improve its ties with other Portuguese-speaking countries. In addition, it has participated, together with Spain, in a series of Ibero-American summits. Portugal has staunchly advocated the independence of Timor-Leste, a former overseas province, sending troops and money to Timor in close collaboration with the United States, Asian allies and the UN.

It has a friendship and alliance through a treaty concluded with Brazil, in addition to the history that unites the two countries (see: relations between Brazil and Portugal). Portugal has the oldest alliance in the world, which was concluded with England (succeeded by the United Kingdom) and remains to this day.

The only international dispute concerns the municipality of Olivenza. Portuguese since 1297, the municipality of Olivenza was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in 1801 after the war of the oranges. Portugal claimed it in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna. Today the Municipality consists of the Spanish municipality of the same name and the municipality of Táliga, separated from the previous one. However, bilateral diplomatic relations between the two neighboring countries are cordial, as well as within the framework of the European Union.


Education system

Education was neglected until the Carnation Revolution in 1974; after the revolution, the construction of the education system progressed only slowly. This is still noticeable today: in 2000, for example, only about a tenth of thirty-year-olds had a university degree. Thus, Portugal was far behind among the EU members by a large margin before the eastern enlargement. The illiteracy rate is around 4.6% (3.1% for men, 5.9% for women). In the PISA ranking of 2015, Portugal's students are ranked 29th out of 72 countries in mathematics, 22nd in science and 21st in reading comprehension. Portugal is thus above the average of the OECD countries.

The school system consists of a four-year primary school and a five-year secondary school. There is a statutory nine-year compulsory education for children from the age of six. Compulsory education is free of charge at state schools. Families in need can receive support for teaching at one of the comparatively numerous private schools.

Those who complete the three-year Escola Secundária after high school get the university entrance qualification and can choose between several options for higher education: higher education is offered in Portugal by state and private universities (universidades) as well as state and private universities of applied sciences (escolas politécnicas). Universities have been set up in many medium-sized cities to promote remote areas. In any case, an entrance exam is to be taken and tuition fees are to be paid, which are higher in private schools than in state ones. They are different depending on the specialty, for state institutions up to 850 euros per year. Nevertheless, about a third of students are enrolled in a private institution. In addition to the registration fees, propinas, fees for the awarding of certificates and diplomas are to be paid. About 20% of the students benefit from income-dependent state support.


Health system

With the tax-financed Serviço Nacional de Saúde, a largely free health care system has been available to all locals and visitors since 1979, with the exception of mostly small additional payments, as stipulated by the Portuguese Constitution of 1976. In addition, there are professional and private health care systems. With 3.34 doctors per 1000 inhabitants (as of 2016), the level of medical care in Portugal ranks 29th in the world (comparison: Germany 4.33; Switzerland 4.24; Austria 5.14). Life expectancy in Portugal, at 82 years (as of 2022), is higher than the European Union average of 78 years, see list of countries by average life expectancy.

The INEM public rescue service covers continental Portugal with a unified emergency service.


Administrative division

Portugal is divided into 18 districts and two autonomous regions: the Azores and Madeira. The districts are an older version of the division of the country, which is becoming less and less important. The five historical regions of the country have been divided into 25 subregions, which are becoming more and more important due to the change in the population centers in the country. This is followed by local self-government in Portugal, with 308 municípios (which can be compared with German counties or Swiss districts) and 3091 freguesias (municipalities). Until the administrative reorganization in 2013, there were 4259 municipalities.


Regions and subregions

When it comes to the division of regions and subregions, which are also known as European NUTS, there are seven regions in Portugal (five regions on the mainland and the two autonomous regions of the Azores and Madeira), which can still be divided into 25 subregions.



The armed forces have three branches: Army, Navy and Air Force. Portugal's military serves primarily as a vigorous self-defense force whose mission is to protect the country's territorial integrity, and to provide humanitarian and security assistance at home and abroad. Since 2004, compulsory military service is no longer practiced, having been replaced by National Defense Day. The age for voluntary recruitment is set at 18 years. In the twentieth century, Portugal was involved in two major military interventions: World War I and the Portuguese Colonial war (1961-1974).

Portugal has participated in peacekeeping missions, namely in Timor-Leste, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq (Nasiriyah) and southern Lebanon. The Portuguese Army has a rapid reaction Brigade, a Mechanized Brigade and an Intervention Brigade. These three echelons of force bring together the most diverse specialties of the military discipline, thus containing engineering, cavalry, artillery and infantry units, inserting in the latter the units of Special Troops, such as commandos, paratroopers and special operations.

