Portugal

Portugal Destinations Travel Guide

 

Population: 10,584,344

Calling code: +351

Currency: Euro (EUR)

 

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic is the westernmost state in continental Europe, located in the southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In the north and east it borders on Spain, in the south and west it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean; thus, this state as a whole is a semi-enclave, or coastal enclave. The name of the country comes from the city of Porto (lat. Portus Cale).

Republic since 1910.

Member of NATO (since 1949), UN (since 1955), OECD (since 1961), EU (since January 1, 1986), Commonwealth of Portuguese-speaking countries (since 1996). Included in the Schengen zone and the euro zone. Participates in Ibero-American summits since 1991.

 

Travel Destinations in Portugal

Lisbon is the largest city in Portugal and also the capital of the country. It numbers over half a million in population and covers a large area, however its historic centre is what usually draws thousands of tourists here.

Alcobaça Monastery is a Roman Catholic abbey situated in Alcobaça, Leiria District. It was found in 1153 by Afonso I Henriques.

Medieval Almourol Castle in Vila Nova de Barquinha parish was constructed on a site of an ancient Roman citadel.

Arraiolos Castle is a round medieval citadel in a city of Arraiolos, Évora District in Portugal.

Catholic Batalha Monastery or Mosteiro Santa Maria da Vitória was constructed to commemorate Portuguese victory over its enemies.

Conímbriga is the largest and most sophisticated Ancient Roman settlement in Portugal. It is situated 2 km South of Condeixa- a- Nova.

Convent of the Order of Christ in Tomar is a Catholic abbey that was originally constructed as a castle for Templar knights.

Medieval Evoramonte Castle became famous as a signing site that ended a Portugues Civil War in the 19th century.

The Monserrate Palace is a former palatial villa located near a town of Sintra in Portugal. It was build in 1858 for English baronet Sir Francis Cook.

Mosteiro dos Jeronimos is one of the largest religious complexes of Roman Catholic Church in Lisbon and certainly one of the most visited one.

Medieval town of Obidos situated in Oeste Subregion is most famous for its impressive fortified citadel that stands on a site of much older ancient Roman citadel.

Close proximity of Sintra National Palace to Lisbon and its designation as an World Heritage Site makes it one of the most visited tourist destinations in Portugal.

Medieval Palmela Castle is a former Araba fortress that saw actions for most of its long history till it was badly damaged by an earthquake.

Pena National Palace is without a doubt one of the most picturesque and unique residence in Portugal and all of Europe.

Queluz National Palace is a magnificent 18th century Portuguese estate in Queluz, Lisbon District.

Medieval Sabugal Castle was constructed in the 13th century on a hill overlooking crossing of Côa river.

Santa Maria da Feira Castle is a medieval fortress that protects an ancient settlement that existed here since the pre- Roman times.

 

History

In the IV-III centuries BC. most of Portugal was inhabited by Indo-European Lusitanian tribes. At the end of the 1st century BC the conquest of the territories of modern Portugal by Ancient Rome was completed. In the 2nd half of the 5th – 6th centuries the territory of modern Portugal was conquered by the Visigoths, led by King Theodoric II, in 713–718. - Arabs. During the Reconquista in 868, the county of Portugal was created under the leadership of Vimara Peres, in 1139 (officially in 1143) it became an independent kingdom. Sanshu I The settler made a contribution to the history of Portugal in the form of a conductor of peaceful reforms, under Afonso II a parliament called Cortesov began to work, and Afonso III of Boulogne completed the Reconquista. In 1279-1415. there was a strengthening of the monarchy in Portugal, which was marked by transformations under Dinis I the Farmer, peace with the Kingdom of Castile and Leon, the crisis of 1383-1385.

From the 15th century, beginning with the reign of Juan I of the Avis dynasty, the colonial expansion of Portugal began; The Portuguese colonial empire reached its peak in the 1st half of the 16th century. In 1580, King Enrique dies, and the Portuguese throne passes into the hands of the Spanish King Philip II of Habsburg. Until 1640, Portugal was in a personal union with Spain. At the beginning of the XVIII century she participated in the war for the Spanish inheritance. The Lisbon Treaty and the Methuen Treaty of 1703, signed during the war, made Portugal economically and politically dependent on Great Britain. In 1807, the troops of Napoleon I invaded Portugal, which were expelled in 1808 by British troops with the support of Portuguese patriots. XIX century was marked in Portugal by revolutions (the Portuguese Revolution of 1820, the September Revolution of 1836), civil wars (migrant wars, the war of Maria da Fonte), a sharp struggle between supporters and opponents of the constitution. From the 2nd half of the 19th century in Portugal, a republican and socialist movement is developing.

