Slovakia (Slovak. Slovensko), the official name is
the Slovak Republic (Slovak. Slovenská republika) - a state in
Central Europe. The population is 5,443,120 people (December 2017),
the territory is 48,845 km². It occupies 112th place in the world in
terms of population and 127th in territory.
The capital is
Bratislava. The state language is Slovak.
parliamentary republic. As of June 2019, Zuzan Chaputov is the
president, and Peter Pellegrini is the prime minister. Divided into
Located in the center of Europe. A landlocked
continental state. It has a land border with the Czech Republic,
Austria, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine.
Most believers (about 70%
of the population) profess Catholicism.
Slovakia is a member
of NATO and the EU. An industrial country with a dynamically
developing economy. The volume of GDP in 2011 amounted to 127.111
billion US dollars (about 23 384 dollars per capita). The monetary
unit is the euro.
The independence of the country was
proclaimed on January 1, 1993. Throughout history, the territory of
the country was part of many powers and state entities, ranging from
the State of Samo in the 7th century to Czechoslovakia in the 20th
century. During the Second World War, there was a Slovak state
dependent on the Third Reich, which in 1945 again became part of
The first written mention of Slovakia dates
back to 1586. The name comes from the Czech word Slováky; previous
German forms were Windischen landen and Windenland (15th century).
The self-name Slovensko (1791) comes from the older ethno-buried
Slovaks - Sloven, which may indicate its origin until the 15th
century. The original meaning was geographical (and not political),
since Slovakia was part of the multinational Kingdom of Hungary and
did not create a separate administrative unit during this period.
Medieval Zvolen Castle was constructed in the
70's of 14th century by Hungarian king Loius I of Anjou on the
bank of the Slatina River.
The Slavs settled the territory of Slovakia in the
VI century, during the Great Migration of Peoples. Slovakia was part
of the center of the Samo Power in the 7th century, later the
Principality of Nitran was located on its territory. The Slavic
state, known as Great Moravia, reached its highest development in
the 9th century with the advent of Cyril and Methodius and expansion
under the leadership of Prince Svyatopolk I. Ultimately, Slovakia
became part of the Kingdom of Hungary in the XI-XIV centuries, and
then later was part of Austria-Hungary until its collapse in 1918.
In the same year, Slovakia merged with the Czech Republic and
Subcarpathian Russia and the state of Czechoslovakia was formed.
In 1919, during the campaign to the north of the Hungarian Red
Army for some time, the Slovak Soviet Republic was formed on part of
the territory of Slovakia.
Due to the collapse of
Czechoslovakia after the Munich agreement of 1938, Slovakia became a
separate republic, which was controlled by Nazi Germany.
After World War II, Czechoslovakia was restored and came under the
influence of the Soviet Union since 1945.
At the same time,
Slovakia's national self-government bodies - the Slovak National
Council and local local committees - which arose during the war,
were preserved in Slovakia, while the Czechs did not have such
bodies (the so-called asymmetric national state structure). Then, in
October 1968, the Constitutional Law on the Federation was adopted,
which entered into force on January 1, 1969, according to which
Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovak Socialist Republic - Czechoslovakia was
officially called Czechoslovakia since 1960) was divided, like the
USSR and the SFRY (Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) , into
two constituent republics - the Czech and Slovak socialist
The end of socialist Czechoslovakia in 1989 during
the peaceful Velvet Revolution also signified the end of
Czechoslovakia as a whole state and led to the creation in March
1990 of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, and then, from
January 1, 1993, two separate states - Slovakia and the Czech
Republic (" velvet divorce "). Slovakia became a member of NATO on
March 29, 2004, the European Union May 1, 2004, December 21, 2007
entered the Schengen zone, and January 1, 2009 entered the Euro