The security of the population is in charge of the National Republican Guard (GNR) and the Public Security Police (PSP) which are under the purview of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In addition to these, Portugal has the Judicial Police (PJ), which is the main criminal investigation police body in the country, dedicated to combating major crime, namely organized crime, terrorism, drug trafficking, corruption and economic and financial crime. The Judicial Police is integrated into the Ministry of Justice, acting under the guidance of the Public Prosecutor's office.



Since 1985, the country has entered a modernization process in a fairly stable environment (1985 to the present) and joined the European Union in 1986. Successive governments have made several reforms, privatised many state-controlled companies and liberalised key areas of the economy, including the telecommunications and financial sectors. Portugal developed an increasingly service-based economy and was one of the eleven founding members of the European currency – the Euro – in 1999. It began circulating its new currency on 1 January 2002 with eleven other member states of the European Union.

When looking at a longer period of time, the convergence of the Portuguese economy to European Union standards has been impressive, especially between 1986 and the early 2000s. According to Barry (2003), "what seems to have been crucial in the Portuguese case, in relation to Spain at least, is the degree of labour market flexibility that the economy exhibits. (... This Portuguese convergence has been impressive, even if, consistent with its relatively low stock of human capital, the economy has specialized in low-tech production."Portuguese economic growth was above the European Union average for most of the 1990s and a quality of life survey by The Economist Intelligence Unit ranked Portugal 19th.º best quality of life in the world in 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries such as France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but nine places behind its only neighbor, Spain.

However, the 2013 Global Competitiveness Report, published by the World Economic Forum, ranked Portugal's level of economic competitiveness at 46.ª position among the 60 countries surveyed, behind Spain and Italy, which represents a drop in relation to the positions achieved in the reports of previous years. Portugal also remains the country with the lowest GDP per capita among Western European nations and the one with one of the highest rates of economic inequality among members of the European Union. In 2007, the poor performance of the Portuguese economy was explored by The Economist magazine, which described Portugal as the "new sick man of Europe". On 6 April 2011, following the onset of the 2008 economic crisis and the deepening of the eurozone public debt crisis, then prime minister José Sócrates announced on national television that the country had requested financial assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the European financial stabilisation fund (EFSF), as Greece and the Republic of Ireland had already done. It was the third time foreign financial aid had been requested from the IMF – the first was in the late 1970s, after the April 25 Revolution. On July 6 of the same year, the US rating agency Moody's downgraded the rating to "financial junk", causing the fall of the largest national banks in PSI 20. In 2017, the country left the classification of "financial garbage" and returned to growth rates in the range of 2.8–3%. The financial rating agency Fitch Ratings and Standard & Poor's removed Portugal from the "junk" level, improving the rating assigned to Portuguese public debt by two levels, from BB+ to BBB, the second level of the investment category.



With a predominantly agricultural past, currently and due to all the development that the country has registered, the structure of the economy is based on services and industry, which represent 67.8% and 28.2% of GVA.

Portuguese agriculture is well adapted due to the climate, relief and favorable soils. In recent decades, agricultural modernization has intensified, although still about 12% of the working population works in agriculture. Olive Trees (4 000 km2), vineyards (3 750 km2), wheat (3 000 km2) and maize (2 680 km2) are produced in fairly large areas. Portuguese wines (especially port wine and Madeira wine) and olive oils are highly prized due to their quality. Portugal is also a producer of selected quality fruit, namely the Algarvian oranges, The Rock pear of the Western Region, the gardunha cherry and the Madeira banana. Other productions are horticultural or floricultural, such as sweet beets, sunflower oil and tobacco.

The economic importance of fishing has been declining, employing less than 1% of the working population. The decrease in the reserves of fishing resources was reflected in the reduction of the Portuguese fishing fleet, which, although it has been modernizing, still has difficulty competing with other European fleets. Despite the reduced extent of the Portuguese continental shelf, there is some species diversity in the waters of Portugal'S EEZ, one of the largest in Europe. The Portuguese fleet captures in international waters and in the EEZs of other countries. As a whole, the most caught species are sardines, horse mackerel, octopus, black swordfish, mackerel and tuna. The ports with the highest fish landing in 2001 were Matosinhos, Peniche, Olhão and Sesimbra.

Cork has a very significant production: in 2010, Portugal produced 54% of the Cork produced in the world. The most significant mineral resources in Portugal are copper, lithium (7), Wolfram (6), tin, uranium, feldspars (11), rock salt, talc and marble.

Portugal's trade balance has long been in deficit, with the value of exports covering only 65% of the value of imports in 2006. The largest exports correspond to textiles, clothing, machinery, electrical equipment, vehicles, transport equipment, footwear, leather, wood, cork, paper, among others. The country mainly imports products from the European Union: Spain, Germany, France, Italy and the United Kingdom.



Tourism remains an extremely important economic sector for Portugal, and the number of visitors is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. However, there is increasing competition with Eastern European destinations such as Croatia, which offer similar attractions but are often cheaper. Consequently, the country is almost obliged to focus on its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, in order to stay ahead of its competitors.