XX century
As a result of the Portuguese Revolution of 1910, Portugal became a republic. The Portuguese Republic took part in the First World War on the side of the Entente.

In 1926, a coup d'etat was carried out, a military dictatorship was established. In 1932, power was actually transferred to Prime Minister António Salazar, who established an authoritarian regime in the country (Soviet scholars described it as “fascist”). Working closely with the UK, she decided to remain a neutral state. During the war period, Portugal was a major supplier of tungsten, which was an important source of cash income. In 1949, Portugal joined NATO at the time of its creation. Since 1961, Portugal has tried to suppress the national liberation movement in its African colonies.

On April 25, 1974, rebel forces led by the Armed Forces Movement overthrew the fascist government (the “carnation revolution"), and political parties were allowed to operate. Decolonization of the former Portuguese colonies in Africa completed. The situation stabilized after a stage of fierce political struggle and several sharp clashes. In April 1976, a new constitution was adopted. In July 1976 - August 1978, the government formed by the Portuguese Socialist Party (PSP, founded in 1973) was in power, from January 1980 - the coalition government of the center-right Democratic Alliance, in 1983-1985 the coalition of the socialist and Social Democratic parties was in power, from 1987 - The government of the Social Democratic Party, which for the first time received an absolute majority in the parliamentary elections.

 

State structure

The Portuguese constitution has been in force since 1976.

Portugal is a parliamentary-presidential republic. Legislative body - Assembly (Assembleia da República), consists of 230 deputies (deputados) and is elected by party lists for 4 years. The head of state is the president (Presidente da República Portuguesa), elected by popular vote for a term of 5 years; the advisory body under the President is the State Council (Conselho de Estado), the executive body is the Council of Ministers, consists of the Prime Minister (Primeiro-ministro) and ministers, is appointed by the president and is responsible to the Assembly, the representative bodies of the autonomous regions are legislative assemblies (Assembleia Legislativa ), executive - regional governments (governo regional), consisting of chairmen of regional governments (presidente) and regional secretaries (Secretário Regional), representative bodies of parishes - assemblies of parishes (Assembleia de freguesia), executive bodies of parishes - councils of parishes (Junta de freguesia) consisting of the chairmen of parish councils (presidente) and vowels (vogais), the constitutional oversight body - the Constitutional Court (Tribunal Constitucional), appointed by the Assembly, the highest court - the Supreme Court of Justice (Supremo Tribunal de Justiça), the courts of appeal - judicial tribunals of the second instances ( Tribunal judicial de Segunda Instância), courts of first instance - judicial tribunals of first instance (Tribunal judicial de Primeira Instância), the highest judicial instance of administrative justice (Supremo Tribunal Administrativo), courts of first instance of administrative justice - administrative courts (Tribunal administrativo), supreme control body - Court of Accounts (Tribunal de Contas), prosecutorial supervision body - General Prosecutor's Office (Procuradoria-Geral da República Portuguesa), courts of financial justice - fiscal courts (Tribunal fiscal), courts of military justice - military courts (tribunais militares), an official authorized control the activities of government agencies - the Ombudsman General (Provedor de Justiça).

Portugal has democracy and universal suffrage.
Ministries of Portugal:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of Agriculture, Rural Development and Fisheries
Ministry of Public Institutions, Transport and Communications
Ministry of Finance and Public Administration
Ministry of Labor and Social Solidarity
Ministry of Health care
Department of Homeland Security
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Internal Administration
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education
Ministry of Culture
Ministry of Environmental Protection, Territorial Order and Regional Development
Ministry of Economy, Innovation and Development

Political parties
The main political parties are the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party. The Socialist Party is center-left and social democratic. The Social Democratic Party is center-right and liberal conservative.

Unions
The General Union of Workers (União Geral de Trabalhadores), the main trade union center traditionally associated with the Socialist Party, has 400,000 members.
The General Confederation of Portuguese Workers (Confederação Geral dos Trabalhadores Portugueses), traditionally associated with the Communist Party, has 800,000 members.

 

Administrative division

Capital
Lisbon

Located on the banks of the Tagus River. The area of ​​the capital is 84 km². The population is 556,797 people. Greater Lisbon (city with suburbs) - 2750 km² and a population of 2.1 million people.

