Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic is
the westernmost state in continental Europe, located in the
southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In the north and east it
borders on Spain, in the south and west it is washed by the Atlantic
Ocean; thus, this state as a whole is a semi-enclave, or coastal
enclave. The name of the country comes from the city of Porto (lat.
Republic since 1910.
Member of NATO
(since 1949), UN (since 1955), OECD (since 1961), EU (since January
1, 1986), Commonwealth of Portuguese-speaking countries (since
1996). Included in the Schengen zone and the euro zone. Participates
in Ibero-American summits since 1991.
Lisbon is the largest city in Portugal and also the capital
of the country. It numbers over half a million in population
and covers a large area, however its historic centre is what
usually draws thousands of tourists here.
Santa Maria da Feira Castle is a medieval fortress that
protects an ancient settlement that existed here since the
pre- Roman times.
In the IV-III centuries BC. most of Portugal
was inhabited by Indo-European Lusitanian tribes. At the end of the
1st century BC e. the conquest of the territories of modern Portugal
by Ancient Rome was completed. In the 2nd half of the 5th – 6th
centuries n e. the territory of modern Portugal was conquered by the
Visigoths, led by King Theodoric II, in 713–718. - Arabs. During the
Reconquista in 868, the county of Portugal was created under the
leadership of Vimara Peres, in 1139 (officially in 1143) it became
an independent kingdom. Sanshu I The settler made a contribution to
the history of Portugal in the form of a conductor of peaceful
reforms, under Afonso II a parliament called Cortesov began to work,
and Afonso III of Boulogne completed the Reconquista. In 1279-1415.
there was a strengthening of the monarchy in Portugal, which was
marked by transformations under Dinis I the Farmer, peace with the
Kingdom of Castile and Leon, the crisis of 1383-1385.
the 15th century, beginning with the reign of Juan I of the Avis
dynasty, the colonial expansion of Portugal began; The Portuguese
colonial empire reached its peak in the 1st half of the 16th
century. In 1580, King Enrique dies, and the Portuguese throne
passes into the hands of the Spanish King Philip II of Habsburg.
Until 1640, Portugal was in a personal union with Spain. At the
beginning of the XVIII century she participated in the war for the
Spanish inheritance. The Lisbon Treaty and the Methuen Treaty of
1703, signed during the war, made Portugal economically and
politically dependent on Great Britain. In 1807, the troops of
Napoleon I invaded Portugal, which were expelled in 1808 by British
troops with the support of Portuguese patriots. XIX century was
marked in Portugal by revolutions (the Portuguese Revolution of
1820, the September Revolution of 1836), civil wars (migrant wars,
the war of Maria da Fonte), a sharp struggle between supporters and
opponents of the constitution. From the 2nd half of the 19th century
in Portugal, a republican and socialist movement is developing.
XX century As a result of the Portuguese Revolution of 1910,
Portugal became a republic. The Portuguese Republic took part in the
First World War on the side of the Entente.
In 1926, a coup
d'etat was carried out, a military dictatorship was established. In
1932, power was actually transferred to Prime Minister António
Salazar, who established an authoritarian regime in the country
(Soviet scholars described it as “fascist”). Working closely with
the UK, she decided to remain a neutral state. During the war
period, Portugal was a major supplier of tungsten, which was an
important source of cash income. In 1949, Portugal joined NATO at
the time of its creation. Since 1961, Portugal has tried to suppress
the national liberation movement in its African colonies.
April 25, 1974, rebel forces led by the Armed Forces Movement
overthrew the fascist government (the “carnation revolution"), and
political parties were allowed to operate. Decolonization of the
former Portuguese colonies in Africa completed. The situation
stabilized after a stage of fierce political struggle and several
sharp clashes. In April 1976, a new constitution was adopted. In
July 1976 - August 1978, the government formed by the Portuguese
Socialist Party (PSP, founded in 1973) was in power, from January
1980 - the coalition government of the center-right Democratic
Alliance, in 1983-1985 the coalition of the socialist and Social
Democratic parties was in power, from 1987 - The government of the
Social Democratic Party, which for the first time received an
absolute majority in the parliamentary elections.