Portugal is among the 20 most visited countries in the world, receiving an annual average of 13 million foreign tourists. Tourism is playing an increasingly important role in Portugal's economy, contributing to around 11% of its gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010. Among the foreign people who visited the country the most in 2012 are the British, followed by Spaniards, Germans, French and Brazilians.

In 2013, Portugal was ranked 20th.Ranked among the 140 nations assessed by the travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index, published by the World Economic Forum. In the same year, Portugal was also elected by Condé Nast Traveller the best destination in the world to travel. Landscape, gastronomy, beaches and the friendliness of the population were the criteria used for the choice. The publication highlighted the"special charm that is visible in the traditions of the country, with cities that combine modernity with the visible weight of history, landscapes and beaches that reconcile us with nature".

In May 2014, the travel portal of the US newspaper USA Today chose the country as the best in Europe for a vacation.

The main tourist spots in Portugal are Lisbon, Fatima, Algarve and Madeira, but the Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley, the island of Porto Santo and the Alentejo. In 2005, Lisbon was the second European city, only behind Barcelona, that attracted more tourists, with seven million overnight stays in the city's hotels.


Demography and unemployment

Structural problems have traditionally been cited as an obstacle to stronger growth in productivity and employment. Initially, these were deficits in the education system, the relatively high illiteracy rate, the sometimes poor infrastructure and the inefficient administration. Especially since the late 1990s, these deficits are largely considered to have been eliminated. For example, the illiteracy rate in Portugal is now at 5%, and the trend is decreasing (for comparison: Germany 1%). in 2013, 24.6% of men and 36.1% of women between the ages of 30 and 34 had a university degree (for comparison: NRW 28.3% / 29.9%). In addition, the infrastructure in the country has undergone enormous investments, also with the help of the EU. As a result, an above-average expansion of fiber optic connections for fast Internet can be considered as an example (2012: 10.3%, for comparison: Germany 1.1%), Portugal's motorway network is also one of the densest in Europe today, and it is possible to start a business online within one day. Award-winning developments such as the widespread Multibanco ATMs or the Via Verde toll system can be considered examples of the country's ability to innovate. After a boom period until the early 2000s, Portugal then increasingly came into competition with the low-wage countries of Central and Eastern Europe, Asia and North Africa, which made Portugal less attractive for foreign direct investment. However, these have increased significantly again since 2009 and amounted to more than 57 billion euros in 2012. The average wages in Portugal are still low by Western European standards and the working hours are sometimes much longer.

In February 2022, unemployment in Portugal was 5.8 percent. Before the crisis, in 2008, the unemployment rate had been at 7.6 percent. By June 2018, it had fallen to 6.7 percent, thus falling below the pre-crisis level.

In 2014, 8.6% of the total labor force worked in agriculture, 23.9% in industry and 67.5% in the service sector. The total number of employees is estimated at 5.23 million in 2017, of which 48.8% are women.


Foreign trade

About 80% of foreign trade is conducted with EU partners. The main exports are clothing and footwear, vehicles, machinery, chemical products, cork as well as pulp and paper. Machinery, vehicles, oil and oil products as well as agricultural products are imported. Portugal traditionally had a large trade deficit, but was able to significantly increase its exports as part of its economic efforts, after its deep economic crisis after the euro crisis in 2010, and has had a trade surplus since about 2012, which has tended to increase further since then. In the past, the balance of payments deficit was not as high as the trade deficit due to income from tourism and remittances from foreign sports giants.

Foreign trade has become increasingly important for Portugal's economic policy since 2010. Also thanks to the efforts of the State Chamber of Foreign Trade AICEP and other actors, the country's exports reached the Portuguese record value of 44.3% of GDP in 2018, the plans of the government under the socialist Prime Minister Costa – before the COVID-19 pandemic that also broke out in Portugal in March 2020 - aimed at a further increase to 50% of GDP by 2025. Portugal is also becoming increasingly important as an IT location. Not only are more and more start-up companies settling in Portugal, with the LX Factory cluster in Lisbon as the best-known example, but international corporations are also relocating their development departments here, for example to Oeiras near Lisbon, or setting up joint ventures, including German companies such as BMW. The reasons are the large number of qualified graduates, the good IT infrastructure and the comparatively low wage level.

Foreign investments come mainly from Spain, Germany and Great Britain. In the meantime, increasing investments from the oil-rich former Portuguese colony of Angola have also caused a stir, such as the purchase of the bank Banco BIC Português by an Angolan banking house or the investments of Isabel dos Santos, among others, in Portuguese media companies.