The mayor of the city is António Luis Santos da Costa.

Other cities
Viseu
Aveiro
Beja
Braga
braganca
Viana do Castelo
Vila Nova de Gaia
Guimarães
Castelo Branco
Covilhã
Coimbra
Leiria
Oliveira de Azemeis
Portalegre
Portimão
Porto
Santareni
Seixal
Setubal
Faro
Fatima
Figueira da Foz
Chaves
Evora
Elvas

Until 1976, the territory of Portugal was divided into provinces. After an administrative reform, the territory of Continental Portugal is divided into 18 districts ("dishtritu"), which are divided into 308 municipal areas ("conseil"), consisting of parishes ("freguesia"). Island territories (Azores and Madeira) have the status of autonomous regions.

 

Physical and geographical characteristics

Geographical position
Portugal is the westernmost state in continental Eurasia. Located in the southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. On land, it borders only with Spain (1214 km). The length from north to south is 550 km, and from east to west - 175-200 km. It is the second largest European state after Iceland, located entirely in the Western Hemisphere, and Iceland is an island state.

Portugal also controls the Azores and Madeira.

Climate
The climate is Mediterranean, subtropical. Average January temperatures are 5-10°C, July 20-27°C. Precipitation on the plains is from 400 to 800 mm, in the mountains from 1000 to 2500 mm per year.

Relief
The relief of the provinces of Minho in the west and Altu-Traz-os-Montes and Alto-Douro in the east, located north of the river. Douro, rugged, mountainous. The province of Beira, extending from the river. Douro to the upper section of the river. Tagus, with the exception of the coastal plain, is also occupied by mountains. In its central part is the highest point of Portugal - Mount Torre (1993 m). Fertile plains in the lower reaches of the river. Tejo (province of Ribatejo) and the coastal zone north and south of the capital city of Lisbon belong to the province of Extremadura. To the east and south of it stretches the province of Alentejo, with a soft hilly relief, and the entire southern part of Portugal is occupied by the plains of the Algarve province, which are similar in natural conditions to the Mediterranean zone of North Africa.

Rivers and lakes
On the territory of Portugal, the valleys of the Douero and Tajo rivers are clearly distinguished. In the upper reaches, they are narrow and deeply incised; downstream, they widen and, near the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, pass into flat lowlands. These rivers are the natural boundaries of five of the six geographical regions of the country.

Flora and fauna
Despite the human factor, the climatic features of the region are reflected by the natural environment: flora and fauna. Near the coast, the vegetation is dominated by pine. The coastal strip of the central and northern parts of the country is occupied by forests (mainly Portuguese oak, among shrubs - broom). In arid areas, climatic conditions favor the growth of cork and holm oaks.

In general, about a fifth of the Portuguese territory is covered with forest. Approximately 50% of the forest is coniferous trees (mostly pine). Cork oak is planted on the territory of 607 thousand hectares. Thanks to this, Portugal supplies about 50% of the cork bark worldwide. The area of ​​eucalyptus plantations is growing, which are characterized by rapid growth and this is the most important source of raw materials for the pulp and paper industry.

Seaside pine, pine, chestnut.
The fauna of Portugal generally corresponds to the rest of Europe. On its territory you can meet both lynxes and wild forest cats, wolves, foxes, wild boars, bears, badgers, hares and many species of rodents. Of the representatives of the North African fauna - the genetto, the chameleon, and others. Endemic - the Estrel shepherd, the Pyrenean lynx, the Iberian wolf.

Due to the fact that Portugal is located on one of the main migration routes of migratory birds, you can meet a huge variety of birds. The proximity of the ocean promotes fishing (about 200 species of fish live in the coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean): sardines, anchovies, tuna.

Ground cover
The soils of Portugal are mostly sandy, acidic, formed mainly on volcanic rocks. The exception is the fertile loamy soils of the alluvial plain in the lower reaches of the river. Tagus. Several seismically active zones are distinguished on the territory of Portugal, the largest of them are located in the Algarve, Minho and near Lisbon.

 

Economy

Portugal is an industrial-agrarian country. The most important traditional industries are textile (cotton and wool), clothing, winemaking (port wine production is especially famous), olive oil production, canned fish, cork processing (leading place in the world), ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, mechanical engineering (shipbuilding and ship repair). , car assembly, electrical engineering); the chemical, oil refining and petrochemical, cement industries are developing. Farming dominates agriculture. About half of the cultivated land is arable; viticulture, fruit growing, olive plantations. In livestock breeding, cattle breeding, sheep breeding, pig breeding, and fishing.

