Description of Mexico
Mexico, whose official name is the United Mexican
States, is an American country located in the southern part of North
America. Its capital is Mexico City. Politically it is a democratic,
representative and federal republic composed of 32 federative
entities (31 states and the federal capital). The Mexican
territory has an area of 1,964,375 km², making it the fourteenth
largest country in the world and the third largest in Latin America.
It is bordered on the north by the United States of America along a
3155 km border, while on the south it has a border of 958 km with
Guatemala and 276 km with Belize, the coasts of the country border
on the west with the Pacific Ocean and to the east with the Gulf of
Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, adding 9330 km, making it the third
largest American country on its coasts.
Mexico is the
eleventh most populous country in the world, with an estimated
population of more than 124 million people in 2017, most of which
have Spanish as their mother tongue, which the state recognizes as a
national language along with 67 indigenous languages own of the
nation. In the country around 287 languages are spoken, due to the
characteristics of its population, it is the most populous
Spanish-speaking country, as well as the seventh country with the
greatest linguistic diversity in the world.
presence in Mexico dates back to 14,000 years before the present.
After thousands of years of cultural development, the Mesoamerican,
aridoamerican and oasisamerican cultures arose in the Mexican
territory. The current territory of Mexico was the main center of
the greatest civilizations of the Aztec people and, in part, of the Mayan people, the
two most important civilizations of pre-Columbian America. After
almost 300 years of Spanish domination, Mexico began the struggle
for political independence in 1810. Subsequently, for nearly a
century the country was involved in a series of internal wars and
foreign invasions that had repercussions in all areas of life of the
Mexicans. During a good part of the 20th century (mainly the first
half) a period of great economic growth took place within the
framework of a policy dominated by a single political party.
According to the World Tourism Organization, Mexico is the main
tourist destination in Latin America and the eighth most visited in
the world, this is due in large part to the 32 cultural or natural
sites that are considered by UNESCO as World Heritage. However
recent criminal activity put many tourists at risk. Struggle with
orginized crime has been a problem for the Mexican government. In
macroeconomic terms, by gross domestic product (GDP) it is the
fourteenth world economy and the eleventh by parity of purchasing
power (PPP); on a regional scale, it is the second economy in Latin
America and the fourth in the continent. According to the 2015 UN
Human Development Report, it has a high human development index of
0.762, and ranks 77th in the world, which has made great strides
alongside countries such as Indonesia, Turkey, Thailand and South
Africa, considered the fact that in 1980 it had a human development
index of 0.598.Mexican is also one of the countries with the
greatest diversity of climates in the world, considered one of the
12 megadiverse countries of the planet, it is home of the 10-12% of
the world's biodiversity and is home to more than 12,000 endemic
Travel Destinations in Mexico
Frescoes with colorful depictions of a Mayan life
survived at this ancient archeological site of Cacaxtla.
Ancient pyramids of Cantona archeological site
seem to rise right from the Mexican desert.
Cascadas de Agua Azul
Cascadas de Agua Azul are a series of splendid
water cascades located 125 km Northeast of San Cristobalck,
Cempoala is an ancient archeological site located
44 km (27 mi) North of Veracruz in the state of Veracruz in
Cenote Cho Ha
Cenote Cho Ha is underground pool surrounded by
beautiful geological formations in the Yucatan peninsula in
Cenote Dzitnup is an underground pool in the
Yucatan limestone formed after natural geological processes.
Magnificent ruins of Chichen Itza are located in
Yucatan peninsula. It is largest and one of the most impressive
Mayan city states.
Copper Canyon in the Mexican state of Chihuahua
gets its name from a green color walls that look like a copper
at a distance.
Mayan city of Coba is famous for numerous
religious buildings including the highest pyramid constructed by
the Mayan civilization.
Whether you like to explore ancient ruins, dive
in the reefs or just bask in the sun, Cozumel has it all.
Cueva de la Boca
Massive Cave de la Boca outside of Mexican city
of Monterrey is a famous roosting home for thousands of bats.
El Tajin is a major Mayan city those remains are
located in a magnificent condition in the Mexican state of
Ek Balam or 'Black Jaguar' is a Yucatec- Maya
city located just 30 km North of Valladolid in Yukatan peninsula
Impressive ruins of an Aztec city of Malinalco is
harmoniously combined with surrounding picturesque jungles.
Monte Alban is an impressive site of ancient
Mayan ruins in a Mexican province of Oaxaca.
Museo Frida Kahlo is a former house of the famous
Mexican artist on the outskirts of Mexican capital Mexico City.
Museo Leon Trotsky
Museo Leon Trotsky is a former house of Russian-
Jewish revolutionary who was killed here by the orders of
Nonoch Nah Chich
Nonoch Nah Chich in Quintana Roo state of Mexico
is one of the largest flooded underground caves.
Paquimé or Casas Grandes is an ancient
archeological site in the state of Chihuahua in Mexico
constructed before the arrival of Columbus.