One of the most significant foreign investments in Portugal is the Autoeuropa automobile assembly plant. Among the most important Portuguese companies operating internationally are Energias de Portugal, Portugal Telecom, the Jerónimo Martins group, which is particularly successful in retail, and the Sonae Group, which, for example, runs the Alexa shopping center on Berlin's Alexanderplatz.


Energy industry

According to the port. In 2010, the installed capacity of the power plants in Portugal amounted to 11,195 MW, of which caloric power plants accounted for 6,561 MW (59%) and hydroelectric power plants 4,584 MW (41%). A total of 48.5 billion kWh were generated in 2010, of which 37.4 billion (77%) were generated by caloric power plants and 11.1 billion (23%) by hydroelectric power plants.

Wind energy has been a very important factor in the electricity supply for two decades. At the end of 2023, wind turbines with a rated output of 5,834 MW were installed in Portugal from 2021 to 2023, they each covered 26% and thus more than a quarter of the Portuguese electricity demand (2019: 27 %, 2020: 25 %). Already in 2014, 27% had been achieved, which was the second highest value worldwide and was only surpassed by Denmark with 39.1%. With an installed capacity of 2,536 MW (2022), the power generation from photovoltaics is not quite as significant, but the expansion reached a new peak value of 890 MW in 2022. In addition, there is bioenergy with 891 MW. in 2020, renewable energies covered 61.7% of Portugal's electricity demand, almost half of which came from wind turbines. In May 2016, the country was continuously supplied exclusively by renewable energies for 107 hours or 4 days. At the end of 2008, the Alto Minho wind farm, the largest onshore wind farm in Europe at that time, was put into operation.

Based on the total final energy demand (electricity, heat, transport), renewable energies supplied 30.3% of the energy in 2018 (2013: 25.7%), Portugal wanted to increase this share to 31% by 2020.

By mid-2021, almost two thirds of the electricity generated in Portugal already came from renewable sources (15.08 billion kWh) and only a good third from fossil sources, excluding gas (7.68 billion kWh) and hard coal (0.22 billion kWh). By the end of 2021, the last two coal-fired power plants in the country were shut down, with green hydrogen being produced at the Sines site in the future, while the second block will also be converted to gas at the Pego site.

In mid-2021, Portugal already covered 79.5% of its electricity needs from renewables. This puts the country at the top of all EU countries and is surpassed in Europe only by Norway. In the first quarter of 2021, electricity generation in Portugal came from 44% hydropower, 28% wind power, 5.6% biomass and 2% solar energy. Fossil fuels still contributed to 20.5%, of which 11% was natural gas, 8.2% was combined heat and power and 1.6% was coal.


Mineral resources

Portugal is one of the world's leading nations in tungsten production. There are also coal, copper, tin, gold, iron ores such as pyrite and chalcopyrite, clay minerals such as kaolinite, as well as wolframite, uraninite and lithium. In the second half of the 20th century, Portugal was considered an important supplier of uranium. However, uranium mining was stopped at the beginning of the 21st century due to inefficiency. During the Second World War, Germany supplied itself with Portuguese tungsten for weapons production. The atomic bomb of Hiroshima contained Portuguese uranium.



Portugal's agriculture is one of the most inefficient in Europe; the share of agriculture in GDP is about 5%, but more than 15% of the labor force is employed in agriculture. This led to the fact that many farms abandoned, and almost half of the food is imported. The cultivation of almonds is in a deep crisis, as are the cork oak plantations (montados) in the Alentejo and the Douro Valley. Although Portugal is the most important production country for raw cork with about 125,000 tons and thus half of the world's harvested quantity. Nevertheless, the industry has been under great pressure since the turn of the millennium due to the increasing popularity and international production of synthetically produced closure alternatives for wine bottles. The hope of numerous cork farmers (tiradores) that the Portuguese cork is irreplaceable, at least for wines in the high-price segment, has also not been fulfilled, because the trend away from the natural product towards more cost-effective alternatives made of plastic can also be observed in expensive wines. The consequence of this development are numerous company insolvencies and emigrations from the cork growing regions. Portugal's government and the cork industry are now responding to the development with worldwide "green marketing" advertising campaigns in which winegrowers are to be convinced again of the ecological sustainability of the natural product cork. In addition, cork is gaining importance as a versatile and very light material with its water-repellent, heat- and rot-resistant, heat-insulating and sound-insulating properties as an ecological alternative, for example as a floor covering or insulation material. Cork is also gaining increasing attention in shoe and clothing fashion, also as a vegan leather substitute.

For the pulp industry, an important economic factor in Portugal, large areas with fast-growing eucalyptus are being reforested as a raw material. This is of concern for ecological reasons, because eucalyptus leaches the soil, displaces the original forest and thus the wildlife, and promotes the catastrophic forest fires in the summer.