The main foreign trade partners are the countries of the European Community.

Foreign tourism - approx. 10 million people a year.

In connection with the change in the text of the constitution (1990), a law on privatization was adopted (enterprises nationalized after 1974 were privatized; the role of state regulation in the economy decreased; private investments of Portuguese citizens in domestic enterprises were allowed). The state undertook to promote the restructuring of unprofitable enterprises and the development of the Portuguese capital market. Enormous money was allocated for improvement: in 1993-2000, the proportion of the population using the drinking water supply system increased from 61 to 95%, and the sewer network from 55 to 90%.

The economic policy is aimed at liberalization and modernization of the economy, further privatization of state-owned companies, restructuring of the banking and telecommunications sectors. The fiscal sphere after the tax reform ensured the inflow of state revenues and the reduction of the budget deficit in 1996-2003. from 5 to 2.4% of GDP. In the monetary sphere, measures were taken to promote budgetary and financial stability. Budget revenues amounted to 45 billion dollars, expenditures - 48 billion dollars. In 1996-2003. annual inflation rates decreased from 7.8% to 3.1%. Social policy is aimed at reforming the system of social and labor relations and ensuring employment. In 2018, the unemployment rate was 6.9% (113th in the world), the human development index was 0.847 (41st in the world).

In 2017, the volume of exports amounted to 59.3 billion dollars, imports - 78.3 billion dollars, the negative balance of foreign trade - 19 billion dollars. Exports are dominated by engineering products (up to 30%), including cars (4.2% ) and spare parts for them (4.1%); petroleum products (4.7%), footwear and clothing; wines, tobacco products, medicines, rubber and plastics are also exported. The main export trading partners are Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Imported - crude oil, machinery, spare parts, electronic components, vehicles, metals, chemicals and other raw materials. Main trading partners for imports: Spain, Germany, France, Italy.

Thanks to the growth of exports in the II quarter. In 2013, the growth of the Portuguese economy was the strongest among the EU countries: GDP increased by 1.1% compared to the first quarter; prior to this, the economy had been in recession for 10 consecutive quarters.

The country has a high income level.

The Keitz index (the ratio between the minimum and average wages in the country) in Portugal as of the fourth quarter of 2019 (average - 1418 euros, minimum - 700 euros) is 49.4%. From January 1, 2020, the minimum wage in Portugal is 740.83 euros. From January 1, 2021, the minimum wage in Portugal is 775.83 euros.

 

Infrastructure

Transport
Trains, buses, trams, cars, metro. TAP Air Portugal operates flights to Eastern Europe.

 

Population

Since 1900, Portugal's population in millions, natural increase per 1,000 people, migration gain (per 1,000 people) and total fertility rate (2.1 population replacement level).

According to the preliminary results of the 2021 census published by the National Institute of Statistics in July 2021, 10,347,892 people live in Portugal - 4,917,794 men (48%) and 5,430,098 women (52%). Since the previous census (2011), the country's population has decreased by 214 28 people (2%). As of July 2021, the population of Portugal is 10,263,850 according to The World Factbook.

Population dynamics of Portugal
1911 - 5.97 million people.
1920 - 6.03 million people.
1930 - 6.82 million people.
1940 - 7.72 million people.
1950 - 8.51 million people.
1960 - 8.85 million people.
1970 - 8.65 million people.
1981 - 9.83 million people.
1991 - 9.86 million people
2001 - 10.35 million people
2011 - 10.56 million people
2021 - 10.35 million people

As of 2019, the United Nations estimated that 888,162 immigrants lived in Portugal, or 8.7% of the country's population.

The age structure of the population of Portugal as of 2020: 0-14 years old - 13.58%; 15-64 years old - 65.5%; 65 years and older - 20.92%. The average age of the population of Portugal according to The World Factbook for 2020 was 44.6 years (13th in the world), including 42.7 years for men and 46.5 years for women. The ratio of the number of men and women: the entire population - 0.9 (2020). Average life expectancy of the population of Portugal as of 2021: total - 81.29 years; men - 78.14 years; women - 84.6 years. As of 2021, the birth rate is 8.02 newborns per 1,000 inhabitants (220th in the world). The total fertility rate (TFR) is 1.42 births per woman. Due to the demographic aging of the population, the mortality rate is steadily increasing; as of 2021, the mortality rate is 10.9 deaths per 1,000 people (21st in the world). As of 2021, the net migration rate in Portugal is relatively low at 0.62 migrants per 1,000 inhabitants (67th in the world). As of 2019, the average age of a woman at first birth in Portugal is 29.9 years (compared to the Republic of Korea, the country with the lowest TFR in the world, 0.84 births per woman in 2020, the average age of a woman at first birth in 2019 year was 32.2 years).