Palenque that is located in Yucatan peninsula is
one of the largest and mysterious of Mayan city states.
Paricutin Volcano started erupting in the early
twentieth century and covered human structures. Some are still
Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve is a large nature
preserve that protects diverse Mexican ecosystem.
Mysterious ruins of Teotihuacan still puzzle many
historians with its origins, purpose of symbolism in its
construction as well as life style of its residents.
Tula is an ancient archeological site situated 85
km North of Mexico city in the Mexican state of Hidalgo.
Tulum is an ancient Mayan city in Yucatan
peninsula in Mexico that served as a harbor for trade.
Mayan city of Uxmal is famous for its unique
architecture as well as great preservation state of the
Valladolid is a pleasant small town with Spanish
architecture, small streets and several parks.
Xcaret Underground River
Xcaret underground river is a natural geological
formation that was worshipped by ancient Mayans as the entrance
to the Underworld.
Xochicalco is a ancient Mayan archeological site
situated 40 km Southwest of Cuernavaca in the Mexican state of
Tips while you travel in Mexico:
- avoid marshy areas and take insect repellant.
Insects might transfer several deadly diseases in addition to
- check weather conditions before visiting
- if you plan to camp in the jungle protect your
equipment and food from water and moisture
- wear pants and water- resistant boots to reduce
chance of a snake insect bite
- drink plenty of bottled water, prevent dehydration
January 1: New Year's Day
January 6: The Three Wise Men day,
celebrating arrival of the Three Wise Men to see and bring gifts to
the baby Jesus (not an official holiday).
February 2: The
Candelaria Day ("Day of the candles"), celebrated in many places
around the country (not an official holiday)
Constitution Day (1917)
February 24: Flag Day (not official)
March 21: Birth of Benito Juárez (1806)
April 30: Kid's Day
May 1: Labor Day
May 5: Cinco de Mayo, the Battle of Puebla
against the French army, 19th century (not an official holiday)
May 10: Mother's Day
May 15: Teacher's Day
Presidential Address Day
September 15: Grito de Dolores
September 16: Independence Day (celebrates the start of the fight
for the independence from Spain in 1810, achieved until September
October 12: Day of the Race (not a public holiday)
November 2: Day of the Dead (Día de Muertos) (not a public holiday)
November 20: Mexican Revolution Day (1910)
December 12: Virgin
Mary of Guadalupe Day. Not a public holiday, but is one of the most
important Mexican holidays
December 24: Christmas Eve (not a
public holiday, but normally a full non-working day)
December 31: New Year’s Eve (not a public holiday, but
normally a full non-working day)
Easter is widely observed
nationwide, according to the yearly Catholic calendar (the first
Sunday after the first full moon in Spring). Actual non-working days
may shift to the Monday before the holiday, so check an up-to-date
calendar. Visitors from the U.S. may be surprised to notice that the
despite Cinco de Mayo being an important part of the cultural
identity of Mexican-Americans, it is not regarded as a major holiday
in Mexico, and hardly celebrated by Mexicans outside the state of
Visa to Mexico
According to the Mexican Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Secretaria
de Relaciones Exteriores), certain foreign nationals who intend to
stay in Mexico fewer than 180 days for the purpose of tourism or 30
days for business can fill out a tourist card at the border or upon
landing at an airport after presenting a valid passport, for US$22.
If arriving via air, it is included in the price of the fare. This
service is available to citizens of Andorra, Argentina, Aruba,
Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize, Bulgaria,
Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czech Republic,
Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece,
Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Iceland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan,
Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macau, Malaysia,
Malta, Marshall Islands, Micronesia, Monaco, Netherlands, New
Zealand, Norway, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal,
Puerto Rico, Romania, San Marino, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain, South Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and Tobago, United
States of America, Uruguay and Venezuela (see official list here).
Permanent residents of the United States, Canada, Japan, United
Kingdom, and Schengen area countries are also eligible for visas on
arrival regardless of citizenship.
The Mexican tourist card
is a Forma Migratoria Múltiple (Multiple Immigration Form), or FMM.
It has a perforation that divides the card into two parts, of which
the right side asks for some of the same information requested on
the left side. At entry, after reviewing your passport and
filled-out FMM, the immigration officer will stamp your passport and
the FMM, separate the FMM along the perforation and give the right
side of the FMM back to you with your passport. Keep the FMM
together with your passport at all times. It is your responsibility
to make sure the right side of the FMM is returned to the Mexican
government at time of departure so that the bar code can be scanned,
thus showing that you left the country on time. For example, if you
are flying with Aeromexico, they will ask for your passport and FMM
at check-in for your flight home, then staple your FMM to your
boarding pass. You are expected to then hand the boarding pass
together with your FMM to the gate agent as you board your flight.
If you lose your FMM during your visit to Mexico, you may be subject
to substantial delays and fines before you can leave the country.