Similar to agriculture, fishing is struggling with productivity problems. The Portuguese fishing fleet is poorly developed compared to the Spanish one. Most of the fish is imported.



Tourism is responsible for about eight percent of GDP, and the trend is rising, with the majority of visitors coming from Spain and the UK. With over 11.4 million tourists, Portugal was ranked 30th most visited country in the world in 2016. The Algarve is the undisputed center of this.

There are 15 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Portugal, including two in the Azores and one in Madeira.

For the international marketing of the port wine from the oldest wine-growing region Alto Douro from the 17th century, the three Germans Kopke, Burmester and Andresen made a decisive contribution to the development of the port wine.

The palaces with parks near Sintra and Portugal's largest castle and monastery complex in Mafra were planned by the German architects von Eschwege and Ludwig.

In front of the Algarve, Sétubal and the island groups Madeira and Azores there are opportunities to experience both dolphins and whales in the wild.

On the Atlantic island of Madeira, tourism began in the mid-19th century; the island was one of the favorite destinations of wealthy British travelers. They stayed mainly at the Reid's Palace Hotel, which the Scotsman William Reid had built in 1891.


International economic relations

Memberships: EU, Council of Europe, Eurozone, OECD, WTO, Ibero-American Conference of Nations, Community of Portuguese-speaking Countries and others.
State Chamber of Foreign Trade: Agência para o Investimento e Comércio Externo de Portugal (AICEP)
In 2018, Portugal exported goods and services worth 89.211 billion euros. The imports of the same period amounted to 87.211 billion euros, so that the country recorded a trade surplus of 2 billion euros.

The main destination countries for Portuguese exports in 2018 were Spain (25.27%), France (12.27%), Germany (11.48%), Great Britain (6.36%), the USA (4.94%), Italy (4.25%), the Netherlands (3.81%), Angola (2.60%), Belgium (2.34%) and Brazil (1.46%).

Portugal's imports came mainly from Spain (31.43%), Germany (13.85%), France (7.63%), Italy (5.32%), the Netherlands (5.20%), China (3.14%), Belgium (2.88%), Great Britain (2.51%), the USA (1.8%) and Russia (1.78%).


State budget

The state budget in 2019 included revenues of 91.01 billion euros and expenditures of 90.6 billion euros, resulting in a narrow budget surplus of about 600 million euros. This was a sign of Portugal's positive economic development and good budgetary policy, after the country had mostly been running a budget deficit for many years. In 2016, budget expenditures of $ 92.2 billion were offset by revenues of $ 87.2 billion, resulting in a budget deficit of $ 5.0 billion, or 2.4% of GDP.

The national debt in 2009 amounted to 127.9 billion euros or 76.1% of GDP (according to the following table 83.6%), now it is over 100% of GDP. On April 6, 2011, the Prime Minister of Portugal announced that the country would accept financial assistance from the European Union in the wake of the debt crises of eurozone countries. Since 2014, the country no longer needs EU financial assistance.

In 2011, new debt amounted to 4.2% of GDP. As a result, Portugal clearly met the EU's prescribed savings targets of 5.9% of GDP. But this was achieved only by additional payments from pension funds (transfer of pension funds of the State Savings Bank CGD to the state budget), otherwise the deficit would have been 7.7 %.



In the Logistics Performance Index, which is compiled by the World Bank and measures the quality of infrastructure, Portugal ranked 23rd out of 160 countries in 2018.


Road transport

The road network has grown rapidly and well developed since the 1980s, not least thanks to EU funding from funding funds. In 2008, the entire road network covered about 82,900 km, of which 71,294 km are paved. The important routes are covered by toll car roads. These reach a total length of 1100 km and are mostly operated by the listed company Brisa. On the other hand, Itinerários Principais (IP) or Itinerários Complementares (IC) are free of charge. Investments in road transport are also reflected in the accident statistics, 83 people per 1 million inhabitants died in Portugal's road transport in 2008, compared to 323 in 1991 (for comparison, 54 per 1 million in Germany in 2008).

Long-distance bus transport is more important in Portugal than in Central Europe. The largest regular bus company is Rede Expressos.



The railway network of Portugal is relatively wide-meshed. The state-owned company Infraestruturas de Portugal manages a rail network that has a total length of 2789 km. Of these, 188 km are narrow-gauge, 607 km are multi-gauge. Trains are offered by the state Comboios de Portugal and by the private Fertagus. However, the connections are efficient on the main traffic routes, the Alfa Pendular high-speed train offers the fastest connections between the conurbations, the maximum speed in regular operation is from 250 km / h to 300 km / h, depending on the route and series, but they cannot be driven in Portugal. Up to 220 km / h are currently reached on the few high-speed sections. The Lisbon–Porto high-speed line is under construction.