 

Languages

Portugal is a country with a single state official language - Portuguese. It is spoken by more than 200 million people worldwide on three continents: Eurasia, Africa and South America. Portuguese is similar to Spanish, as both belong to the Ibero-Romance subgroup of the Romance language group, but with a similar grammatical structure, there are significant differences in pronunciation between them. The formation of the language was greatly influenced by the Germanic tribes and the Arabs (Moors), from whom the Portuguese language borrowed many words, as well as the contacts of travelers, discoverers and merchants with Asian peoples.

In addition, the status of the official language of Portugal since 1999 has Mirandese, which is spoken by the population of a small area in northeastern Portugal (the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Vimioso, Mogadoro). Its use is very limited.

Portugal has a high level of English proficiency.

 

Religion

About 90% of the population of the country professes Catholicism. Catholicism in Portugal has always been associated with local traditions, the population honored the memory of many popular local saints, whose memorable days are celebrated solemnly, like church holidays. The village of Fatima, where the Virgin Mary is believed to have appeared to three children in 1917, has become a popular pilgrimage site.

The first Protestant community in Portugal arose in the 17th century among British subjects. The preaching of Protestantism among the Portuguese began only in the 19th century. As of 2010, 373,000 Protestants lived in Portugal. The largest Protestant denomination in the country is made up of Pentecostals and Charismatics (Neo-Pentecostals) (289,000).

Over the past 25 years, in connection with mass labor migration from Eastern European countries, the number of Orthodox Christians has noticeably increased in Portugal (60-80 thousand). Another 135 thousand Portuguese are followers of various pseudo-Christian religious organizations; primarily Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons.

Among the foreigners and migrant workers living in the country there are Buddhists (60 thousand), Muslims (26-65 thousand), Hindus (6.5 thousand), supporters of the Chinese folk religion (22 thousand). During the 2011 general census, 615 thousand inhabitants of Portugal (6.8% of the population) identified themselves as non-religious).

 

Armed forces

Army, Navigation (Portuguese Navy, including Naval Command), Air Force (Portuguese Air Force - FAP), National Republican Guard (GNR). Volunteers can enter military service from the age of 18, since universal compulsory military service was abolished in 2004. Women have been allowed to serve in the military forces of Portugal, in the navy since 1993, but are prohibited from being in any combat specialties (2005 order).

Citizens for the armed forces: men (16-49 years old) - 2,573,913; women (16-49) - 2,498,262.
Citizens fit for service in the armed forces of Portugal: men (16-49) - 2,099,647; women (16-49) - 2,060,559.
Every year, the number of citizens of the Portuguese Armed Forces increases by 64,910 men (aged 16 to 49) and 58,599 women (aged 16 to 49).

Military spending is 2.3% of annual GDP.

 

Culture

Literature
Of Portuguese origin is "Amadis of Gali" - one of the most famous chivalric novels of the late Middle Ages, which has come down to us in the later Spanish alterations of the 16th century.

Among the most famous and significant works of the Renaissance in Portuguese literature, one can note the epic poem "The Lusiads" (1572) by Luis de Camões. This is the first work describing geographical discoveries. Other prominent Portuguese poets of the time include Sa de Miranda. A great contribution to the development of the Portuguese theater of the 16th century was made by the playwright Gil Vicente, who is also considered the founder of Spanish drama.

The greatest representative of Portuguese literature of the 19th century was the realist writer José Maria Esa de Queiroz. Among the Portuguese authors of the 20th century are the symbolist Eugenio de Castro, the mystic and impressionist Raul Brandan, Venceslau de Morais, the religious symbolists António Correia d'Oliveira and Afonso Lopes Vieira, and the modernist Fernando Pessoa.

After the fall of the monarchy in 1910, the differentiation of the bourgeois intelligentsia took place. The extreme right flank is occupied by Antonio Sardinha, Manuel Ribeiro, Teixeira de Pasquais, Jaime Cortezan, Alberto Monzarash. In opposition - the literary direction of the ultra-left and pacifist attitude. Its representatives are Aquilino Ribeiro, Pino de Morais, Ezequiel de Campos. Peasant ideology is represented by Raul Brandan, Samuel Mapa, Ippolita Repoza, António Ferru.