International trains have not been connecting Portugal with cities in Spain since 2020, with the suspension of the Madrid-Lisbon night train due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The resumption is planned in 2024 with the opening of a part of the Lisbon–Madrid high-speed line. Only a few regional trains currently operate cross-border and have connections to the Spanish high-speed trains in Badajoz and Vigo to Madrid.

There is a subway in Lisbon. Porto has a light rail and an independent tram service. Other trams exist in Lisbon and south of the Tagus.



The five most important airports in Portugal are Lisbon, Porto, Faro, Ponta Delgada and Funchal. They are served by several airlines, with the Portuguese lines TAP Portugal, SATA Air Açores and Portugália Airlines providing the most connections. In 2006, Portuguese airports handled a total of 22 million passengers and 135,000 tons of cargo. It was expected that by 2025 the volume of traffic will increase to 46.8 million passengers and 259,000 tons of cargo.

In view of the increasing number of passengers, it was decided to create a new commercial airport (Novo Aeroporto Lisboa) in addition to the existing Lisbon Airport. It is to be built at the little-used military airport in Montijo. It is located on the southern bank of the Tagus River. The operation is to be started from 2022. The start of construction and the opening, originally scheduled for 2017, were postponed indefinitely in 2010 due to the financial crisis.


Water transport

The main ports of Portugal are located in Aveiro, Porto, Lisbon, Sines and Setúbal. In 2007, almost 70% of all imports entered the country by sea, while 41% of exports were handled through ports. Of the 58 million tons, 39% passed through the port of Sines. The ports are being modernised and their transport links improved so that they can handle a larger part of Spain's foreign trade. Of the rivers, the Douro and the Tagus are navigable.


Fire brigade

In the fire brigade in Portugal, around 4,100 professional and around 45,000 volunteer firefighters were organized in 2019, who work in over 470 fire stations and fire houses, where 1,600 fire trucks and turntable ladders or telescopic masts are available. The national Fire Brigade Association Liga Dos Bombeiros Portugueses represents the Portuguese fire brigade in the World Fire Brigade Association CTIF.




Football is the most practiced sport in Portugal. Portuguese football has produced world-class players such as Eusébio, Nené, Paulo Sousa, Rui Costa, Nani, Cristiano Ronaldo, Vítor Baía, Deco, Fernando Meira or Luís Figo. In 2004, the European Football Championship was held in Portugal, where the Portuguese national team became the vice-champion of Europe after Greece. Reaching the third place at the 1966 World Cup was for a long time the greatest success in Portuguese football history, until winning the Euro 2016 in France. The top division, the Primeira Divisão, is dominated by the three most important clubs FC Porto, Sporting Lisbon, and the record champion Benfica Lisbon. The first winner of the Taça de Portugal National Cup was Académica Coimbra in 1939, who won it again in 2012, and has a special history thanks to its role as an oppositional student club of the 1960s. Other traditional clubs are Belenenses Lisbon, Boavista Porto and Vitória Setúbal. In addition to football, futsal and beach football are also widespread, and Portugal has achieved success there.



Portugal also has successes in canoeing, such as its silver medal at the 2012 Olympics. The Portuguese canoe manufacturer Nelo is the world market leader and also equipped the majority of the successful Olympic competitors in 2012. In the small town of Montemor-o-Velho, the Portuguese Canoe Association has its focus with its performance center. International events have also been held here several times, most recently the European Canoe Racing Championships in 2013.



Portuguese long-distance runners in particular were often successful internationally. The most famous female runner is probably the Olympic gold medalist Rosa Mota, while Carlos Lopes won the first Olympic gold medal for Portugal in the marathon in 1984.

Portugal hosted the 2014 European Orienteering Championships. Since 1991, the Lisbon Half Marathon, one of the world's most important half marathon races, has also been held in the capital every year in March.



Near the seaside resort of Estoril, near the Atlantic coast, there is the Circuito do Estoril, a well-known racetrack for car and motorcycle racing, on which the Formula 1 Grand Prix of Portugal was held for many years. The course in Estoril is also used as a test track for racing cars.

In the port city of Portimão is the Autódromo Internacional do Algarve, where the Superbike World Championship and the FIA GT Championship are hosted. In 2020, the first Portuguese Formula 1 Grand Prix since 1996 was held on this track.

There is a well-known speedway stadium in the city of Santarém, which has also hosted international championships, such as the European Speedway Club Championship in 2000.



Since 1927, the Volta a Portugal has been organizing a nationwide race of popular cycling. Popular cyclists were the first professional athlete of Portugal in 1896, José Bento Pessoa, the two-time Tour de France third Joaquim Agostinho, or Alves Barbosa, who at the height of his popularity in 1958 became the title hero of the first work of Portuguese cinema in Cinemascope.


Surfing and sailing

The coasts in the south and west offer ideal conditions for surfing all year round. Some of the best surf spots in Europe attract surfers from all over the world, for example in Ericeira, the world's third and Europe's first surf reserve. Among the many other surf spots are the traditional seaside resort Figueira da Foz, the beach Praia do Guincho located near Lisbon, or the former fishing village Nazaré, which is known for its particularly large wave. Since 2010, Portugal has been one of the official stops of the WSL Championship Tour. Every year the country hosts the "MEO Rip Curl Pro Portugal" on the Supertubos beach in Peniche. The best Portuguese surfer is Frederico Morais. He finished 14th in his rookie year on the WSL Championship Tour in 2017. Vasco Ribeiro won the men's Junior World Championship in 2014 and Teresa Bonvalot won the women's Junior European Championship in 2016 and 2017.

Sailing has a long tradition in Portugal. The Azores in particular are known for this, for example with the Les Sables–Les Açores–Les Sables regatta or the internationally known meeting place, the city of Horta. Sailing events also take place in the Algarve and the greater Lisbon area. For example, the 2007 ISAF Sailing World Championships were held in Cascais, which is also known for its marina.


Tennis and Badminton

With the ATP Estoril (from 1990) for men and the WTA Oeiras (1999-2014) for women, well-known international tennis tournaments of the highest tournament series take place in Portugal. Previously held tournaments were the ATP Porto (1995-1996) and WTA Porto (2001-2002). In addition, some tournaments of the ATP Challenger Tour have been and will be held in Portugal. Most recently, João Sousa from Guimarães was the most promising Portuguese tennis player. On July 14, 2014, he reached his best ranking in the tennis world ranking with the 35th place.

For Portuguese badminton, on the other hand, Caldas da Rainha is the most important place, for example as a frequent venue for tournaments of the Portugal International, and as the seat of the Portuguese Badminton Association. The most successful player can be considered Isabel Rocha, who won a total of 32 national titles in the 1960s and 1970s. José Bento can be mentioned as a particularly successful male player. He came from Lourenço Marques, the capital of the former Portuguese colony Mozambique, now called Maputo, and dominated badminton in Portugal, especially during the 1970s.


Winter sport

Rather unknown outside of Portugal are the snowboard championships in the ski resorts of the Serra da Estrela, or the Portuguese ice Hockey federation Federação Portuguesa de Desportos no Gelo.



With 13 national championships, Joaquim Durão is the record champion in chess. The most successful female player is Catarina Leite, while chess grandmaster Luís Galego is probably the most important chess player in Portugal at the moment.

The Portuguese Chess Federation FPX (Federação Portuguesa de Xadrez) has been a member of the World Federation FIDE since its foundation in 1927 and organizes the most important tournaments in the country, including the National Cup (Taça de Portugal) and the tripartite league for clubs (Campeonatos Nacionais por Equipa), with the Primeira Divisão as the top division. Today, over 100 chess clubs and about 4,000 players are organized in FPX in Portugal.

Chess became especially popular in Portugal in the 14th and 15th centuries. King D. João I praised the game of chess in the early 14th century in his book Livro de Montaria as an excellent military training, and D. João II liked to play, especially when traveling.

in 1512, the Italian-written, Europe-wide distributed chess book Libro da imparare giocare a scachi by the Portuguese Damiano de Odemira was published in Rome. In Pietro Carrera's work Il Gioco degli Scacchi, published in 1617, there was also a list of the best chess players. On the 32nd place, the Portuguese King D. Sebastião I was performed there, after Ruy López and before the Spanish King Philip II, who had hosted the world's first international chess tournament in 1575. Damiano de Odemira was placed on the 25th place. However, he was listed as a Spaniard, since Portugal had fallen to Spain by succession in 1580 (Iberian Union, until 1640).


Other sports and international events

José Oliveira de Sousa is the most successful Portuguese darts player. In 2020, he won the Grand Slam of Darts, which means the first victory of a Portuguese at a darts major tournament.

Portuguese athletes are internationally successful in beach volleyball and especially in roller hockey, where they are alternately record roller hockey world champions with Spain. By contrast, traditional sports in Portugal, such as the Jogo do pau, are largely unknown internationally.

Rugby union is also becoming increasingly popular. The Portuguese national team qualified for a Rugby Union World Cup for the first time in 2007, but at the tournament in France they finished in last place in the group stage; in 2023 they managed to qualify again, with one win and one draw each in the preliminary round. Portugal is one of the participants in the European Rugby Union Championship, where it meets other emerging national teams. In 2002-2004 it was possible to win this tournament for the first time. The home stadium is the Estádio Universitário de Lisboa in Lisbon.