The brightest phenomenon in Portuguese literature of the 20th century was the work of José Saramago. A member of the once outlawed Communist Party of Portugal, Saramago has consistently leaned to the left. His phantasmagoric prose is filled with the idea of ​​universal equality and deep humanism. The author’s anti-clerical views have repeatedly provoked fierce accusations from the Catholic Church, which did not prevent him from becoming the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1998 after the publication of the novel The Gospel of Jesus.

Music
The basis of culture, including music, of the Portuguese is the Romanesque culture, which, during the formation and development of the Portuguese state, was influenced by many cultural components introduced both by the conquerors of the Portuguese lands and by the peoples of the vast possessions captured by the Portuguese. The music of Portugal has a common origin with the music of Spain and has developed over the centuries in interaction with it, while being distinguished by its bright originality.

The most widespread song genre is fado (solo lyrical song), which plays an important role in the national self-identification of the Portuguese, as it draws a clear line between the bright and lively Spanish rhythms, representing the exuberant and harsh Spanish character, and the soft and melancholy soul of the Portuguese people.

Salvador Sobral won Eurovision 2017 with the song Amar pelos dois.

Art
Portugal has never been a leading European power in the field of fine arts. Even during the Renaissance, at the height of the country, Portuguese artists, the largest of whom was Nuno Gonçalves, remained on the periphery of European development. In the 19th century, the most notable representatives of Portuguese painting and, in fact, the founders of the modern national artistic tradition were José Malloa, José Julio de Sousa Pinto and Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro. The most famous Portuguese artist is considered to be Amadeu de Sousa-Cardoso, who died at the age of 30, who received an art education in France and worked in avant-garde painting styles.

Sport
The most popular sport is football. Cristiano Ronaldo is considered one of the greatest players. Portugal national football team won the European Football Championship 2016. Football clubs: Porto, Benfica, Sporting.

Cuisine
Portugal is the birthplace of Port and Madeira.

 

Holidays and weekends

New Year - January 1;
Carnival Tuesday - February/March, the day before Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent;
Good Friday - March/April, Friday in Holy Week;
Freedom Day - April 25, the anniversary of the 1974 revolution;
Labor Day - May 1;
Feast of Corpus Christi - May / June, the ninth Thursday after Easter;
Portugal Day - June 10;
Feast of the Assumption of the Virgin - August 15;
Republic Day - October 5, the anniversary of the proclamation in 1910 of the Republic of Portugal;
All Saints Day - November 1;
Independence Day - December 1, the anniversary of the declaration of independence from Spain in 1640;
Feast of the Immaculate Conception - December 8;
Christmas - December 25

 

Mass media

Press
Jornal de Notícias
Correio da Manhã Archived May 3, 2008 at the Wayback Machine - Curreio da Manhã
Diario de Notícias Archived December 13, 2006 at the Wayback Machine - Diario de Notícias
Expresso Archived April 24, 2006 at the Wayback Machine - Espresso
Publico Archived May 16, 2008 at the Wayback Machine - Public
Jornal de Coimbra Archived June 7, 2008 at the Wayback Machine — Jornal de Coimbra

Broadcasting
Television and radio broadcasting in Portugal is divided into public, commercial, in addition, in Portugal there is an element of state television and radio broadcasting in the form of the parliamentary television channel ARtv. The public broadcaster - RTP (Rádio e Televisão de Portugal - Radio and Television of Portugal), broadcasts on the 1st (RTP1) and 2nd TV channel (RTP2) and through 3 radio stations (Antena 1, Antena 2 and Antena 3). Commercial broadcasters are SIC and TVI. Compliance with media laws is controlled by the Independent General Council (Conselho Geral Independente) for public broadcasters and by the Social Communications Regulatory Authority (Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social) (formerly the Higher Directorate of Social Communications (Alta Autoridade para a Comunicação Socia)) for commercial broadcasters. .

Depending on the method of signal distribution, television in Portugal is divided into terrestrial, cable, satellite and IPTV, radio broadcasting is only terrestrial, public radio stations can broadcast via terrestrial, cable, satellite television and IPTV, in common multiplexes with public television channels, in addition, there are several Internet -radio stations, on-air broadcasting is carried out in the analog standard on VHF, in the version of VHF OIRT, Antena 1 also on CB and the digital DAB standard on MW.