Portugal hosted a large number of international sporting events, in addition to the European Football Championship in 2004, such various tournaments as the European Men's Handball Championship in 1994, the World Handball Championship in 2003 or the games of the Portuguese-speaking countries, the Jogos da Lusofonia in 2009 can be mentioned. European Inline Speed Skating Championships have been held in Portugal several times, such as in 1989, 1995, 2001 and 2007.

Special Olympics Portugal was founded in 1987 and participated in Special Olympics World Games several times.



Starting from medieval and monastic collections, Portugal has a long library tradition. Thus, a variety of types of libraries have developed to this day, such as scientific libraries, university libraries, public libraries, libraries of central administration and special libraries. The exact number of libraries and the total stock of media are not known (the 1986 LIB2 study identified 556 Portuguese libraries). Systematic and methodological work on the promotion of public librarianship and library science began at the end of the 19th century.

In the time of the Estado Novo (1928-1974), the importance of libraries and the library work itself were severely restricted by censorship and restrictions. As a result, there are still shortcomings in the development of the education and library system to this day. The decades-long dictatorship favored a lack of popular education and illiteracy. After the carnation Revolution in 1974, there was a democratization in the educational and cultural sphere.

Systematic adult education and the promotion of reading were carried out against the lack of popular education and illiteracy. The worrying situation of public libraries has led to numerous initiatives and new regulations within the library system, e.g. the "Manifesto of Public Reading" in 1983. In 1986, this was substantiated by legislation on the creation and coordination of a network of public reading. At the same time, the automation of library work, which began relatively late in Portugal, and the use of modern information technology, initially in university libraries and the National Library "Biblioteca Nacional de Lisboa", came about.

The latter was the first public library, which was founded in 1796 as the Royal Public Court Library. For example, it operates the national bibliographic database PORBASE. It contains over 1 million title entries, 800,000 author entries from about 134 libraries and documentation centres and the Portuguese National Bibliography. The National Library and probably almost all other libraries work with the CDS/ISIS library system and the UNIMARC data exchange format.

An archivist and librarian education is possible by studying at the state universities of Coimbra, Lisbon and Porto. Some institutions, some of which are state-owned, take over coordination tasks and support the promotion of the Portuguese book and the cooperation and support of libraries.

Through extensive innovative work in recent years, the Portuguese library system has managed to connect to European and international standards. Still existing deficits are to be further reduced by promoting reading and libraries and by international cooperation.


Media/New Media

Four main TV channels can be received by antenna throughout the country: RTP1 and RTP2, which are operated by the state-owned Portuguese radio Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (RTP) and the private channels SIC (Grupo Sonae) and TVI (Media Capital, of which 32% is RTL Group). In addition to the culturally oriented RTP2, the program of these channels is heavily determined by Brazilian and Portuguese telenovelas, especially in the evening; the newscasts are usually one to two hours long and are highly focused on the daily events in Portugal. Foreign-language feature films are rarely dubbed in view of the small domestic market, but are shown with subtitles. The international channel RTP Internacional can also be received in Central Europe and shows a selection of the four programmes, while RTP África reports from the Portuguese-speaking countries of Africa. In addition, there are a variety of cable channels, to mention in particular Sports TV and Brazilian channels. There are local stations in Porto and Lisbon, and RTP also has its own broadcasting stations in Madeira and the Azores.

There are about 150 radio stations in Portugal. The stations of the RTP, the Catholic Rádio Renascença and the TSF can be received nationwide. The RTP can also be heard over shortwave in Central Europe, but only in Portuguese.

Among the numerous newspapers that are printed in Portugal, a consolidation and concentration process is taking place, in which many of the small sheets have to give up. Important daily newspapers are the conservative-liberal Diário de Notícias, the left-liberal Público (both from Lisbon) and the Jornal de Notícias from Porto, as well as the tabloid Correio da Manhã. Important weekly newspapers are Expresso and Sol, the political weekly magazine Visão and the music newspaper Blitz are also to be mentioned. Jornal de Letras is one of the most important cultural newspapers in the country, while Jornal de Negócios and the Diário Económico are the most important business newspapers. Destak and Metro are the most important free newspapers in Portugal.

Sports newspapers have very large circulation, which are published daily and deal almost exclusively with football – the most significant are O Jogo, A Bola and Record. The A Bola, which is close to Benfica Lisbon, is the highest-circulation newspaper in Portugal.

The operators of the Football Leaks site are whistleblowers from Portugal.

The numerous local newspapers are also of importance. Among the regional newspapers, OMIRANTE and the Diário As Beiras can be mentioned.

In the field of the gossip press, the weekly magazines Maria and Nova Gente are the highest circulation. The most important party newspaper is the Avante! from the Portuguese Communist Party.

In 2021, 82.3 percent of the inhabitants of Portugal used the Internet.